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Fazd equine piroplasmosis


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Fazd equine piroplasmosis

  1. 1. Equine Piroplasmosis: Emerging Threat to the Horse Industry<br />Lauren Lewis1 and Pete D. Teel2<br />Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas<br />1Senior Biomedical Science and Entomology Double major, 2Professor and Associate Department Head<br />1<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Equine Piroplasmosis (EP) :<br />Acute tick-borne disease of Equids (horses, mules, donkeys, and zebras)<br />>50% mortality in naïve animals<br />Difficult to diagnose <br />Recent increase in serologically positive US horses<br />Effects breeding, working, and performance horses<br />Major constraint to interstate and international movement of horses<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Geographic Distribution<br /><ul><li>US
  4. 4. Not endemic in the US
  5. 5. Eradicated from the US by the 1980s
  6. 6. In 2008, an outbreak occurred in Florida
  7. 7. Global
  8. 8. Endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions including parts of Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean and Europe
  9. 9. Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan are considered EP free </li></li></ul><li>4<br />Problem: U.S. threatened by occurrences of EP outbreaks<br />
  10. 10. 5<br />Transmission<br /><ul><li>Pathogens transmitted by ticks
  11. 11. Babesiacaballi
  12. 12. Transovarialtransmision
  13. 13. Theileriaequi(formerly Babesiaequi)
  14. 14. Transovarial transmission uncertain or absent
  15. 15. Intrastadial transmission </li></ul>Known US Tick Vectors<br /><ul><li>Dermacentornitens</li></ul>Experimental US Tick Vectors:<br /><ul><li>Amblyommaamericanum
  16. 16. Dermacentoralbipictus
  17. 17. D. variabilis
  18. 18. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus</li></ul>Known Global Tick Vectors:<br /><ul><li>Dermacentor
  19. 19. Rhipicephalus
  20. 20. Hyalomma</li></ul>Infected red blood cells<br />Uninfected<br />Infected<br />Normal red blood cells<br />
  21. 21. 6<br />Negative Effects of EP:<br />Travel Restrictions<br />Mandatory Serological Testing<br />Quarantine <br />Loss of non endemic status<br />
  22. 22. 7<br />Diagnosis: Clinical Signs<br />Variable and nonspecific<br />EP should be suspected in horses with anemia, jaundice and fever <br />T. equicauses more severe disease than B. caballi<br />Incubation period is 12 to 19 days when caused by T. equiand 10 to 30 days when caused by B. caballi<br />EP is a reportable disease; suspect cases should be reported to state & federal authorities<br />
  23. 23. 8<br />Prevention and Control<br />Prevention with acaricide applications <br />to animals prior to exposure, and post-exposure if needed<br />Vegetation free zones<br />Avoidance of Tick infested areas<br />Post exposure tick checks<br />Pre-purchase evaluations & testing<br />
  24. 24. 9<br />Tick Inspections for Equines<br />Preferred Tick Feeding Sites<br />Ears<br />Nasal openings<br />Mane<br />Tail<br />Perianal area<br />Genital area<br />Leg auxilaries<br /><ul><li>Use as guide for tick treatment</li></li></ul><li>10<br />Acaricide Applications for Equines<br />Several classes of acaricides available <br />Formulations include <br />Sprays <br />Pour-ons and Spot-ons<br />Wipe-ons<br />Dusts<br />Protective covers impregnated w/acaricides<br /><ul><li>Use all materials with caution; read the labels and follow instructions carefully.
  25. 25. Focus attention on preferred feeding sites
  26. 26. See for further information and suggestions.</li></li></ul><li>11<br />Resources Available<br /> “Iowa State Center for Food Security & Public Health Brochure”<br />“Gray Book on Foreign Animal Diseases”p. 147 “Babesiosis”<br />“USDA Website”<br /><br />“Equine Babesiosis-Review”<br /><br />“The TickApp”, a mobile smart phone app for ticks of Texas and the Southern Region<br /><br />USDA suggestions for “Protecting your horses”<br /><br />A Literature Review of Equine Piroplasmosis<br /><br />Equine Piroplasmosis and the World Equestrian Games<br /><br />USDA, APHIS Factsheet<br /><br />