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organic farming prospects and constraints


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organic farming status in world and in India its prospects and constraints

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organic farming prospects and constraints

  1. 1. IS ORGANIC FARMING A NEW CONCEPT Organic farming is not a new concept to our farmers.  Indian farmers were all organic farmers before the advent of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, mechanization etc BEFORE GREEN REVOLUTION In traditional India only organic farming was practiced.  No chemical fertilizers and pesticides were used.  Only organic techniques where natural pesticides and natural manures were obtained from plant and animal products were used.  During 1950s and 1960s, the ever increasing population of India lead to a food scarcity.  The government was forced to import food grains from foreign countries. And also forced to increase the food grain production of India to increase the food security .
  2. 2. TO INCREASE THE FOOD GRAIN PRODUCTION Was introduced in 1960s under the leader ship of Dr. M.S.Swaminathan
  3. 3. Green revolution technologies (High yielding varieties, chemical fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, mechanization, irrigation) High production (Overcoming food crisis, self sufficiency in food grain, buffer stock of food grain) Not sustainable (Stagnation or fall in productivity, decline in soil fertility, salinity problem, lowering of water table, environmental pollution)
  4. 4. POSITIVE SIDE OF GREEN REVOLUTION  Increased the Country’s food production  Attained self sufficiency  ‘Food deficit’ to ‘food surplus’  Export of food products  Higher income
  5. 5. NEGATIVE SIDE OF GREEN REVOLUTION  Reduction in Natural fertility of soil  Destruction of soil structure  Erosion and soil loss  Killing of beneficial microbes and insects  Ground water pollution and depletion  Atmospheric pollution  Soil acidification  Chemical burn  Mineral depletion
  6. 6. Health effects of conventional farming: • Asthma • Birth defects • Neurological effects • Cancer • Hormone disruption • Parkinson’s disease
  7. 7. Relationships between chemical input levels and sustainability
  8. 8. • With introduction of green revolution, use of chemical fertilizers although contributed 40% of crop production, continuous use of chemicals in agriculture seriously destroyed the soil health and environment. • The scientists have realized that the ‘Green Revolution’ with high input use has reached a plateau and is now sustained with diminishing return.
  9. 9. What does organic farming means?  The aim of organic farming is to maintain optimum soil health and thus making the soil capable of supplying all essential nutrients to crop for its proper growth and development Organic farming aims at sustaining and increasing the productivity by improving soil health and over all improvement of agro-ecosystem Organic farming gives quality organic food and also helps to restore soil fertility on long term basis. As per the definition of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) term organic farming refers to “organic farming is a system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs (such as fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, feed additives etc) and to the maximum extent feasible rely upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives and biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection
  10. 10. IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC FARMING: Present burning issue in farming is the decline in fertility of soil and fall in productivity levels. Use of chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides have deteriorated soil health as well causing harm to our natural eco-system by polluting our environment as well as water. Now we have reached a situation were productivity levels in soil slowly decreasing day by day. Now its time to go for organic farming and restore soil fertility and maintain soil fertility on sustainable basis so that future generations may not face problems
  11. 11. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL AND ORGANIC FARMING CONVENTIONAL ORGANIC It is based on economical orientation It is based on ecological orientation GMOs are used GMOs are not used here Synthetic fertilizers are used Synthetic fertilizers are not used Weeds are controlled through herbicides Manually weeds are removed here Pesticides and fungicides are used to control pest and diseases Pest and diseases are controlled biologically Produce obtained will have chemical residues accumulated in it Produce is free from chemical residues Air, water and soil pollution is common No such problem is observed Produce is carcinogenic and causes several health problems No such problems are observed here Low input: output ratio with pollution Optimum input: output ratio with no pollution Soil fertility is maintained for shorter period Soil fertility is maintained on long term basis Intensive irrigation is required Irrigation requirements are reduced
