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04 j muriukijonathan-icraf- evergreen-agric-eastafrica-fara-aasw-accra july 2013.pptx


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Evergreen Agriculture is a form of more intensive farming that integrates trees with annual crops, maintaining a green cover on the land throughout the year. It raises productivity, diversifies the farmland, raises direct production of food, fodder, fuel, fiber and income. It conserves forests and sequesters carbon.

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04 j muriukijonathan-icraf- evergreen-agric-eastafrica-fara-aasw-accra july 2013.pptx

  2. 2. Synopsis § The regional context § The evergreen agriculture idea § Some observations from farmer practices § Action research towards scaling up
  3. 3. HUMID HIGHLANDS High Pop. Density (Home to > 50 % of region’s pop) Supply > 50 % of regions staple & cash crops Important water towers Rainfed & irrigated agriculture Major crops: Maize, potato, banana, wheat, coffee, tea, arrow roots DRYLANDS 81 % of total land mass Significant in Kenya (75 %); Tanzania & Ethiopia (50 %) Pastoralism / Agro- pastoralism Irrigated and rainfed agriculture Major crops: Sorghum, millet & cassava, cotton Eastern Africa Main features
  4. 4. Conventional Farming – This is how we produce food Trees are kept off cropland and soil is turned over leading to :- -  Disruption of soil life -  High surface area for moisture loss
  5. 5. Intensive Tillage destroys the biological and ecological integrity of the soil system. Before Primary Tillage After Primary Tillage After Secondary Tillage “Earthworms are allergic to cold steel!” Credit: Mike Bell 15 July, 2003 and Pascal Kaumbutho - KENDAT
  6. 6. Our high potential land is sloppy and vulnerable! Conventional farming on sloppy lands without conservation leads to •  Huge soil losses due to run-off •  Quick degradation •  Landslides and floods especially due to lack of tree roots
  7. 7. 81% of the land is semi-arid and cycles of floods and droughts together with overgrazing leads to massive degradation
  8. 8. Genesis of Conservation Agriculture With Trees Call by the Conference of African Union (AU) Ministers of Agriculture, Land and Livestock in 2009 call upon Member States to: Ø Increase investment support in strengthening knowledge, advancing technical capacity development, and up-scaling sustainable land management practices including conservation agriculture and agroforestry.
  9. 9. Types of Agroforestry 1.  Agroforests: combinations of perennial species on arable land 2.  Home gardens with perennials 3.  Woodlots or farm forests 4.  Sylvopastoral systems: Trees in pastures 5.  Trees on field and farm boundaries 6.  Evergreen Agriculture: Trees intercropped with field crops
  10. 10. What is Evergreen Agriculture? A form of more intensive farming that integrates trees with annual crops, maintaining a green cover on the land throughout the year. Evergreen farming systems are ‘double- story’ systems that feature both perennial and annual species (food crops and trees).
  11. 11. Trees incorporation into crop fields and agricultural landscapes may contribute to: i.  maintaining vegetative soil cover year-round (Boffa,1999), ii.  bolstering nutrient supply through nitrogen fixation and nutrient cycling (Barnes and Fagg, 2003), iii.  enhanced suppression of insect pests and weeds (Sileshi et al. 2006), iv.  improved soil structure and water infiltration (Chirwa et al. 2007), v.  greater direct production of food, fodder, fuel, fiber and income from products produced by the intercropped trees (Garrity, 2004), vi.  enhanced carbon storage both above-ground and belowground (Makumba et al. 2007), vii.  greater quantities of organic matter in soil surface residues (Akinnifesi et al. 2007), and viii.  more effective conservation of above- and belowground biodiversity (Scherr and McNeeley, 2009).
