01 tchoundjeuzac indigenousfruittreedomestication-fara-aasw-accra july 2013

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How participatory domestication of high value indigenous fruit trees is brings nutrition, income to smallholder farmers and conserves forests and biodiversity. Presentation at Africa Agriculture Science Week, Accra, 15 July 2013

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01 tchoundjeuzac indigenousfruittreedomestication-fara-aasw-accra july 2013

  1. 1. Tchoundjeu*Z,**Asaah,*E.;*Tsobeng*A*.;* Degrande,*A.*and*A7a,*J.* 6th$Africa$Agriculture$Science$Week,$$ 15$–$20$July$2013,$Accra$<$Ghana$ $ High;value*indigenous*fruit* trees*contribu7on*to* nutri7on:*Experience*from* West*and*central*Africa.*
  2. 2. ARTICULATIONS* 1.  WHY INDIGENOUS FRUIT TREES WERE SO FAR NEGLECTED? 2.  CONCEPT OF TREE DOMESTICATION 3.  KEY INDIGENOUS FRUIT TREES FROM WCA REGION 4.  NUTRIONAL POTENTIAL OF INDIGENOUS FRUIT TREES 5.  POTENTIAL ROLE OF IF IN POVERTY ALLEVIATION, CC SUMMARY
  3. 3. 21 countries 330 million people 1200 million ha
  4. 4. KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF WCA REGION •  Smallholder farmers of this region relay on rain-fed production systems and natural/traditional methods of soil fertility maintenance. •  Farmers have limited access to markets. •  Huge potential to intensify and diversify productivity with agroforestry as a primary delivery mechanism of multifunctional agriculture for food and export markets •  Hosting the Congo basin forest so hot spot for biodiversity, repository of important high-value indigenous fruit trees and medicinal plants
  5. 5. Distribution of Area under Cultivation By Zone 5-year Average (2003-2007) 5*
  6. 6. Constant Fluctuation in cocoa 1960-2000
  7. 7. What$is$domesBcaBon?$ Resource identification and characterization Capture, selection and management of genetic resources Regeneration and management in sustainable landuse systems Ethnobotanic studies and socio- economic evaluation. Market research Farmer preferences. Market development Assessment of adoption and socio-economic impact. Market expansion Species selection Germplasm collection and conservation Genetic selection and breeeding Development of techniques to capture genetic variation Efficient resource capture. Assessment of environmental impact SOCIAL SCIENCES BIOPHYSICAL SCIENCES
  8. 8. ParBcipatory$Tree$DomesBcaBon$(PTD)$ Put$simply$PTD$refers$to:$ •  $the$means$communiBes$select,$propagate$and$manage$high< value$indigenous$fruit$trees$and$medicinal$plants$and$integrate$ them$in$the$various$farming$systems,$ $ •  Species$with$no$market$informaBon$systems$ $ •  species$which$are$mainly$selected$encompassing$indigenous$ knowledge$and$geneBc$selecBon$based$on$scienBfic$principles$ $ •  $a$strong$partnership$with$scienBsts,$civic$authoriBes$and$private$ companies.$ $ •  $PTD$is$a$farmer$driven$and$market$lead$process.$It$focuses$on$ species$farmers$consume$best$with$high$potenBals$for$local,$ regional$and$internaBonal$markets$ $
  9. 9. How to multiply the selected species: rooting cuttings
  10. 10. GRAFTING TECHNIQUES •  No*new*secrets*but*skills*normally*reside*with*sta7on* or*research*staff* –  Farmers,*extension*services*need*the*techniques**
  11. 11. How to multiply the selected species: air layering
  12. 12. Creation of a cultivar Earlier fruiting, smaller trees and uniform quality Dacryodes edulis
