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Fazd Bovine Babesiosis


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Fazd Bovine Babesiosis

  1. 1. Bovine Babesiosis: Overview and Current Issues<br />Jose S. Portugal III1 and Pete D. Teel2<br />1Senior, Entomology Major and, 2Professor and Associate Department Head<br />Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX<br />1<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Bovine Babesiosis Common Names<br />Tick Fever<br />Cattle Fever<br />Texas Fever<br />Redwater<br />Piroplasmosis<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />History and General Information<br />Historic Perspective<br /><ul><li>1893 first recognized arthropod vector
  4. 4. Spread over 14 southern states and California
  5. 5. Major cause for the demise of early cattle drives
  6. 6. Retarded economic development of cattle industry
  7. 7. Tick Eradication Programs initiated 1906
  8. 8. Declared successful by the USDA in 1943
  9. 9. Threat continues from cattle and ticks in Mexico</li></ul>Impact of Pathogen <br /><ul><li>Estimated costs of out break in American herds in the billions annually
  10. 10. A mortality rate exceeds 50% in naïve cattle of European breeding (Bostaurus)</li></li></ul><li>4<br />History and General Information<br />(cont.)<br />Pathogen Information<br /><ul><li>Intra-erythrocytic Protozoan
  11. 11. Red blood cell destruction leads to anemia & death
  12. 12. No effective vaccines
  13. 13. No anti-babesial drugs approved for use in US
  14. 14. Babesiabigeminaand B. bovisare principle pathogens in Western Hemisphere</li></li></ul><li>5<br />Principle Tick Vectors<br />Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, known as the Southern or tropical cattle tick<br />Rhipicephalus(Boophilus) annulatus, known as the cattle tick<br />
  15. 15. 6<br />Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus<br />Prefers tropical and sub-tropical environment<br /><ul><li>Regions with high rainfall ideal</li></ul>Distribution pan-tropical<br /><ul><li>Mexico/Central America
  16. 16. South America
  17. 17. Southern Asia
  18. 18. Australia
  19. 19. Brazil
  20. 20. Indian Subcontinent
  21. 21. Parts of Africa</li></ul>Identified in quarantine zones on Texas/Mexico border typically east of Laredo as well as on the California/Mexico border<br />
  22. 22. 7<br />Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus<br />Associated with temporate to sub-tropical climates <br />Global distribution includes<br /><ul><li>Mexico/Central/South America
  23. 23. Middle East
  24. 24. Mediterranean Area
  25. 25. Southern Asia</li></ul>Identified in quarantine zones on <br />US/Mexico border typically west of Laredo<br />
  26. 26. 8<br />One Host Tick Biology<br /><ul><li>Larvae, nymphs and adult ticks feed, molt, and mate on one host
  27. 27. The on-host sequence requires 20-25 days
  28. 28. Engorged female ticks drop to ground to lay eggs and produce 6-legged larvae
  29. 29. The off-host sequence may last 6-9 months without a subsequent host
  30. 30. Multiple generations of ticks are produced each year.</li></li></ul><li>9<br />Pathogens of Bovine Babesiosis<br />Babesiabigemina<br />Babesiabovis<br />
  31. 31. 10<br />Transmission<br />Sporozoites pass to cattle from infected ticks through blood feeding & enter red blood cells<br />Reproduce asexually rupturing red blood cells upon release of merozoites<br />Re-enter gut of subsequent ticks through feeding process<br />Reproduce sexually within tick<br />Infect developing eggs of next tick generation<br />
  32. 32. 11<br />Extended Risk-Native and Exotic Ungulates<br />Native<br />Cattle<br />Buffalo<br />White-tailed Deer<br />Horses<br />Exotic<br />European red deer<br />Nilgai Antelope <br />Possible Babesia reservoir<br />
  33. 33. 12<br />Physical Symptoms<br />Hemoglobinuria<br />Fever<br />Malaise<br />Confusion<br />Icterus/Jaundice<br />Weight loss<br />Depression<br />Lack of coordination<br />
  34. 34. 13<br />Laboratory and Genetic Testing<br />Microscopy<br /><ul><li>Wright-Giemsa stain
  35. 35. >1 parasite in 106 RBC’s</li></ul>PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)<br /><ul><li>Via ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay)
  36. 36. Detects presence of antigen only
  37. 37. Confirms exposure not infection</li></ul>IFA (Indirect Fluorescent Antibody)<br /><ul><li>Detects antibodies due to exposure
  38. 38. Not specific
  39. 39. Requires high antibody titer</li></ul>In-vitro Cultures and Latex Agglutination<br /><ul><li>Still in testing phases</li></li></ul><li>14<br />Eradication, Prevention and Control<br />Tick Eradication<br /><ul><li>US Policy to prevent transmission
  40. 40. Tick surveillance and detection by physical scratching of animals
  41. 41. Quarantine infested areas
  42. 42. Treat infested animals in Acaracidedips on 14 day cycle
  43. 43. Regulate animal movement
  44. 44. Establish international Buffer Zone along Texas/Mexico Border </li></li></ul><li>15<br />Eradication, Prevention and Control<br />(cont.)<br />Disease Control<br /><ul><li>Policy practiced by Mexico, Brazil, Australia and most other countries
  45. 45. Develop endemic stability
  46. 46. Utilize supportive therapy to aid the recovery of infected animals
  47. 47. Directly or indirectly induce immunity in cattle through exposure
  48. 48. Minimize economic and animal health impacts of disease</li></li></ul><li>16<br />Additional Methods Explored to Combat Fever Ticks<br />Countries such as Mexico and Australia have begun to target the Fever Tick vector<br />Experimentation with “Tick Vaccines”<br /><ul><li>GAVAC
  49. 49. tickGARD</li></ul>Ivermectin treated corn feeders and protein blocks to treat wildlife<br />
  50. 50. 17<br />Recent Issues Dealing With Bovine Babesiosis<br />Acaracide resistance increasing<br />Ungulate reservoirs intermingling with cattle<br />Eradication vs. Disease Control incompatibility<br />Rapid transport of cattle between regions<br />Increased demand for beef and dairy<br />Lack of funding<br />
  51. 51. 18<br />Sources and Additional Information <br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />