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Zoonotic Anaplasmosis:   Another Reason We Hate Ticks<br />Belinda L. Flores and Dr. R.L. Stanko<br />Texas A&M University...
Key Terms<br />Acaricide<br />Granulocyte<br />Morulae<br />Reservoir Host<br />Vector<br />Zoonotic Disease<br />
What is Anaplasmosis?(CFSPH, 2005)<br />A disease caused by bacteria of the genus Anaplasma<br />Zoonotic species is Anapl...
Anaplasmaphagocytophilum<br />A. phagocytophilummorula( cell grouping)<br />Neutrophil<br />(white blood cell)<br />Red bl...
Areas Affected(Rikihisa, 2010)<br />Asia<br />Europe<br />United States of America<br />
Species Affected (Ogden et al., 1998) and (CFSPH, 2005)<br />Bison<br />Cats<br />Cattle<br />Deer<br />Dogs<br />Elk<br /...
Reservoir Hosts(CFSPH, 2005) and (Dulmer et al., 2005)<br />Deer<br />Elk<br />Rodents <br />* Peromyscusleucopus, thewhit...
Vector:  Ticks(CFSPH, 2005) and (Dulmer et al., 2005)<br />In the United States<br />Ixodesscapularis<br />Ixodespacificus...
Regional Distribution of I. scapularisin the U.S. CDC 2011.<br />
Regional Distribution of I. pacificus in the U.S.CDC 2011.<br />
Tick HabitatLDA 2009<br />Wooded areas<br />Under plant cover in yards<br />Tall grasses and brush<br />Border regions whe...
Tick AttackCDC 2011<br />Ticks rest on the tips of plants and shrubs and climb onto potential hosts that come in contact w...
Signs-Cattle(CFSPH, 2005)<br /><ul><li>Depression
Anorexia
Decreased milk production
Respiratory dryness
Abortions
Reduced reproductive efficiency due to reduced semen quality</li></ul>Cattle:  a livestock species susceptible to infectio...
Signs-Horses(CFSPH, 2005)<br /><ul><li>Petechiation
Reluctance to move </li></ul> Distal limb edema<br /><ul><li>Transient ventricular  </li></ul>     arrhythmias<br /><ul><l...
Decreased appetite
 Ataxia
 Depression
Icterus</li></ul>Video of a horse with Anaplasmosis.  Horse is catheterized for intravenous antibiotic treatment.  Note th...
Signs-Sheep(CFSPH, 2005)<br /><ul><li>Fever
Weight loss
Listlessness
Coughing
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Anaplasmosis

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Anaplasmosis

  1. 1. Zoonotic Anaplasmosis: Another Reason We Hate Ticks<br />Belinda L. Flores and Dr. R.L. Stanko<br />Texas A&M University-Kingsville<br />
  2. 2. Key Terms<br />Acaricide<br />Granulocyte<br />Morulae<br />Reservoir Host<br />Vector<br />Zoonotic Disease<br />
  3. 3. What is Anaplasmosis?(CFSPH, 2005)<br />A disease caused by bacteria of the genus Anaplasma<br />Zoonotic species is Anaplasmaphagocytophilum<br />This includes organisms previously thought to be separate species, including:<br />Ehrlichiaequi<br />Ehrlichiaphagocytophila<br />“the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis” <br />
  4. 4. Anaplasmaphagocytophilum<br />A. phagocytophilummorula( cell grouping)<br />Neutrophil<br />(white blood cell)<br />Red blood cell<br />Wright-Giemsa blood smear/stain<br />1000X magnification<br /> Human blood cells stained with Wright-Giemsa at 1000x magnification. Normal red blood cells and a neutrophil carrying a A. phogocytophilummorula.<br />Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine. <br />http://www.vetmed.auburn.edu/anaplasmosis_canine/feline<br />
  5. 5. Areas Affected(Rikihisa, 2010)<br />Asia<br />Europe<br />United States of America<br />
  6. 6. Species Affected (Ogden et al., 1998) and (CFSPH, 2005)<br />Bison<br />Cats<br />Cattle<br />Deer<br />Dogs<br />Elk<br />Goats<br />Horses<br />Humans<br />Llamas<br />Primates<br />Rodents<br />Sheep<br />
  7. 7. Reservoir Hosts(CFSPH, 2005) and (Dulmer et al., 2005)<br />Deer<br />Elk<br />Rodents <br />* Peromyscusleucopus, thewhite-footed mouse. (US) <br />A white-footed mouse, Peromyscusleucopus.<br />Natural Unseen Hazards Blog-05/05/2009 <br />by: Jerry Genesio<br />http://naturalunseenhazards.wordpress.com/tag/babesiosis/<br />
