Progress in Bean Technology
        Generation
   for Drought Tolerance
         EIAR, Ethiopia (S. Gebeyehu, T. Assefa)
 ...
Three Broad Activities
•  Fast track evaluation of existing lines
   –  On station
   –  On farm

•  Breeding of new droug...
Activity 3: Capacity Building

          Our Goal:
 Create a network for drought
research on beans in East and
  southern ...
Ethiopia
           -EIAR


                      Kenya
                      -KARI
                      -CIAT      Colom...
Field workshops:
Kenya and Malawi,
       2008




                    • Quantifying soil moisture
                    • P...
Consultancy of Charles Wortmann, Ph.D.,
            U. of Nebraska

Variables                          Site descriptions a...
Equipment on site
                    EQUIPMENT                        COUNTRIES

Davis Vantage Pro2 Weather Station.     ...
Additional training, 2009
•  Country-by-country training by J. Ricaurte
   –  March-April 2009

•  On-site, hands-on use o...
Students sponsored by TL-2*
      •  Berhanu Amsala (Ethiopia): U. of Pretoria, RSA
           –  Nitrogen fixation under ...
Activity 1: Fast track
First cycle evaluations:
        Katumani
Second cycle evaluations:
       Multiple sites
Gender-
discriminated
evaluation of
    lines,
  Katumani
Farmers in Malawi instruct Scientists
       in On-farm research
Yields (kg/ha) on 2 stations in Ethiopia
                             Melkassa             Awassa           Farmer
       ...
Fast Track
           No. Lines   Men /      No. sites
                       women
Ethiopia      9         >100          ...
Activity 2: Breeding
Breeding small-seeded Mesoamerican types:


Yield under Terminal Drought of Virus-Resistant Beans
                        ...
Commercial light red color
   in Drought resistant beans




                       59 bc-3 lines to Africa
Breeding large-seeded Andean types:


                 KARI cv. KAT-B1
(KAT B1 x SAB 618) x (SAB 623 x SAB 627)
Yield data of Andean lines in Colombia,
                                                                    January, 2009
...
Local selection in National Breeding programs:

    Crosses Generated by EIAR-Melkassa*
 Capsula x A. melka    NASIR x  SE...
Local selection in National Breeding programs:


     52 Crosses sent from CIAT
      •  Drought resistance
         – CIA...
Local selection in National Breeding programs:



•  Ph.D. thesis (Teshale Assefa):
       •  Cross planned specifically f...
Phenotypic evaluation of 81 bean genotypes
                                            under drought stress
              ...
Local selection in other countries

    •  Kenya:
      –  15 F2 and 48 F4 from CIAT
      –  Parental material sent

    ...
Drought Science

What have we learned?
Physiological parameters



                              o
                              o
                              ...
Root length, km m-2 in terminal drought
              on a fertile soil


                                                ...
The Riddle of Roots
•  A common denominator of much abiotic stress resistance
   –  Access to moisture and nutrients
   – ...
What is new in breeding?
Gene pools of Common Bean

                   P. vulgaris
                   P. vulgaris

                                ...
SER 16 = Good remobilization           P. coccineus
  Drought      Watered               Drought     Watered



          ...
Tepary bean
  (Phaseolus acutifolius)

•  Early, rapid root penetration
•  Thin, long roots
•  Stomatal control for WUE
• ...
Crosses with Tepary:
        introgression by congruity backcross

(P.vulgaris x xxxx
   xx P.acutifolius)
           X

P...
Looking ahead
•  Good progress with one stress
   (drought)

•  Do we need a different ideotype with
   multiple stress?
 ...
36 Mesoamerican genotypes under
       Drought + Low P
•  Level of P: 15 kg / ha
•  Rainfall distribution:
SXB 412 (1257 kg/ha) vs Tio Canela (709 kg/ha)
Yield under Combined P and Drought Stress
Line                        Yield (kg/ha)   DTF   DTM   Grain fill (d)
SXB 412  ...
An ideotype for combined stress
                                              Phys.
    Planting                Flowering ...
CAL 143 – standard cultivar in
             southern Africa

•  Released in 5
   countries
•  Late to pod
•  Large
   biom...
(CAL143 x SAB 620) x SAB 626
Drought Science: CIAT and Partners
                         Ethiopia
                         -Breeding
C. Afr. Republic  ...
Lessons learned
•  Remobilization is an important trait that
   complements deep rooting and contributes to
   drought res...
Lessons learned
•  Early farmer involvement is totally feasible

•  Field training in physiology and nursery
   management...
Phase 2 Plans
•  Broaden geographic scope
   –  More countries in E-S Africa
   –  West Africa (after diagnostics)

•  Tes...
Phase 2 Plans
•  Address biotic problems of drought areas
  –  Implement markers from TL-1 for resistance
  –  Disease man...
Presentations
•  National Bean Congress. Zacatecas, Mexico,
   5-7 Aug., 2009.

•  14th Australasian Plant Breeding & 11th...
• Thank you
Seed of an interspecific progeny vs
           P. acutifolius




      P. acutifolius
                                 Co...
17 steve beebe_objective4commonbean
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17 steve beebe_objective4commonbean

  1. 1. Progress in Bean Technology Generation for Drought Tolerance EIAR, Ethiopia (S. Gebeyehu, T. Assefa) KARI, Kenya (D. Karanja, D. Macharia) DARS, Malawi (E. Mazuma) Selian Research Station, Tanzania (S. Kweka, J. Msaky) DR&SS, Zimbabwe (G. Makunde) CIAT (S. Beebe, R. Chirwa, P. Kimani, J. Ricaurte)
  2. 2. Three Broad Activities •  Fast track evaluation of existing lines –  On station –  On farm •  Breeding of new drought tolerant germplasm –  CIAT –  NARS •  Capacity building –  Infrastructure –  Training of technicians –  Degree training
  3. 3. Activity 3: Capacity Building Our Goal: Create a network for drought research on beans in East and southern Africa, under the PABRA umbrella
  4. 4. Ethiopia -EIAR Kenya -KARI -CIAT Colombia: N. Tanzania CIAT HQ -SARI Malawi -DARS -CIAT Zimbabwe -DR&SS
  5. 5. Field workshops: Kenya and Malawi, 2008 • Quantifying soil moisture • Physiological sampling • 13 Professionals & 15 xxxx technicians
  6. 6. Consultancy of Charles Wortmann, Ph.D., U. of Nebraska Variables Site descriptions and recommendations •  Water quality •  Melkassa, Ethiopia •  Soil water holding capacity •  Thika, Kenya •  Irrigation facilities •  Kabete, Kenya •  Weather patterns •  Katumani, Kenya •  Kiboko, Kenya •  Planting dates •  Kandiyani, Malawi •  Kasinthula, Malawi •  Chiredzi, Zimbabwe •  Selian, Tanzania •  Madiira, Tanzania
  7. 7. Equipment on site EQUIPMENT COUNTRIES Davis Vantage Pro2 Weather Station. ETH, KYA, MWI, TNZ, ZIM Laptop computer “ “ Watermark soil moisture system with Meters. “ “ Sensor for Soil moisture system. “ “ Ohaus Explorer Pro Toploading Balance. “ “ Ohaus Explorer Pro Toploading Balance. “ “ Digital camera SONY DSC-H50/B “ “ ET Gauge “ “ SPAD 502DL Chlorophyll meter “ “ Soil Corers “ “ SC-1 Porometer ETH, KYA, MWI Turf-Tec Infrared Turf Thermometer with probe “ “ Hand-held FluorPen with firmware upgrade “ “ WHINRIZO Prosoftware on CDROM “ “ Calibrate Color Optical Scanner “ “ Root positioning system for STD scanners “ “
  8. 8. Additional training, 2009 •  Country-by-country training by J. Ricaurte –  March-April 2009 •  On-site, hands-on use of equipment… Country / Site Persons trained Training in Ethiopia / 8 from Melkassa ET gage, Melkassa Watermark irrometer, Malawi / 6 from Kandiyani SPAD Chlorophyll meter, Kandiyani 1 from Kasinthula Fluorpen FP100, 3 from Harare Leaf Porometer, (Zimbabwe) Infrared Thermometer, root sampling, Kenya / 8 from Kabete Kabete scanning & analysis of root 2 from Katumani spa images Tanzania / 4 from Selian Selian