  12. 12. Some examples of Evergreen Agriculture in EA •  Fodder shrubs for balanced dairy nutrition (eg Calliandra in the East African Dairy Project) •  Mango and other fruits intercropped in maize systems •  Grevillea robusta intercropped in maize for timber, fodder & fuel •  Faidherbia albida in maize production systems (CA being tested) •  Intercropped coppicing leguminous trees in maize (eg Gliricidia in Malawi tested in Western Kenya and KIbwezi) •  Relay-cropped leguminous species managed as annual green manure (eg Tephrosia)
  13. 13. More people more trees Drier areas have more indigenous tree species
  14. 14. 1.  Minimum  soil  disturbance.  The  roots  of  tree/shrub   species  and  the  soil  fauna  take  over  the  tillage  function,  soil   nutrient  mobilization  and  balancing   2.  Adequate  soil  cover.  The  trees  add  biomass,  which   protects  the  soil  and  feeds  the  soil  biota  (i.e.  biological   plough).  This  also  ensures  better  carbon  storage  than  CA   alone   3.  Trees  in  the  rotation/  intercrop  reduce  weeds,  insect   pests  and  diseases;  Thus  increasing  savings  from  inputs   such  as  fertilizer  and  herbicides   When integrated with CA, trees ensure
  15. 15. System characterisation with AKT - Machakos
  16. 16. System characterisation with AKT - Mbarali
  17. 17. Most frequent tree species by agro- ecological zones in Machakos, Bugesera and Mbarali Zone     Machakos   Bugesera   Mbarali   L o w altitude   1   Mangifera indica   Senna spectabilis   Faidherbia albida   2   Senna siamea   Eucalyptus spp   Mbadaga   3   Grevillea robusta   Grewia similis   Acacia tortilis   4   Terminalia brownii   Grevillea robusta   Delonix regia   5   Citrus sinensis   Persea americana   Mangifera indica   M i d altitude   1   Eucalyptus camaldulensis   Grevillea robusta   Faidherbia albida   2   Grevillea robusta   Senna spectabilis   Mangifera Indica   3   Persea americana   Persea americana   Acacia tortilis   4   Mangifera indica   Mangifera indica   Senna spectabilis   5   Croton megalocarpus   Eucalyptus spp   Delonix regia   H i g h altitude   1   Grevillea robusta   Grevillea robusta     2   Mangifera indica   Mangifera indica     3   Persea americana   Persea americana     4   Eucalyptus camaldulensis   Eucalyptus spp     5   Croton megalocarpus   Citrus limon    
  18. 18. Species accumulation curves 90 farms surveyed in Machakos County There are more indigenous species in the community but far exceed by the exotic species in numbers
  19. 19. Farmers views on various species in their farms Market value categories   Botanical name   common niches   Leaf mulch/ fertility value   Crop conditions under the canopy   High value/ commonly sold   Mangifera indica   Field (terraces)   slow decomposer   unhealthy appearance and reduction in yield   Persea americana   field (terraces)   not known   unhealthy appearance and reduction in yield   Eucalyptus camaldulensis   field boundaries   harmful to the soil   unhealthy appearance and reduction in yield   Medium value   Grevillea robusta   field boundaries/ home compound   mulch value (high moisture content)   healthy appearance no reduction in yield   Terminalia brownii   field boundaries   conflicting opinions   reduction in yield - can be improved with pruning   Carica papaya   field (terraces)   fast decomposer   healthy appearance no reduction in yield   Citrus limon   field (terraces)   slow decomposer   reduction in yield   Citrus sinensis   field (terraces)   slow decomposer   reduction in yield for maize, legumes have no reduction in yield   Can be sold   Psidium guajava   field (terraces)   slow decomposer   unhealthy appearance and reduction in yield   Syzygium guineense   field boundaries/ home compound     reduction in yield - can be improved with pruning   Acacia nilotica   field boundaries/ grazing field   fast decomposer   healthy appearance no reduction in yield   Balanites aegyptiaca   field boundaries/ grazing field   fast decomposer   healthy appearance no reduction in yield   Acacia xanthophloea   field boundaries/ grazing field   fast decomposer   healthy appearance no reduction in yield  
  20. 20. Priority high value fruit tree species selected for Kenya and Tanzania by various authors Source   Kenya   Tanzania   Teklehaimanot (2007)           1.Vitex payos   1.Sclerocarya birrea   2.Berchemia discolor   2.Strychnos cocculoides   3.Balanites aegyptiaca   3.Parinari curatellifolia   4.Carrisa edulis   4 . V a n g u e r i a madagascariensis   5.Sclerocarya birrea   5.Balanites aegyptiaca   Chikamai et al (2005)   1.Tamarindus indica   1.Parinari curatellifolia   2.Adansonia digitata   2.Strychnos cocculoides   3.Balanites aegyptiaca   3.Uapaka kirkiana   4.Berchemia discolour   4.Vitex mombassae   5.Ziziphus mauritiana   5.Vitex doniana   Maghembe et al (1998)         1.Strychnos cocculoides     2.Uapaca kirikiana     3.Vitex mombassae     4.Parinari curatellifolia     5.Tamarindus indica  
  21. 21. Demand and Supply trends of tree seedlings from nurseries in Machakos (bars represent % responses) Purchase of seedlings is not very common in Rwanda (85%), Meru (35%) and Machakos and farmers reported that nurseries were far away from their farms
  22. 22. For successful scaling up, an Evergreen agriculture programme needs Tree management spacing, niches, CA, tree crop interactions, etc Right species, Seeds, and seedling systems Favorable policies, extension networks, capacity building at all levels , linking markets Germplasm Practices Enabling environment Knowledge to Action with further research (Rural resource centers) Characterizati on of typologies Support for national scaling up programmes
  23. 23. Approaches for germplasm supply •  Rural resource centres •  Satelite nurseries and demonstrations in schools – healthy learning approach •  Group nurseries •  Individually operated nurseries (pseudo-extension) •  FMNR approaches
  24. 24. Rural resource centres and satellites Mbarali Rural Resource Centre, Tanzania Kangundo Satellite school nursery, Kenya Technology hubs - Infrastructure for transferring technologies (agroforestry, tree domestication) to a high number of farmers, particularly in the countries where the extension services are weak – technology demonstrations and germplasm sources
  25. 25. Capacity building approaches To build the capacity i.e. ü competence, ü confidence and ü commitment of farmers to invest in evergreen agriculture through Ø Farmer training Ø Demonstration plots and Ø Linking to markets
  26. 26. Extension approaches - Competence •  Government as the default and most sustainable – ministry of agriculture (not forestry?) •  NGOs network – KENDAT, World Vision, others in Tanzania •  Volunteer farmers and nursery operators •  Approaches – Landcare, rural resource centres, satelite nurseries (with healthy learning), farmer field schools •  Demonstration plots
  27. 27. Capacity building - Demonstrations and participatory trials - competence •  At rural resource centres, satellite nurseries, ATCs •  At least one per demonstration per intervention village •  Also serve as participatory on-farm trials to test acceptance of technology •  High replication to allow biophysical measurements with sufficient precision
  28. 28. Linking farmers to markets and value chains – commitment and confidence The Farmer (producer competence) Crop yields Tree products Livestock products The input chain (confidence) •  Seeds •  Implements •  Tree seedlings •  Animal feeds •  Chemicals The markets (commitment) And markets are moving so enterprise rotation matters!!!
  29. 29. What have we learned from the impacts already achieved, and about the key farmer incentives for adoption? 1.  Trees in conservation farming increase system resilience especially the spread of the growing season – indigenous species have a key role 2.  There are multiple benefits and repercussions on crop productivity, household nutrition, fodder production, fuelwood/energy availability, income source, and systems sustainability. 3.  Scaling-up models will differ across agro- ecological zones and countries 4.  Farmers opinion is important as they are the managers of their farms and know them best 5.  Farmers listen to other farmers more easily as they share visible experiences – involve them in extension approaches
  30. 30. THANKS Creating an Evergreen Agriculture