20 Hailu Tefera Objective7 Soybean


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20 Hailu Tefera Objective7 Soybean

  1. 1. Enhancing productivity and production of soybean in drought-prone areas of SSA Second Annual Review and Planning Meeting of TL II Project 16-20 November 2009, Bamako, Mali H. Tefera, J. Chianu, S. Boahen, R. Bandyopadhyay, B. Vanlauwe, D. Chikoye, A. Alene, G. Kananji, F. Myaka, P. Muoki, M. Mahasi, M. Ishaq, R. Abaidoo, B. Maziya-Dixon, A. Kamara, O. Coulibaly, V. Wasike, O. Boukar, S. Muranaka, K. Sonder, and O. Shokalu
  2. 2. Content •  Introduction •  Progress Report -  Fast-tracking of soybean varieties and elite lines -  On-farm PVS trials -  Breeder’s seed production -  Variety release -  Selection of Bradyrhizobium strains -  Creating segregating populations -  Developing soybean value chains -  Strengthening capacity of NARS -  Soybean Rhizobium inoculum workshop •  Outcome •  Remaining work to be done •  Major challenges •  Major lessons learnt and vision for the second phase
  3. 3. Introduction Role of soybeans in SSA   Soybeans developing into a major crop in Africa   Growing demand for animal feed (poultry, pork, dairy and aquaculture industries)   Reduce gaps in edible vegetable oils and protein   Export market   Source of protein for direct consumption by rural households (e.g. Maize-soy blends)   Fix between 40-150 kg N/ha thereby reduce N fertilizer cost   Stover valuable feed for livestock for smallholder farmers   Reduce Striga populations through suicidal germination   Emerging stock for biodiesel in SA
  4. 4. Major soybean producing countries: 2007
  5. 5. Imports of soybean grain and its products by African countries in 2006 Grain: 1.1 m ton Data source: FAO (2008): http://faostat.fao.org/site/535/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=535#ancor ; Accessed 12 July 2009
  6. 6. Suitable Areas for Soybean Production in Africa
  7. 7. Major constraints to soybean production •  Lack of high yielding soybean varieties •  Lack of resistant varieties to foliar diseases such as rust •  Inadequate N2 fixation of varieties •  Lack of drought tolerant varieties •  Poor seed viability from one season to the next •  Lack of varieties tolerant to low P •  Pod shattering •  lack of awareness in processing and utilization •  Weak market linkage with processors, consumers and exporters
  8. 8. TL II soybean trial sites
  9. 9. Fast-tracking of soybean varieties and elite lines Table 1. Mean grain yield (kg/ha) of soybean genotypes at five locations in Malawi in 2008/09 growing season. Genotype Mbawa Chitala Chitedze Makoka Bvumbwe Mean TGx 1740-2F 3111 3800 4201 2098 3146 3271 Nasoko (check) 1806 3548 3989 2341 2367 2810 TGx 1835-10E 2111 4275 2958 2127 2221 2738 TGx 1485-1D 2056 4123 2332 1638 1659 2362 Magoye (check) 1694 3668 2458 1845 1497 2232 TGx 1830-20E 1667 4303 1812 1501 1366 2130 TGx 1904-6F 1722 4143 1929 2020 460 2055 TGx 1908-8F 1000 3499 1192 1917 1952 1912 Mean 1896 3920 2609 1936 1833 2500 SE 243 409 381 204 581 171 LSD (0.05) 714 NS 1120 NS NS 476
  10. 10. Fast-tracking of soybean varieties and elite lines Table 2. Mean grain yields (kg ha-1) of selected soybean genotypes grown at five locations in Mozambique in 2008/09 Ruace Nampula Sussun- Namialo Umbeluzi Mean Genotype denga TGx 1740-2F 3199 1372 1314 2442 2354 2136 TGx 1908-8F 4369 1576 1718 1720 1344 2145 TGx 1904-6F 4713 1977 1809 2280 1847 2525 TGx 1937-1F 3693 1487 1214 1598 583 1715 TGx 1485-1D 4153 1519 1236 1720 2175 2160 Storm (Check) 3749 1130 1340 1042 1414 1735 LSD(0.05) 530 NS NS 1070 520 351