  9. 9. Students sponsored by TL-2* •  Berhanu Amsala (Ethiopia): U. of Pretoria, RSA –  Nitrogen fixation under drought •  Felix Waweru (Kenya): U. Nairobi, Kenya –  RILs and regional collection of TL-1 •  Lizzie Kalolokesya (Malawi): U. of Zambia –  Marker assisted selection for disease resistance (with TL-1) •  Godwill Makunde (Zimbabwe): Free State U., RSA –  Analysis of TL-1 reference collection Other students with research support of TL-2: •  Teshale Assefa (Ethiopia): U. Padua –  Drought tolerance, canning quality and bruchid resistance •  Susan Gachanja: U. Nairobi –  Physiological analysis of Fast Track nursery (* Isaac Fandika transferred to New Zealand in 2009 under other funding)
  10. 10. Activity 1: Fast track
  11. 11. First cycle evaluations: Katumani Second cycle evaluations: Multiple sites
  12. 12. Gender- discriminated evaluation of lines, Katumani
  13. 13. Farmers in Malawi instruct Scientists in On-farm research
  14. 14. Yields (kg/ha) on 2 stations in Ethiopia Melkassa Awassa Farmer preferred Stressed Irrig. Stressed Irrig. 2 G-111-48 1286 1534 775 1604 X 8 KIDNEY – Sel(F9) 9 1089 902 676 1303 X 11 NAVY LINE – 26 1237 616 640 1864 12 NAVY LINE – 47 1249 1622 635 1222 14 NAVY LINE – 60 713 1398 985 1101 18 KG – 17-13 714 1611 650 1358 X 19 GCI DRY BEAN – 18 1087 1789 1104 1326 X 20 KG – 67 – 13 923 1445 682 1664 X 21 KG – 71 – 13 1130 1977 593 1630 X 22 NEW BILFA – 45 904 1191 754 1423 24 Awash melka (Ch) 478 814 602 930 25 Nasir (Ch) 875 920 445 1450 Mean 885 1247 630 1282 LSD (0.05) 638 891 884 1119
  15. 15. Fast Track No. Lines Men / No. sites women Ethiopia 9 >100 7 Kenya 216 N.A. 5 Malawi 23 62 / 62 4 Tanzania 20 6 / 13 3 Zimbabwe 120 pend 6 (20 per site)
  16. 16. Activity 2: Breeding
  17. 17. Breeding small-seeded Mesoamerican types: Yield under Terminal Drought of Virus-Resistant Beans (Colombia) Yield (kg/ha) Maturity (d) SCR 30 2389 65 SCR 2 2356 63 SCR 11 2157 63 SCR 4 2152 64 SCR 3 2134 63 SCR 16 2097 63 SER 16 (Tol. Ch.) 1951 59 Canela (Com. Ch.) 1367 64 LSD (0.05) 404
  18. 18. Commercial light red color in Drought resistant beans 59 bc-3 lines to Africa
  19. 19. Breeding large-seeded Andean types: KARI cv. KAT-B1
  20. 20. (KAT B1 x SAB 618) x (SAB 623 x SAB 627)
  21. 21. Yield data of Andean lines in Colombia, January, 2009 SAB lines Control Genotypes A - Red beans Calima - Red Mottled bean B - White beans Quimbaya - Red bean C - Red mottled beans Cos16 - Cream Striped bean 2600 D - Cream Striped beans Aba36 - White bean 629 E - Various beans 691 659 626 692 684 Quimbaya 694 631 650 693 646 618 645 686 641 657 Quimbaya 702 640 616 627 683 2100 658 649 685 690 651 638 630 628 652 Yield (Kg/Ha) 660 682 696 642 647 681 687 639 656 Calima 637 624 617 648 679 663 COS16 695 653 664 Cos16 625 644 662 701 Calima 675 710 643 689 698 661 688 700 1600 671 709 711 619 560 680 622 678 621 712 708 633 623 670 707 713 677 654 697 733 735 736 674 738 737 655 632 699 673 667 672 Calima 705 719 676 732 Quimbaya 704 726 665 718 Aba36 Quimbaya Quimbaya 620 669 706 716 634 717 727 666 668 714 703 720 739 1100 734 715 729 721 724 731 730 Cos16 Calima 725 728 723 722 Cos16 A B C D E 600 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