  8. 8. Vector: Ticks(CFSPH, 2005) and (Dulmer et al., 2005)<br />In the United States<br />Ixodesscapularis<br />Ixodespacificus<br />In Europe<br />Ixodesrincus<br />Possibly in Asia<br />Ixodespersulcatus<br />Size and appearance of adult female and male, nymph and larva of lxodesscapularis. (by TainaLitwak, CMI, CDC)<br />Female Ixodesrincusfound in Finland. Photo by JarmoHolopainen<br />http://www.pbase.com/image/16565682 <br />
  9. 9. Regional Distribution of I. scapularisin the U.S. CDC 2011.<br />
  10. 10. Regional Distribution of I. pacificus in the U.S.CDC 2011.<br />
  11. 11. Tick HabitatLDA 2009<br />Wooded areas<br />Under plant cover in yards<br />Tall grasses and brush<br />Border regions where yards/fields/woods meet<br />In areas where small mammals live, such as wood piles <br />
  12. 12. Tick AttackCDC 2011<br />Ticks rest on the tips of plants and shrubs and climb onto potential hosts that come in contact with them.<br />Some ticks assume a position know as “questing” while waiting for a host.<br />QuestingI. scapularis<br />CDC. James Gathanay, William Nicholson<br />
  13. 13. Signs-Cattle(CFSPH, 2005)<br /><ul><li>Depression
  14. 14. Anorexia
  15. 15. Decreased milk production
  16. 16. Respiratory dryness
  17. 17. Abortions
  18. 18. Reduced reproductive efficiency due to reduced semen quality</li></ul>Cattle: a livestock species susceptible to infection by A. phagocytophilum infection.<br />http://agriculturalservices.org/cattle/anaplasmosis.htm<br />
  19. 19. Signs-Horses(CFSPH, 2005)<br /><ul><li>Petechiation
  20. 20. Reluctance to move </li></ul> Distal limb edema<br /><ul><li>Transient ventricular </li></ul> arrhythmias<br /><ul><li>Fever
  21. 21. Decreased appetite
  22. 22. Ataxia
  23. 23. Depression
  24. 24. Icterus</li></ul>Video of a horse with Anaplasmosis. Horse is catheterized for intravenous antibiotic treatment. Note the movement of the horse.<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aOxyDewtxK0&NR=1<br />
  25. 25. Signs-Sheep(CFSPH, 2005)<br /><ul><li>Fever
  26. 26. Weight loss
  27. 27. Listlessness
  28. 28. Coughing
  29. 29. Increased respiratory rate
  30. 30. Increased pulse rate
  31. 31. Abortion
  32. 32. Reduced semen quality</li></ul>Sheep: a livestock species susceptible to infection by A. phagocytophilum infection.<br />http://www.vetsweb.com/news/characterization-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-and-a-ovis-infection-1074.html<br />
  33. 33. Signs-Deer(Tate et al., 2005)<br /><ul><li>Decreased feed intake
  34. 34. Depression
  35. 35. Reluctance to move</li></ul>Photograph of a tick infested deer in Millburn Township, NJ<br />Millburn Township Deer Management Task Force. <br />http://twp.millburn.nj.us/View-document/65-Deer-Task-Force<br />
  36. 36. Signs-Cats(Billeter et al., 2007)<br />Fever <br />Thrombocytopenia<br />Hyperglobulinemia<br />Lethargy<br />Anorexia<br />Weight loss<br /> Vomiting<br />Polyarthritis<br />Lameness<br />Ocular discharge<br />Cats: a companion animal species susceptible to infection by A. phagocytophilum infection.<br />Photo Credit: nikki from Fotolia.com <br />http://www.ehow.com/how_7654927_remove-soft-tick-cat.html<br />
  37. 37. Signs-Dogs(Bexfield et al., 2005) and (Alleman and Wamsley, 2008)<br />Less Common<br /><ul><li>Vomiting
  38. 38. Diarrhea
  39. 39. Coughing
  40. 40. Labored breathing
  41. 41. Meningitis
  42. 42. Haemolyticanaemia</li></ul>and thrombocytopenia<br />Common<br />Depression<br />Fever <br />Lethargy<br />Malaise<br />Anorexia<br />General muscle pain (reluctance to move)<br />Joint pain <br />Lameness from polyarthritis<br />
