GENDER, SHEEP AND TREES IN ZAN COULIBALY, MALI:
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES
Marie France Labrecque, Andréanne Lavoie, Nancy
...
Multidisciplinary action research project
Integrating agroforestry and sheep feed in Mali

• Sheep herding in Mali
– Key e...
Gender issue in sheep herding
• Gender – more than a comparison between male and
female
• Interest is in women implication...
Gender issue in sheep herding
• Our challenge:
– Deconstruct the assumption about clear
cut sexual division of labour in s...
Gender issue in sheep herding
• To address this challenge: Gender mainstreaming
– Gender mainstreaming is the process of a...
Study and work region
•

Commune of Zan Coulibaly
•
•

•
•

90 km east from Bamako, Mali
Area of 387 km2
Composition: 51 l...
Gender consideration in agroforestry project
• Objectives
•
•

•

Take into account a methodological commitment toward
gen...
Conceptual approach
3 levels to gender mainstreaming
Macro
Meso
Coordination,
resources
allocation,
network ..

Policy,
la...
How to consider gender …
Illustration from sheep herding in Mali
Team project gender
repartition

At the Meso level - Give...
How to consider gender …
Illustration from sheep herding in Mali
At the Micro level
• Participatory process to select shee...
How to consider gender …
Illustration from sheep herding in Mali
Women perception of labour involvement Men perception of ...
How to consider gender …
Illustration from sheep herding in Mali
Women and men perceptions of labour involvement in few ta...
How to consider gender …
Illustration from sheep herding in Mali
• But the gender concept is more than a
comparison betwee...
How to consider gender …
Illustration from sheep farming in Mali
• Create categories more specific

Based on the number of...
How to consider gender …
Illustration from sheep herding in Mali
Gender and generational division of labour is finally not...
How to consider gender…
• Analysis perspective at Micro-level
• Consider
• Women and men contributions in
production, repr...
How to consider gender …
Illustration from sheep herding in Mali
• Land is considered a collective familial good
• Therefo...
How to consider gender …
Illustration from sheep herding in Mali
• Access to grass fodder does not seem a problem as
long ...
Discussion
• Difficulties raised by women gave us some clues:
– Research is needed about fodder availability and their
nut...
Conclusion/recommendations
• Study and integration of specificities related to
gender, generation and domestic life show t...
References
• UN ESCOSOS.1997. Report of the economic
and social council. United Nations Department
for Economic and Social...
Acknowledgements
This work was carried out with the aid of a grant from the International Development
Research Centre (IDR...
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Gender, sheep and trees in zan coulibaly, Mali: methodological approaches

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Gender, sheep and trees in zan coulibaly, Mali: methodological approaches