  22. 22. Local selection in National Breeding programs: Crosses Generated by EIAR-Melkassa* Capsula x A. melka  NASIR x  SER‐128  Chore x SAB‐713  Capsula x SAB‐712  NASIR x  SER‐78  Chore x MEX‐142  Capsula x SAB‐713  A. melka x MEX‐142  Dimtu  x  SER‐176  Capsula x VAX‐3  Awash melka x VAX‐3  Dimtu x SER‐128  Capsula x COS‐16  Awash‐1 x MEX‐142  Dimtu x SER‐78  NASIR x SER‐16  Awash‐1 x VAX‐3  Wolayita  x SER‐176  NASIR x SEA‐5  Cherchere x MEX‐142  Wolayita x SER‐128  NASIR x BAT‐477  Cherchere x VAX‐3  Wolayita x SER‐78  NASIR x RAZ‐44  Cherchere x BAT‐477  Awash‐1 x G 21212  NASIR x SER‐176  Chore x SAB‐712   * 4-parent double crosses are planned
  23. 23. Local selection in National Breeding programs: 52 Crosses sent from CIAT •  Drought resistance – CIAT selections – Regional selections •  Commercial colors •  Disease and pest resistance – Bacterial blight, storage pests
  24. 24. Local selection in National Breeding programs: •  Ph.D. thesis (Teshale Assefa): •  Cross planned specifically for Ethiopia •  Local selection •  Commercial quality •  Application of water management – managed stress •  On station evaluation of lines by farmers
  25. 25. Phenotypic evaluation of 81 bean genotypes under drought stress (Melkassa, Ethiopia) 2008 2009 Grain yield, Drought (kg / ha) Grain Yield, Irrigated (kg / ha)
  26. 26. Local selection in other countries •  Kenya: –  15 F2 and 48 F4 from CIAT –  Parental material sent •  Tanzania: –  5 F2 from CIAT •  Malawi: –  21 F2 and 59 F4 from CIAT •  Zimbabwe –  F5 from previous M.Sc. Thesis
  27. 27. Drought Science What have we learned?
  28. 28. Physiological parameters o o o o o Pod Partitioning Index Pod Harvest Index (Pod biomass / Shoot biomass @ mid pod fill) (Grain / Total pod biomass) X 100 X 100
  29. 29. Root length, km m-2 in terminal drought on a fertile soil (resistant) (susceptible) Total stress 1.02 stress: 1.02 Total stress 1.34 stress: 1.34 Total control: 1.24 Total control: 0.88 Drought stressed Irrigated control
  30. 30. The Riddle of Roots •  A common denominator of much abiotic stress resistance –  Access to moisture and nutrients –  Resistance to aluminum •  But too many roots shift the balance toward vegetative growth VEGETATIVE REPRODUCTIVE •  Shoots •  Roots •  This results in poor SINK STRENGTH …a fundamental problem for improving bean
  31. 31. What is new in breeding?
  32. 32. Gene pools of Common Bean P. vulgaris P. vulgaris Tertiary pool Mesoamerican Andean P. acutifolius Primary pool P. coccineus - P. dumosus P. costaricensis P. parvifolius Secondary pool P. lunatus = Wild and cultivated forms
  33. 33. SER 16 = Good remobilization P. coccineus Drought Watered Drought Watered New sources of X root traits from Interspecific crosses: Variability in root systems Interspecific Progeny Drought Watered
  34. 34. Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) •  Early, rapid root penetration •  Thin, long roots •  Stomatal control for WUE •  Unambiguous shift from vegetative to reproductive growth •  Efficient remobilization to grain •  Tolerant to high temperatures
  35. 35. Crosses with Tepary: introgression by congruity backcross (P.vulgaris x xxxx xx P.acutifolius) X P.v. X P.a. P.v. X P.a. Interspecific Commercial Check
  36. 36. Looking ahead •  Good progress with one stress (drought) •  Do we need a different ideotype with multiple stress? – Low fertility + Drought