  43. 43. Signs-Dogs(Bexfield et al., 2005)<br />Dog infected with A. phagocytophilum. Manifestation of a scleral hemorrhage was observed as a result of hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia.<br />(Bexfield et al., 2005)<br />Video of a veterinarian discussing various aspects of tick-borne disease in companion animals, including zoonotic disease transmission. <br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3G_1xk-JQs&feature=related<br />
  44. 44. Symptoms-Humans(CFSPH, 2005)<br />Common Symptoms<br /><ul><li>Headache
  45. 45. Fever
  46. 46. Malaise
  47. 47. Chills
  48. 48. Muscle aches
  49. 49. Nausea
  50. 50. Vomiting
  51. 51. Diarrhea
  52. 52. Abdominal pain
  53. 53. Anorexia
  54. 54. Photophobia
  55. 55. Conjunctivitis
  56. 56. Joint pain
  57. 57. Coughing
  58. 58. Confusion
  59. 59. Rash</li></ul>Life cycle and a diagram of possible routes of A. phagocytophilum infection of humans. <br />http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/mayer/ricketsia.htm<br />
  60. 60. Symptoms-Humans(CFSPH, 2005)<br />Severe Symptoms<br /><ul><li>Kidney failure
  61. 61. Respiratory distress
  62. 62. Secondary infections
  63. 63. Hemorrhages
  64. 64. Cardiomyopathy
  65. 65. Multiple organ failure
  66. 66. Meningoencephalitis
  67. 67. Seizures and Coma</li></ul>Video of Young Woman diagnosed with Lyme Disease and A. phagocytophilum co-infection.<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vTHARhGwiEY<br />Video of a doctor discussing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGE), A. phagocytophiluminfection.<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxhTvU8-FvY&feature=related<br />
  68. 68. Diagnostic Tests(LOPH-IDES, 2009)<br /><ul><li>The performance of an Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFA) assay to detect antibodies against A. phagocytophilum.
  69. 69. The detection of antibodies in response to A. phagocytophilum infection through the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
  70. 70. The use of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay to detect A. phagocytophilum DNA. </li></ul>The detection of A. phagocytophilumin blood leukocytes when stained and viewed under a microscope. <br />In-clinic SNAP® 4Dx® blood test for dogs and horses.<br />In-clinic Snap 4Dx blood test for dogs.<br />http://www.idexx.com/view/xhtml/en_us/corporate/news/press-releases/20070119pr.jsf<br />
  71. 71. Prevention(CFSH, 2005) and (CDC, 2010).<br />Exposure to ticks should be minimized and prevented whenever possible.<br />Use pesticides to reduce ticks near buildings<br />Check companion animals for ticks regularly<br />Humans can use DEET insect repellants and permethrin products to treat clothing and gear<br />Livestock and pets may be treated with acaricides<br />Avoid tick habitat when possible<br />An example of a commercially available DEET insect repellant. <br />milanomedical.com<br />An example of a commercially available acaricide for use in livestock and companion animals.<br />http://www.ultravetis.com/?page_id=51<br />
  72. 72. Treatment(UWM, 2000) and (LOPH-IDES, 2009) <br />A. phagocytophiluminfection is treated with tetracycline antibiotics.<br />For use in livestock, oxytetracycline is recommended.<br />In humans, the antibiotic of choice is doxycycline.<br />Due to negative side-effects of tetracyclines in pregnant women, the antibiotic rifampin can be used as an alternative treatment.<br />An example of commercially available oxytetracycline antibiotic which will be administered intravenously.<br />http://www.bestvetstore.com/search/oxytetracycline+veterinary/<br />