  12. 12. Objectives of Organic Farming Produce food with higher nutritional quality Work with natural system Maintain and increase soil fertility Use renewable resources as far as possible Wider social and ecological impact of farming system Allow satisfaction to agricultural producer Avoid Pollution Objective of organic farming (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)(6) (7)
  13. 13. Components of organic farming
  14. 14. Principles of organic agriculture
  15. 15. MAIN PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC FARMING: The main principles of organic farming are as follows:  To maintain the long-term fertility of soils.  To avoid all forms of pollution that may result from agricultural techniques.  To produce foodstuffs of high nutritional quality and sufficient quantity.  To reduce the use of fossil energy in agricultural practice to a minimum.  To give livestock conditions of life that confirm to their physiological need.  To make it possible for agricultural producers to earn a living through their work and develop their potentialities as human being. Rajib Roychowdhury et al. (2013)
  16. 16. DISTRIBUTION OF THE SHARES OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL LAND 2013 7% 9% 25% 59% 11 countries 15 countries 40 countries 97 countries
  17. 17. PERCENTAGE OF AREA UNDER ORGANIC FARMING IN THE TOTAL CULTIVATED AREA OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD Country Percentage of area under organic farming USA 0.23 UK 4.22 Germany 4.10 Argentina 1.70 Austria 8.40 Australia 2.20 Japan 0.10 Switzerland 7.94 South Africa 0.05 Italy 3.70 India 0.03 Pakistan 0.08 Srilanka 0.05 0.23 4.224.1 1.7 8.4 2.2 0.1 7.94 0.05 3.7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 USA UK Germany Argentina Austria Australia Japan Switzerland SouthAfrica Italy India Pakistan Srilanka Percentage of area under organic farming Rajib Roychowdhury et al. (2013)
  18. 18.  Organic cultivation not new in India  The term organic farming was first used by Lord Northbourne in the book of look of the land  Organic agriculture in India started long back 1900 by Sir Albert Howard a British agronomist, in local village of the north India.  Organic farming first coined by North Bourne in 1946.  The state of Sikkim and Uttaranchal declared organic state. Organic farming in India
  19. 19. STATUS OF ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTION IN INDIA Total area under certified organic 2.8 M ha Total production 0.59 Million tonnes Total quantity exported 0.02 Million tonnes Value of total export Rs. 30124 lakh Number of farmers 141904
  20. 20. Major products produced in India by organic farming TYPE OF PRODUCT PRODUCTS Commodity Tea, Coffee, Paddy, Wheat, Sugarcane Spices Cardamom, Black pepper, White pepper, Ginger, Turmeric, vanilla, Tamarind, Clove, Cinnamon, Nutmeg, Mace, Chilli Pulses Red gram, Black gram Fruits Mango, Banana, Pineapple, Orange, Cashew nut, Walnut Vegetables Okra, Brinjal, Garlic, Onion, Tomato, Potato Oil seeds Mustard, Sesame, Castor, Sunflower Others Cotton, Herbal extracts Garibay and Jyoti(2003)
  21. 21. 53596.95 3585.16 29969.93 2872.73 203.56 8665.35 16158.86 9881.91 0 16941.91 5387.59 11157.99 4521.49 77.5 44879.88 14906.75 5681.14 1096.3 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 Total Area in ha Organic Total Area in ha In-Conversion ORGANIC FARMING STATUS IN NORTH INDIA: National Centre of Organic Farming, Ghaziabad
  22. 22. ORGANIC FARMING STATUS IN SOUTH INDIA: 10129.11 5947.1 16099.06 7352.67 3199.44 20838.12 1443.67 35369.398 7516.67 3543.44 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 Andhra Pradesh Goa Karnataka Kerala Tamilnadu Total Area in ha Organic Total Area in ha In-Conversion National Centre of Organic Farming, Ghaziabad
  23. 23. Particulars Quantity, tonnes Floriculture 46,398 Fresh Fruits & Veg. 17,24,574 Processed Fruits & Veg. 7,74,849 Animal products 19,32,856 Cereals 97,52,246 Other processed products 32,20,200 46,398 1,724,574 774,849 1,932,856 9,752,246 3,220,200 0 2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 10,000,000 12,000,000 Quantity, tonnes Quantity, tonnes EXPORT OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS IN INDIA
  24. 24. EXPORT PERFORMANCE OF ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS FROM INDIA: Organic Food Sales (tons ) Tea 3000 Coffee 550 Spices 700 Rice 2500 Wheat 1150 Pulses 300 Oil seeds 100 Fruits and vegetables 1800 Cashew Nut 375 Cotton 1200 Herbal Products 250 Total 11,295 Rajib Roychowdhury et al. (2013) 3000 550 700 2500 1150 300100 1800 375 1200 250 Sales (tons ) Tea Coffee Spices Rice Wheat Pulses Oil seeds Fruits and vegetables Cashew Nut Cotton Herbal Products
  25. 25. Supply of nutrients Nutrients are applied through organic manures including • FYM, • Compost, • Dung of various animals, • Poultry manure, • Green manure and • Crop residues in farm fields.