  37. 37. 36 Mesoamerican genotypes under Drought + Low P •  Level of P: 15 kg / ha •  Rainfall distribution:
  38. 38. SXB 412 (1257 kg/ha) vs Tio Canela (709 kg/ha)
  39. 39. Yield under Combined P and Drought Stress Line Yield (kg/ha) DTF DTM Grain fill (d) SXB 412 1257 41 79 38 NCB 226 Drought res., 1206 33 74 41 SXB 409 Low P tol. 1187 40 82 42 SXB 405 1175 39 79 40 PEROLA 1170 46 83 37 DOR 390 1140 46 87 41 A 774 1042 39 79 40 SER 118 936 39 79 40 CARIOCA 730 42 82 40 TIO CANELA 75 709 46 83 37 SEA 15 Drought res., 625 34 76 43 SEN 56 Low P susc. 563 32 75 43 SEA 5 379 34 73 39 G 40001-P. acutifolius 190 37 76 39 LSD (0.05) 266 2.5 3.1
  40. 40. An ideotype for combined stress Phys. Planting Flowering Mat. Harvest Slightly Decisive Quick longer shift to dry vegetative reproductive down phase for phase, for biomass drought resistance
  41. 41. CAL 143 – standard cultivar in southern Africa •  Released in 5 countries •  Late to pod •  Large biomass •  Rustic, excellent in poor soil CAL 143 under terminal drought in Colombia
  42. 42. (CAL143 x SAB 620) x SAB 626
  43. 43. Drought Science: CIAT and Partners Ethiopia -Breeding C. Afr. Republic -Physiology -Quality lab CIAT HQ Mali ? Kenya -TL-1 lab work -Training Burkina F. -Expl. breeding -Breeding efforts (e.g., testing Rwanda Burundi parentals) Togo N. Tanzania -Pre-breeding S. Tanzania (interspecifics) Malawi -Physiology Zambia -Training -Breeding Zimbabwe Mozambique
  44. 44. Lessons learned •  Remobilization is an important trait that complements deep rooting and contributes to drought resistance •  Multiple stress of drought with low P or high Al might require a different ideotype. –  Lines from the Malawi program did especially well after selection in poor soil. •  Interspecific crosses may offer variability for root traits, high temperature, or other traits. •  Bean stem maggot resistance is also a desirable trait to combine with drought resistance.
  45. 45. Lessons learned •  Early farmer involvement is totally feasible •  Field training in physiology and nursery management has been well received by partners •  A regional platform is in place for systematic drought research
  46. 46. Phase 2 Plans •  Broaden geographic scope –  More countries in E-S Africa –  West Africa (after diagnostics) •  Test strategies for multiple stress •  Explore potential of traits from runner bean and tepary (and tepary per se!) •  Integrate selection criteria into drought breeding –  Pod harvest index –  Molecular markers from TL-1
  47. 47. Phase 2 Plans •  Address biotic problems of drought areas –  Implement markers from TL-1 for resistance –  Disease management strategies –  Initiate crosses of drought x BSM •  Pursue canning quality in selected lines •  Revisit cross-crop targeting and cooperation •  Capacity building –  Finish Ph.D. theses –  Field training for new comers –  Only modest capital
  48. 48. Presentations •  National Bean Congress. Zacatecas, Mexico, 5-7 Aug., 2009. •  14th Australasian Plant Breeding & 11th Society for Advancement in Breeding Research in Asia & Oceania Conference. Cairns, Australia. 10-14 Aug. 2009 •  Interdrought Conference. Shanghai, China. Oct. 2009
  49. 49. • Thank you
  50. 50. Seed of an interspecific progeny vs P. acutifolius P. acutifolius Commercial check INB 841

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