  73. 73. Why do we care about Anaplasmosis?<br />Zoonotic disease puts livestock handlers and owners of companion animals at risk of infection<br />Infection of wildlife species is less easily identified and these infected individuals can spread A. phagocytophilumcarrying ticks into areas where they can infect livestock, pets, and humans <br />Negative economic impact due to reduction of reproductive efficiency in livestock<br />
  74. 74. Acknowledgements<br />T.B. Hairgrove, D.V.M. and P.D. Teel, Ph.D.<br />Funding provided by National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Defense<br />
  75. 75. References<br />ALDF. 2010. Other Tick-Borne Diseases. American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. Available: http://www.aldf.com/ Anaplasmosis.shtml. Accessed: March 9, 2011.<br />Alleman, A.R. and H.L. Wamsley. 2008. An update on anaplasmosis in dogs. Available: http://veterinarymedicine.dvm360.com/vetmed/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=506867&sk=&date=&&pageID=1. Accessed: May 3, 2011.<br />Bexfield, N.E., E.J. Villiers, and M.E. Herrtage. 2005. Immune-mediated haemolyticanaemia and thrombocytopenia associated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a dog. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 46:543-548.<br />Billeter, S.A., J.A. Spencer, B. Griffin, C.C. Dykstra, B.L. Blagburn. 2007. Prevalence of Anaplasmaphagocytophilum in domestic felines in the United States.Veterinary Parasitology. 147:194-198.<br />CDC. 2011. Ticks. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/ticks/. Accessed: April 28, 2011. <br />CFSPH. 2005. Ehrlichiosis. Center for Food Security and Public Health. Available: http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/ehrlichiosis.pdf. Accessed: February 8, 2011. <br />Dulmer, J.S., K. Choi, J.C. Garcia-Garcia, N.S. Barat, D.G. Scorpio, J.W. Garyu, D.J. Grab, and J.S. Bakken. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerging infectious Diseases. 11:1828-1834. <br />IDEXX Laboratories. 2007. New Canine SNAP® 4Dx® Diagnostic Test Available. IDEXX Laboratories. Available: http://www.idexx.com/view/xhtml/en_us/corporate/news/ press-releases/20070119pr.jsf. Accessed: May 2, 2011. <br />
  76. 76. References<br />LDA. 2009. Tick Habitat. Lyme Disease Association. Available: http://www.lymediseaseassociation.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=269&Itemid=183. Accessed: September 13, 2011.<br />LOPH-IDES. 2009. Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis. Louisiana Office of Public Health-Infectious Disease Epidemiology Section. Available: http://www.dhh.louisiana. gov/offices/miscdocs/docs-249/Manual/EhrlichiosisManual.pdf. Accessed: March 9, 2011.<br />Maurin, M., J.S. Bakken and J.S. Dulmer. 2003. Antibiotic susceptibilitir4es o Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum strains from various geographic areas in the United States. Antimicrobial Agentsand Chemotherapy. 47: 413-415.<br />Ogden, N.H., Z. Woldehiwet and C.A. Hart. 1998. Granulocytic ehrlichiosis: an emerging or rediscovered tick-borne disease? Journal of Medical Microbiology. 47: 475-482.<br />Rikihisa, Yasuko. 2010. Anaplasmaphagocytophilum and Ehrlichiachaffeensis: subversive manipulators of host cells. Microbiology. 8: 328-339.<br />Tate, C.M., D.G. Mead, M.P. Luttrell, E.W. Hawerth, V.G. Dugan. U.G. Munderloh and W.R. Davidson. 2005. Experimental infection of white tail deer with Anaplasmaphagocytophilum etiologic agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 43:3595-3601. <br />UWM. 2000. Anaplasmaphagocytophila(Ehrlichiaequi)in horses. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Available: http://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/pbs/zoonoses/ Ehrlichia/ehrlequihorses.html. Accessed: May 2, 2011. <br />

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