  13. 13. KEY SPECIES UNDER DOMESTICATION
  14. 14. Gnetum africanum SPECIES UNDER DOMESTICATION Irvingia gabonensis Ricinodendron heudelotiiKola nitida
  15. 15. Garcinia cola (Bitter kola) Monodora myristicaAfrotyrax lepidophyllus Zanthoxylum macrophylla
  16. 16. Prunus. africanaP. Johimbe cutting E. chloranta for hepatitis A, B, D, E
  17. 17. Allanblackia*floribunda* 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 lauric myristicpalm itic stearic oleic C18:2 Allanblackia Palm8oil Palm8kernel Rape8oil
  18. 18. Noel*cul7var** (out*of*season*variety,*yield*US$20*per*tree*per*year)* …*developing*elite*varie7es*
  19. 19. A young Allanblakia fruiting six years after planting
  20. 20. NUTRIONAL POTENTIAL
  21. 21. Dacryodes*edulis** *•  D.$edulis$is$culBvated$for$its$fruit$<$rich$in$lipids,$ essenBal$oils,$vitamins$and$minerals.$$$ •  Can$be$eaten$raw,$cooked,$roasted$and/or$ grilled.$ •  Fruits$are$highly$commercialized$with$ transacBons$known$to$occur$both$at$naBonal$ and$internaBonal$levels.$$ •  Fruits$generate$about$1$million$US$$annually$in$ Cameroon.$$ •  InternaBonally,$the$fruits$are$exported$to$ Europe$(Belgium,$France,$UK)$and$America$ from$Cameroon,$$R.$Congo$and$D.R.$Congo.$ Snack$of$roasted$safou$$ and$plantain$sold$in$ Cameroon.$ Fresh$safou$fruits$on$sale$ in$Cameroon$
  22. 22. Irvingia(gabonensis*&*Irvingia(wombolu( (•  Bush$mango$is$culBvated$for$its$fruit$$<$rich$in$ vitamin$C$and$the$kernel$rich$in$$lipids,$essenBal$ oils,$and$minerals.$$$ •  Fruits$are$consumed$/$sold,$however,$the$$kernel,$ fetches$prices$several$folds$that$of$fruits.$$ •  Fruits$are$highly$commercialized$with$transacBons$ known$to$occur$both$at$naBonal$and$internaBonal$ levels.$$ •  In$a$recent$review$on$non<Bmber$forest$products$in$ Cameroon,$Ingram$and$Schure$(2010),$reported$ that$US$$8,$089,580$is$generated$annually,$from$ the$sale$of$Irvingia$spp.$ •  InternaBonally,$the$kernels$are$exported$within$ West$and$Central$Africa$and$to$Europe$and$ America.$ Kernels$of$bush$mango$ Snack$of$bush$mango$fruit$
  23. 23. Distribu7on*of*the*species* D.(edulis*distribu7on:*natural$and$planted$ populaBons$in$Africa$ I.(gabonensis(&(I.(wombolu(distribu7on:*natural$$ and$planted$populaBons$in$Africa$
  24. 24. Source: &Omogbai and Ojeaburu 2010; $Ajayi and Adesanwo, 2009$ Proximate composition of D. edulis * Mean %* Pulp* Seed* Moisture* 18.6* 20.6* Ash* 3* 2.6* Protein* 1.93* 1.4* Fat* 11.94* 10.44* Fibre* 47.5* 48.5* Carbohydrate* 17.03* 16.46* Source: Ajayi and Oderinde, 2002 $
  25. 25. Proximate*composi7on*of$I.#gabonensis$ (%$dry$weight)$and$I.##wombolu$(%$fresh$ weight)$kernels$ Nutri7onal*value*bush*mango* Mineral composition of I.#gabonensis#(ppm$ dry$weight)#and$I.#wombolu$kernels) * Mean %* I. gabonensis* Mg* 429.0 ± 0.3* Fe* 13.2 ± 0.1* Zn* 5.7 ± 0.2* Mn* 3.8 ± 0.2* Ca* 201.3 ± 0.3* Na* 395.1 ± 0.5* K* 587.0 ± 0.4 2* P* 16.4 ± 0.2* * Mean %* I. abonensis#* I. wombolu&* Moisture* 4.0 ± 0.1* 11.9* Ash* 7.8 ± 0.3* 2.46* Protein* 6.5± 0.2* 7.42* Fat* 58.5 ± 0.4* 51.32* Fiber* 6.6 ± 0.2* 0.86* Carbohydrate* 16.6 ± 0.3* 26.02* Source: #Oboh and Ekperigin, 2004$ Source: #Oboh and Ekperigin, 2004; &Ejiofor (1987, cited in Ejiofor 1994)$
  26. 26. Control*pollina7on*of*D.(edulis(trees*in* Cameroon* *Remarks:$ •  Controlled$pollinaBon$ increases$fruit$set$and$ frucBficaBon.$ $ •  Phenotypic$variaBon$is$ prominent$between$ provenances$compare$to$ within$provenances.$
  27. 27. Farm*management:*D.*edulis* ! Suitable$to$grow$in$Coffee,$Cocoa$ plantaBons$as$shade$crop,$on$farm$boundaries$ and$within$crops$ ! No$significant$negaBve$interacBons$noted$in$ a$trial$on$establishment$methods$ ! Establish$under$parBal$shade$iniBally$at$100$ trees/ha$density$ Food*crop*associa7on* Home*garden*
  28. 28. Farm*management:*Irvingia*spp* ! Suitable$to$grow$in$Coffee,$Cocoa$plantaBons$as$shade$crop,$on$farm$boundaries$ and$within$crops$ ! No$significant$negaBve$interacBons$noted$in$a$trial$on$establishment$methods$ ! Establish$under$parBal$shade$iniBally$at$100$trees/ha$density$ Food*crop*associa7on* Home*garden*
  29. 29. Mapping*the*carbon*stocks*in*trees*of*seed*and*vegeta7ve* (cu^ng*and*marcot)*origins** #Biomass,#carbon#and#CO2e#sequestrated##aboveground#in#10#years#old#D.#edulis#trees#of#seed#and# vegeta@ve#origins#(mean#±#s.e.d#Mg#ha#E1)# ## •  D. edulis trees of vegetative origin produced significantly (P≤0.05) more biomass and carbon aboveground than trees of seed origin. .0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 Aboveground biomass Aboveground carbon CO2e sequestrated aboveground Abovegroundbiomassandcarbon yieldinMg/ha Cuttings marcots Seed
  30. 30. MOVING FROM PILOT NURSERIES TO RURAL RESOURCE CENTRES
  31. 31. RURAL RESOURCE CENTERS Innova7ve*approach*helping*farmers*to*be*exposed*to* updated*technologies*in*domes7ca7on*and*agroforestry.* Demonstra7on*plots*helping*farmers*to*acquire*skills*in* producing*NTFPs*and*marke7ng*knowledge* .*
  32. 32. KEY SERVICES OF RRCs •  Strengthening farmers skills in nursery techniques, group dynamic and marketing. •  Demonstration and information on the agrofrestry techniques •  Access to information on marketing •  Link the different actors of NTFPs with the private sectors •  Forum of exchange for different actors of NTFPs
  33. 33. Multiplication effect TDRC* TDRC* TDRC* TDRC* Relay* Organisa7on** A* Relay* Organisa7on* B* TDRC* Relay* Organisa7on C* Relay* Organisa7on* D* Nursery*1*Nursery*1* Nursery*1* Nursery*1* Nursery*1* Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery** Nursery**Nursery**
  34. 34. Income generation Income*generated*from*plant*sales*at*RRCs*centers*aaer*2,*5*and*10*years.*
  35. 35. Number of farmer’s that collaborated with ICRAF in Cameroon from 1999 - 2012
  36. 36. Rejuvenating old cocoa plantations
  37. 37. The right tree for the right place 1. Trees for Products 2. Trees for Services fruit firewood medicine income sawnwood fodder soil fertility carbon sequestration soil erosion watershed protection shade biodiversity
  38. 38. Frui7ng*calendar*of*some*indigenous*fruit* trees*in*West*&*Central*Africa** Tree species Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Irvingia wombolu Cola spp. Dacryodes edulis Garcina kola Irvingia gabonensis Ricinodendron heudelotii Safou*variants* Early$maturity:$ $April$<$May$ Normal:$ $ $June$<$September$ Late$maturity:$$ $October$<$March$
  39. 39. Acknowledgements International Fund for Agricultural Development * Partner and beneficicaries
  40. 40. Thank*you*for* your*kind* aben7on** West and Central Africa Regional Office P. O. Box 16317 Yaounde, Cameroon Tel: (+237) 22 21 50 84 Fax: 22 21 50 89 E-mail: icraf-aht@cgiar.org $ $ $

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