  11. 11. Fast-tracking of soybean varieties and elite lines Table 3. Grain yield performance of soybean genotypes grown at Sidada, Kenya in fast-track testing in 2008. Genotype Grain yield (kg ha-1) TGx 1740-2F 2449 931/5/34 1595 Gazelle 1523 TGx 1835-10E 1479 TGx 1448-2E 1407 Nyala (check) 1124 Mean (23 lines) 1154 SE 222 LSD (0.05) 655
  12. 12. Fast-tracking of soybean varieties and elite lines Table 4. Grain yield (kg ha-1) of soybean genotypes tested at Zaria and Badeggi in Nigeria in 2008 Genotype Zaria Badeggi Mean TGx 1971-1F 1464 1833 1649 TGx 1961-1F 1497 1372 1434 TGx 1844-4E 1282 1467 1374 TGx 1440-1E* 1541 1183 1362 TGx 1485-1D* 1150 1444 1297 TGx 1448-2E* 1126 1283 1205 TGx 1740-2F 1085 528 806 Mean (18 lines) 1203 1172 1188 SE 153 113 95 LSD (0.05) NS 324 268 *Released varieties in Nigeria
  13. 13. On-farm PVS trials Table 5. Grain and fodder yields of three varieties in PVS trials across four districts (Lilongwe, Dedza, Dowa and Kasungu) in 2007/08 in Malawi Grain yield Fodder yield Variety (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) Ocepara-4 1467 1399 Nasoko 1308 1188 Makwacha 1245 1255 Mean 1340 1281 SE 119 98 National average for 2006/07 was 700 kg/ha, thus the increase ranged from 78% to 109%
  14. 14. On-farm PVS trials Grain yield of varieties tested in PVS in 2008/09 in Lilongwe and Dowa districts, Malawi
  15. 15. On-farm PVS trials Table 7. Grain yields in (kg ha-1) of soybean genotypes in PVS trials at five sites in Zambezia Province, Mozambique, in 2008/09 Genotype Ruace Tetete Magige Lioma Serra TGx 1740-2F 3348a 2100a 3117a 3013a 2431a TGx 1908-8F 3129bc 1956ab 2883a 2904a 2171b TGx 1904-6F 3002c 1839a 2925a 2652a 2065b TGx 1937-1F 3083c 1904ab 2967a 2584a 2095b TGx 1485-1D 3220ab 2075a 3033a 2719a 2212ab Storm (check) 2397d - - 2585a 1610c Santa Rosa (check) 1770e 1217c 1750b 1625b 1255d Safari (check) 1567e 1049c 251c - 1810bc Santa (check) 1771e 576d - 1734b - Means within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at 5% probability level
  16. 16. Breeder’s seed production (ton) Malawi: 10.7 Mozambique Mozambique: 12 Kenya: 9.1 Nigeria: 0.8 Total: 32.6 Malawi Malawi
  17. 17. Variety release Table 8. Released and candidate varieties of soybean in different project countries Variety Status Country Trait Improved TGx 1835-10E Released Nigeria (2008) Rust resistance Nyala, Hill, Black Hawk, Released Kenya (2009) Grain yield, Gazelle, EAI 3600 adaptation SCS-1, Duicker, Sable, Awaiting Kenya (2009) Grain yield, Bossier, and TGm 237-2 release adaptation TGx 1740-2F, TGx Candidate Kenya (2009) Grain yield, 1895-33F, 931/5/34, varieties adaptation 915/5/12, 917/5/16 TGx 1740-2F, TGx 1908-8F, Submitted Mozambique Grain and TGx 1904-6F, TGx 1937-1F, for release (2009) biomass yields, TGx 1485-1D adaptation Released 6; Awaiting release 5; Candidate varieties 9
  18. 18. Selection of Bradyrhizobium strains Seven indigenous strains were found to produce high shoot dry biomass and high number of nodules on promiscuous soybean varieties in Kenya TSBF 101, TSBF 331, TSBF 336A, TSBF 344, TSBF 442, TSBF 531, TSBF 534
  19. 19. Selection of Bradyrhizobium strains Nineteen Bradyrhizobium strains were screened at IITA-Ibadan TGx 1448-2E RAUG1 USDA4675 Minus R minus N
  20. 20. Selection of Bradyrhizobium strains TGx 1485-1D RAUG2 RAUG1 Minus R minus N Five local strains (RAUG1, RAUG2, FA3Ben, RAN122, and IRj2180A), collected from Uganda, Cameroon, Benin and Nigeria have been effective on promiscuous varieties
  21. 21. Creating segregating populations 24 parental lines have been identified •  High yield, promiscuous, large biomass (11) •  High yield, early (1) •  Early (2) •  Farmer preferred, early, rust tolerant (1) •  Rust resistant, early (2) •  Rust resistant and good yielding (2) •  Drought tolerant germplasm (1) •  Extra early germplasm (1) •  Good adaptation in SA, seed size, yield (3)
  22. 22. Creating segregating populations Screening germplasm for drought tolerance •  777 germplasm accessions screened for wilting and leaf damage at Ibadan during the off-season in 2008 •  121 relatively better drought tolerant materials were identified
  23. 23. Creating segregating populations F2 generations from 30 crosses are being grown in 2009 F2 plants in the lath house at Chitedze Research Station
  24. 24. Developing soybean value chains •  Baseline survey on processing and other forms of value-addition in soybean has been carried out in all project countries and reports are prepared •  Creating awareness on soybean processing and utilization: training of trainers’ workshops, meetings with relevant stakeholders, TV shows, publication in newspapers, leaflets and field days •  Radio and television campaigns in Kenya, which is estimated to have reached more than 50,000 people •  A video clip with commentary on soybean production and promotion strategies in East Africa has been prepared in Kenya •  In Nigeria, project activities were broadcasted on Kaduna State Radio and Television in 2009 •  In Tanzania, DVD with seven video episodes has been prepared for TV broadcasting
  25. 25. Developing soybean value chains A number of soybean-based recipes were introduced in the project areas during training of trainers and subsequent trainings by trained groups Malawi: 15 Kenya: 12 Nigeria: 15 Mozambique: 15 Some recipes: soy flour, soy milk, soy-cassava nsima, soy-cassava doughnuts, soy- wheat bread, soy Jollof Rice, soy vegetable mix, soy nsima, weaning food, soy buns, soy mince, soy mandazi, soy bread, soy-maize porridge
  26. 26. Developing soybean value chains •  Over 3600 soybean farmers in Mozambique have been linked to one of the biggest processors in Chimoio; The processor purchased all the soybean grains harvested by the farmers in 2008 •  In Malawi, three farmer clubs were formed in three districts (Lilongwe, Dedza and Kasungu) and were linked to two major soybean processors, Rab processors (producing likuni phala, sibusiso) and Central Poultry Feeds (poultry feed processing company) •  Field days were held to create awareness on soybean varieties, processing and utilization at Chitedze and Bvumbwe Research Stations. A total of 847 (female 268) visited soybean varieties and processed products.
  27. 27. Strengthening capacity of NARS Table 11. Postgraduate students from project countries in different aspects of soybean under TL II project Name Country Degree University Research Mr. J. Mushi Tan. M.Sc. Sokoine Univ. of Agric. Processing Mr. D. Nyongesa Ken. Ph.D Univ. of Dar es Salaam Value chains Ms. A. Massas Moz. M.Sc. Univ. of Malawi Breeding Mr. A. Shaahu Nig. M.Sc. Univ. of Makurdi Breeding Mr. K. Dambuleni* Mal. M.Sc. Univ. of Malawi Breeding *Started the registration process at Bunda College, Univ. of Malawi, but later on abandoned the offer and went to University of Zambia under a different scholarship.
  28. 28. Strengthening capacity of NARS •  A total of 8,049 farmers were trained in PVS, soybean production, marketing, processing and utilization across the project countries •  Of these, 57% were women farmers
  29. 29. Strengthening capacity of NARS
  30. 30. Soybean Rhizobium inoculum workshop •  Workshop on Soybean Rhizobium Inoculum was held on 17-21 March 2008 in Tanzania and a document entitled ‘Investment Options for Adoption of Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) in Soybean in Sub-Saharan Africa’ was produced •  Twenty-six professionals from 11 countries participated in this workshop •  This document submitted to BMGF, led to the development a bigger project that included several legumes under the title “Putting Nitrogen Fixation to Work for Smallholder Farmers in Africa”, which has been approved for funding by BMGF
  31. 31. Major outcome •  The varieties released are demanded by public and private institutions for use in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond •  The request for the rust-resistant variety TGx 1835-10E is high. In Kano state (Nigeria) a 50 kg bag was sold for ten thousand naira (US $67) because of high demand •  Increasing number of farmers are requesting for training in soybean value chains
  32. 32. Remaining work to be done •  Multi-location and PVS trials need to continue to release superior lines from the fast-track activity •  Follow up work is required on the candidate varieties submitted to the national variety release committees •  Breeder’s seeds of the released varieties and those in the pipeline should be produced •  Selection for biotic and abiotic stresses from segregating populations •  Creation of new segregating populations •  Field and glasshouse validation of selected strains of Rhizobium •  Training of postgraduate students •  Awareness creation and training of farmers on PVS, processing and utilization •  Soybean value chain with special emphasis on linking farmers to market
  33. 33. Major challenges •  Susceptibility of existing varieties and elite lines to soybean rust, which was not considered as serious problem when the project was initiated •  Soybean rust has established well in most soybean growing areas of Africa and it has appeared on our materials in Malawi, Mozambique and Nigeria •  Rainfall shortage in project areas of Tanzania for crop establishment in 2009 •  Increasing number of farmers wants to be involved in soybean value chain and our funding is limited
  34. 34. Major lessons learnt and vision for the second phase The need to give major emphasis on soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi •  8 - 53% in Uganda in 1996 (Tukamuhabwa et al., 2001) •  40 - 60% in Southern Africa (Caldwell et. Al., 2001) •  40 - 80% in Zimbabwe (Levy, 2005)
  35. 35. Major lessons learnt and vision for the second phase The need to replace rust-susceptible varieties with resistant ones
  36. 36. Major lessons learnt and vision for the second phase The need to initiate multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional rust research program in Africa •  Monitor pathogen populations (soybean rust pathogen is known to be notoriously variable that can lead to break down of resistance genes) •  Identify and utilize new sources of resistance •  Develop molecular markers for resistance genes (Rpp1, Rpp2, Rpp3, Rpp4) to enable stacking of these genes in new lines
  37. 37. Major lessons learnt and vision for the second phase •  Breeding for earliness in Southern Africa countries •  Prior to the soybean utilization trainings, farmers did not eat soybean in Mozambique. All recipes introduced received consumer acceptance among the farmers •  The need to focus on selected activities in the second phase
  38. 38. Acknowledgments •  BMGF •  ICRISAT •  IITA •  TSBF-CIAT •  DARS (Malawi) •  NCRI (Nigeria) •  KARI (Kenya) •  ARI (Tanzania) •  IIAM (Mozambique) •  Several other partners and individuals in project countries •  Farmers in the project countries who participated actively in this project
  39. 39. Thank you