  1. 1. GENDER, SHEEP AND TREES IN ZAN COULIBALY, MALI: METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES Marie France Labrecque, Andréanne Lavoie, Nancy Gélinas, Jean Bonneville et Alain Olivier WORLD CONGRESS OF AGROFORESTRY Trees for life: accelerating the impact of agroforestry February 2014 The gender dimensions of applying agroforestry innovation
  2. 2. Multidisciplinary action research project Integrating agroforestry and sheep feed in Mali • Sheep herding in Mali – Key economic activity – Socially and culturally important • Availability and costs of fodder = major constraint • Project objectives: – Improving incomes of rural women – Investigating the contribution of tree fodder
  3. 3. Gender issue in sheep herding • Gender – more than a comparison between male and female • Interest is in women implication in decision making process • Need to understand the situation to: – Improve their capacities – Provide opportunities to improve their well-being All that without overloading women tasks and responsibilities!
  4. 4. Gender issue in sheep herding • Our challenge: – Deconstruct the assumption about clear cut sexual division of labour in sheep herding – Assumptions • Raising sheep is typically a female activity • Tree harvesting is typically a male activity (with exceptions like shea)
  5. 5. Gender issue in sheep herding • To address this challenge: Gender mainstreaming – Gender mainstreaming is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in any area and at all levels (UN ECOSOS 1997)
  6. 6. Study and work region • Commune of Zan Coulibaly • • • • 90 km east from Bamako, Mali Area of 387 km2 Composition: 51 localities, including 9 villages Women (9255) & Men (9235) (RGPH 2009) 1,597 concessions 2,847 18,490
  7. 7. Gender consideration in agroforestry project • Objectives • • • Take into account a methodological commitment toward gender mainstreaming Achieve an adequate representation of women in the different aspects of the project Methodological strategies Develop a participatory process with the community • Build equal gender samples • Consider gender in different aspects of social inquiries •
  8. 8. Conceptual approach 3 levels to gender mainstreaming Macro Meso Coordination, resources allocation, network .. Policy, law, … • Macro: Role of States • Meso: Role of Institutions Micro Life conditions, activities • Micro: Role of citizens
  9. 9. How to consider gender … Illustration from sheep herding in Mali Team project gender repartition At the Meso level - Give place to women Women 8 Men 14 Organisational and institution level • Women expertise is different • Different thoughts about sheep herding • Focus on the integration of rural women in organizations Field team for the inquiry
  10. 10. How to consider gender … Illustration from sheep herding in Mali At the Micro level • Participatory process to select sheep herders • Seek representativeness of the gender in minority (women or men) • Building inquiry samples: Based on on the number of sheep owned Categories Based on gender Men Women Few 0 to 3 3 6 Mean 4 to 8 3 6 Many >8 3 6
  11. 11. How to consider gender … Illustration from sheep herding in Mali Women perception of labour involvement Men perception of labour involvement in in sheep herding sheep herding Others persons of the concession 9% Man of the household 26% Other women of the household 2% Herself 39% Boys of the household 21% Girls of the household 3% Others persons of the concession 16% Other man of the household 0% Himself 43% Women of the household 16% Boys of the household 24% Girls of the household 1%
  12. 12. How to consider gender … Illustration from sheep herding in Mali Women and men perceptions of labour involvement in few tasks related to sheep herding 100% 90% 80% Other men of the concession 70% Other women of the concession 60% Boys of the household 50% 40% Girls of the household 30% Husband or other men of the household 20% Women or other women of the household 10% 0% Person herself w m Managing the herd w m Feeding w m Watering w m Killing w m Selling
  13. 13. How to consider gender … Illustration from sheep herding in Mali • But the gender concept is more than a comparison between sexes! • Need to look at – Intern characteristics for each gender – Complexity of tasks division Purposive sampling based on contrasted characteristics – Establishment of profiles
  14. 14. How to consider gender … Illustration from sheep farming in Mali • Create categories more specific Based on the number of sheep owned Women categories Based on their family situation Muso singaden Few 0 to 3 2 Mean 4 to 8 2 Many >8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Young married women living with their stepmother Muso gakela Married women having their own household and all the responsibilities Muso bolobolen Married women retired from household responsibilities and working for themselves
  15. 15. How to consider gender … Illustration from sheep herding in Mali Gender and generational division of labour is finally not that clear! 100% 90% Other men of the concession 80% Other women of the concession 70% Boys of the household 60% 50% Girls of the household 40% Husband or other men of the household Other women of the household 30% 20% Woman herself 10% Managing the herd Feeding Watering Killing Selling Bolobolen Gakela Singaden Bolobolen Gakela Singaden Bolobolen Gakela Singaden Bolobolen Gakela Singaden Bolobolen Gakela Singaden 0%
  16. 16. How to consider gender… • Analysis perspective at Micro-level • Consider • Women and men contributions in production, reproduction and collective activities in terms of money and time invested • Women and men knowledge about sheep herding and fattening • Determine gender access to production factor, their use and control
  17. 17. How to consider gender … Illustration from sheep herding in Mali • Land is considered a collective familial good • Therefore, women, in theory, have access to land when herding • However, half of them have to ask for permission Need to ask a permission to use the land ? yes no do not apply no answer
  18. 18. How to consider gender … Illustration from sheep herding in Mali • Access to grass fodder does not seem a problem as long as one asks permission • As regards to fodder trees, women and men do know and use the same species to feed their sheep • However, availability of products varies according to season
  19. 19. Discussion • Difficulties raised by women gave us some clues: – Research is needed about fodder availability and their nutritional value for sheep – Need for dissemination of new techniques – Grouping women to promote collective sheep herding and fattening efficiency (improved techniques ) • Is it enough? – See our poster communication about financial aspect!
  20. 20. Conclusion/recommendations • Study and integration of specificities related to gender, generation and domestic life show that – Labour division is much more complex than expected – Need a specific methodology to capture this complexity • To promote change in gender relations, need to empower women by strengthening – Their knowledge on the subject – Their access to financial resources, production factors and market
  21. 21. References • UN ESCOSOS.1997. Report of the economic and social council. United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs • RGPH. 2013. Résultats définitif. 4e répertoire des villages.
  22. 22. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the aid of a grant from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Ottawa, Canada, www.idrc.ca, and with financial support from the Government of Canada, provided through Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD), www.international.gc.ca Special acknowledgements to all our collaborators and partners

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