  26. 26. Supply of Nutrients: 1. Bulky organic manures  FYM  Compost  Biogas slurry  Night soil  Sheep and goat manure  Poultry manure  Green manure  vermicompost
  27. 27. AVERAGE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF BULKY MANURE MANURE PERCENTAGE CONTENT N P2O5 K2O Animal refuse 0.3-0.4 0.1-0.2 0.1-0.3 Cattle dung,fresh 0.4-0.5 0.3-0.4 0.3-0.4 Horse dung ,fresh 0.5 -0.5 0.4-0.6 0.3-1.0 Poultry manure,fresh 1.0-1.8 1.4-1.8 0.8-0.9 Sewage sludge,dry 2.0-3.5 1.0-5.0 0.2-0.5 Sewage sludge, activate dry 4.0-7.0 2.1-4.2 0.5-0.7 Cattle urine 0.9-1.2 trace 0.5-1.0 Horse urine 1.2-1.5 trace 1.3-1.5 Sheep urine 1.5-1.7 trace 1.8-2.0 Rural compost,dry 0.5-1.0 0.4-0.8 0.8-1.2 Urban compost,dry 0.7-2.0 0.9-3.0 1.0-2.0 Farmyard manure,dry 0.4-1.5 0.3-0.9 0.3-1.9 Filter-press cake 1.0-1.5 4.0-5.0 2.0-7.0 Groundnut husks 1.6-1.8 0.3-0.5 1.1-1.7 Ash,wood 0.1-0.2 0.8-5.9 1.5-36.0 Regional Centre of Organic Farming, Krishna Chandra.(2005)
  28. 28. Supply of Nutrients: 2. Concentrated organic manure  Oil cakes  Fish meal  Meat meal  Blood meal  Horn and hoof meal  Bird guano  Row bone meal
  29. 29. AVERAGE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF OIL CAKES Oil-cakes Nutrient content (%) N P2O5 K2O Non edible oil-cakes Castor cake 4.3 1.8 1.3 Cotton seed cake (undecorticated) 3.9 1.8 1.6 Safflower cake (undecorticated) 4.9 1.4 1.2 Karanj cake 3.9 0.9 1.2 Mahua cake 2.5 0.8 1.2 Edible oil-cakes Coconut cake 3.0 1.9 1.8 Cotton seed cake (decorticated) 6.4 2.9 2.2 Groundnut cake 7.3 1.5 1.3 Linseed cake 4.9 1.4 1.3 Safflower cake (decorticated) 7.9 2.2 1.9 Rape seed cake 5.2 1.8 1.2 Sesamum cake 6.2 2.0 1.2 Organic farming (TNAU, AGRITECH PORTAL)
  30. 30. AVERAGE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF ANIMAL BASED CONCENTRATED ORGANIC MANURES Organic manures Nutrient content (% N P2O5 K2O Blood meal 10 - 12 1-2 1.0 Meat meal 10.5 2.5 0.5 Fish meal 4-10 3-9 0.3-1.5 Horn and Hoof meal 13 - - Raw bone meal 3-4 20-25 - Steamed bone meal 1-2 25-30 - Organic farming (TNAU, AGRITECH PORTAL)
  31. 31. Bio-fertilizers Sr. No. Group example N2 Fixing Bio fertilizer 1. Free-living Azotobacter , Beijerinka, Clostridium, Anabanea 2. Symbiotic Rhizobium, Azolla, Frankia 3. Associtave symbiotic Azospirrlum P Solubilising Bio fertilizer 1. Bacteria Bacillus sp, pseudomonus sp 2. Fungai Penicillum sp, Aspergillus awamori P Mobilizing Bio fertilizer 1. Arbuscular mycorrhiza Gloumus sp, Gigaspora sp, 2. Ectomycorrhiza Laccaria sp, Amanita sp. 3. Ericoid mycorrhizae Pezizella ericae 4. Orchid mycorrhizae Rhizoctonia solani.
  32. 32. Seed treatment technique popular amongst farmer in organic farming a) With cow urine  cow urine + water (1:10)  soak the seed in solution for 15 minutes  dry the seed in shade and sowing.  It better germination and prevent seed borne disease b) with cow milk  Cow milk + water (1:5)  Soak the seed in solution for 30 minutes  Dry the seed in shade and sowing.  It prevent yellowing of leaves and leaf spot diseases
  33. 33. C) With wood ash Wood ash + water (10 gram + one litter) Dip vegetable seed in solution for 15-30 minutes Dry in shade and sow immediately It prevent seedling rot D) Hot water treatment Boil water till it reaches 550 c. Soak the seed for 15 – 30 minutes. Dry seed first in shade and after in sun and stored in insect proof container. It control pathogens which develop seeds when they are stored for a long time period.
  34. 34. The 4 To Organic Certification • Accreditation • Standards • Inspection • Certification
  35. 35. Accreditation Guarantees that the certification program is competent to carry out specific tasks • Authoritative body defines policies, standards and checks whether a certification system is operating according to standards Standards define production methods, not the product quality Minimum requirements, not "best practice" Standards <--> regulations Continuously developed, dynamic Can be International, National or regional standards
  36. 36. Inspection On-site visit to verify that the performance of an operation is in accordance with specific standards Certification Written confirmation that a process or product is in compliance with prescribed standards
  37. 37. List of accredited certifying and inspection agencies in India  Association for promotion of Organic Farming (APOF) Bangalore  Indian Society for Certification of organic production (ISCOP)- Tamil Nadu  Indian Organic Certification Agency (INDOCERT)- Cochin, Kerala  Skal Inspection and Certificaton Agency- Bangalore  IMO Control Pvt. Ltd.- Bangalore  Ecocert International -Aurangabad  Bioinspectra -Cochin, Kerala  SGS India Pvt Ltd- Gurgaon  International Resources for Fair Trade (IRFD)- Mumbai  National Organic Certification Association (NOCA)- Pune National programme for organic production( NPOP)
  38. 38. International Organic Standards 1. IFOAM: • International federation of organic Agricultural movements • Established in 1972 • Headquarter in Germany • Umbrella organization for organic Agriculture Association • Developed international basic standards of organic agriculture • Established IFOAM accreditation programme (1992) to accredit certifying bodies • Set up International Organic Accreditation Service (IOAS) in July 2001 2. CODEX: •Codex Alimentarious Commission – a joint FAO/WHO •Intergovernment body •Established in 1962 •Produced a set of guidelines for organic production 3. EU regulation •Laid out a basic regulation for European Union’s organic standards in Council regulation No. 2092/91 (June 1991) •Regulations give guidelines for the production of organic crops in the European Community. 4. Demeter •Demeter International is a world wide net work of 19 International certification bodies in Africa, Australia, Europe •Developed guideline for biodynamic preparation. 5. JAS •A set of guidelines Japan Agricultural Standards for organic production Organic standards
  40. 40. PROSPECTS OF ORGANIC FARMING Consumer acceptance Environmental friendly Higher biodiversity Better soils Bello(2008)
  41. 41. Differences in nutritional content between organic and conventional vegetables: mean percent difference for four nutrients in five frequently studied vegetables Virginia Worthington
  42. 42. Virginia Worthington Diet Vit-c (mg) Iron (mg) Magnesium(mg) Phosphorous (mg) Organic 89.2 3.7 80.0 124.0 Conventional 67.9 3.0 68.6 111.8 NUTRIENT CONTENT OF AN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL DIET: MILLIGRAMS OF VITAMIN C, IRON, MAGNESIUM, AND PHOSPHORUS IN ONE DAY’S VEGETABLE INTAKE
  43. 43. Soil quality parameters as affected by organic (Org.) and conventional (Con.) farming Ramesh et al.(2010)
  44. 44. Productivity of crops (t/ha) in organic versus conventional farming Ramesh et al.(2010)
  45. 45. Effect of organic farming practices on growth, yield and quality of rose onion (Allium cepa) M. Prabhakar, S.S.Hebber and A.K. Nair Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 82(6) 2012, pp:500- 503
  46. 46. Treatment Plant height (cm) LAI Bulb diameter (cm) Bulb weight (gm) Bulb yield (tonnes/ha) T1: FYM equivalent to 25% RDN 30.2 5.58 3.3 19.2 18.21 T2: FYM equivalent to 50% RDN 30.7 5.08 3.5 19.0 18.60 T3: FYM equivalent to 75% RDN 31.7 5.76 3.8 21.6 20.91 T4: FYM equivalent to 100% RDN 32.5 5.95 3.8 21.7 21.06 T5: recommended FYM+NPK fertilizers 28.9 5.61 3.2 19.1 19.44 T6: RDF(125:75:150) 26.0 5.41 3.1 17.7 17.34 CD (P=0.05) 0.67 0.33 0.36 0.93 0.82 Growth and quality of onion as influenced by source and quantity of manures and fertilizers Prabhakar et al. (2012)
  48. 48. Advantages of organic farming: Organic matter supplies all the essential macro and micro plant nutrients. Organic matter improves physico-chemical and biological properties of soil. Organic farming improves agro-ecosystem and helps in stopping environmental degradation . Organically grown crops are preferred by most people as it is believed to be more nutritious compared to conventional ones. Organic produce fetches more prices in national and international market.
  49. 49. CONSTRAINTS OF ORGANIC FARMING:  Organic manure contain fewer amount of nutrient.  Lack of awareness  Marketing problems of organic inputs and out puts  Shortage of organic biomass  Poorly supporting infrastructure  High input cost  Lack of suitable agriculture policy  Lack of financial support  Low yields during conversion period  Political and social factors  Complex certification procedure  Lack of organic input responsive variety Meena et al (2013)
  50. 50. Limitations of organic farming in India  Small land holding  Poor infrastructure facilities  Lack of technology knowledge  Convert organic farm  Organic material such as animal dung and other crop waste used for fuel purpose  Organic material are bulky in nature very difficult store and high price  City garbage contain heavy metal, plastic bags, stones and needles.  Bio control agent are available only few selected insect pest.  Complicated organic certification process and high fees cost  Higher human population of India.
  51. 51. Debated issues on organic agriculture: Can organic farming produce enough food for everybody? Is it possible to meet the nutrient requirement of crops entirely from organic sources? Are there any significant environmental benefits from organic farming? Is the food produced by organic farming superior in quality? Is organic farming economically feasible? Is it possible to manage pest and disease in organic farming? Munda et al.
  52. 52. SUGGESTIONS TO PROMOTE ORGANIC FARMING: Many changes are needed if India is to overcome the constraints and achieve its rich potential in organic agriculture. Developing appropriate and strong extension services. Developing strong linkage between producer and consumer. Reducing the cost of certification and easily approachable to farmer. Making the organic inputs available to small holders like bio-fertilizer and bio-pesticide. Developing the domestic market. Providing subsidies and other financial support. Improving infrastructural facilities like cold storage and transportation. Enhancing linkages in the supply chain promoting research on organic agricultural research and development. Providing regular training on organic agriculture. Meena et al.(2013)
  53. 53. Organic farming is better for our environment. Organic farmers do not use synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides