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Semantic relation among words

English Semantic. (Semantic Relation among Words)

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Semantic relation among words

  1. 1. English Semantic SEMANTIC RELATION AMONG WORDS Created By: Yaya Hidayat English Education V-B, UIN Bandung 2012
  2. 2. Word Relationships Metonymy Retronymy Polysemy Converseness Synonyms Antonyms Hyponymy Homonyms Meronymy (Part/Whole)
  3. 3. SYNOMYMY Synonymy is the relationship between two words that have the same sense. This is a strict definition of synonymy – the identity of sense. Some linguists, however, consider synonymy a similarity of meaning. i,e; unhappy/sad, present/gift, prisoner/convict. Synonymy has different aspects i.e. Cognitive, Descriptive and Near synonyms.
  4. 4. COGNITIVE SYNOMYMY Cognitive synonyms: are synonyms that are substitutable in any grammatically declarative sentence. An example of a pair of cognitive synonyms is ‘seaman’ and ‘sailor’. He is a Seaman and He is a Sailor are cognitively synonymous. Other pairs include ‘mailman and postman’, ‘buy and purchase’, ‘hard and difficult’ etc.
  5. 5. DESCRIPTIVE SYNONYMS Descriptive synonyms: are synonyms that are used connotatively to express the speakers’ feelings towards what he or she describes. For example: Agradjaya is thrifty and Agradjaya is economical. Agradjaya is a bachelor and Agradjaya is an unmarried man.
  6. 6. NEAR-SYNONYMS Near-synonyms are expressions that appear similar, but not really identical in meaning because of the variations in their meaning. Examples of near-synonymy in English are ‘Mist and fog’, ‘stream and brook’. For instance, ‘stream’ and ‘brook’ appear similar in meaning but they are not really identical. ‘Brook’ is a small stream while ‘stream’ is a small river. The same explanation could be offered for ‘mist and fog’. ‘Fog’ is a thick cloud while ‘mist’ is a ‘thin fog’.
  7. 7. ANTONYM The term antonym is used to describe oppositeness of meaning (Palmer, 1996: 94–95). It is the most useful tool of inter-lexical sense relations. Antonym is an example of inter-lexical sense relations in the sense that, it expresses a kind of relation that exists between words or sentences that are mutually contradictory. Example: on-off, old-young, big-small, male-female, dead-alive. Antonymy has several types with regard to their logical and referential features (Murphy & Koskela, 2010) as follows:
  8. 8. The Types of Antonymy Simple antonyms In this kind of antonymy, negative of a term implies the positive of another one. Examples include dead/ alive, pass/ fail and hit/ miss. This pairs of words are also called complementary/ binary pairs (Saeed, 2009). Gradable antonyms Another kind of antonymy is called gradable antonymy. This is a relationship in which the positive of one term does not necessarily imply the negative of the other such as rich/poor and young/ old (the same). Actually such antonyms are often adjectives that can be intensified with adverbs like very, so, too, etc.
  9. 9. The Types of Antonymy Converse antonyms Converse antonyms describe the same relation or activity from different. We can refer to child/ parent and buy/ sell as examples of converse antonyms (Murphy & Koskela, 2010). Example: John sold the car to Mary. Mary bought the car from John (Saeed, 2009). Converse antonymy is also called symmetrical antonymy (Safavi, 2000). Reversive antonymy Another kind of antonymy is reversive antonymy. It involves undoing of an action like lock/ unlock and embark/ disembark.
  10. 10. HYPONYMY Hyponymy involves the logical relationship of inclusion. For instance, the meaning of “animal” is included in the meaning of lion, goat, dog and so on. The term “animal” is the upper term known as the Superordinate while the lower term is called the Hyponym. For example: Superordinate Terms for Color and its Hyponyms are blue, red, green, white, yellow.etc
  11. 11. HOMONYMY A semantic relation that describes a word that has unrelated senses. There are two types of homonymy: Homophones :when words have the same pronunciation regardless their spelling with different senses. i,e: Night-knight, know-now, wring-ring and etc. Homographs: words that have the same spelling regardless their pronunciation with different senses.
  12. 12. MERONYMY (PART/WHOLE) A term that is used to describe a part-whole relationship between lexical items. A has B means that B is part of A. i,e: – A human has an arm – An arm has a hand. – A hand has a finger So, ( arm, leg, body, elbow, hand, finger) are all meronyms of human. Cover, and page are meronyms of book, root and stem are meronyms of a plant.
  13. 13. METONYMY A word that has been taken from the Greek word metonumia which means a change of name. It is used as a figure of speech when a concept is not called by its name, but the name it is intimately associated with. Example: The white House refers to the US government. Dawning Street refers to the British government.
  14. 14. RETRONYMY Is a new name given for an object or concept to differentiate the original form or version of it from the more recent form or version. Much retronyms are driven by advances in technology. Example: Biological parent (adopted parent) Hard copy ( soft copy) Snail mail ( email) Whole milk ( low- fat)
  15. 15. POLYSEMY Polysemy: It is a word that is derived from the Greek word poly (many) and semia (related to meaning). A word or an expression that has multiple meanings that are related conceptually or historically. It is also called radiation or multiplication. Example: guard a. a person who guards b. a group of soldiers c. person who is in charge of a train
  16. 16. CONVERSENESS Another important relationship invokes the notion of opposition, although it does so in a way that differs from antonymy .It is a reciprocal semantic relationship between pairs of words such as (Husband-wife-Child-parent- grandparents-grandchildren-employer-employee-sell-buy) In some language, a single word is used for buy and sell.
  17. 17. Summaries: Semantic Relations among Words Synonymy: words that have the same meanings. e.g. start & begin. Antonymy: words that are opposites in meanings. e.g. hot & cold Hyponymy: Words whose meanings are specific instances of a more general word, e.g. isosceles and equilateral are hyponyms of the word triangle. Homonymy: A word which has two or more entirely distinct meanings. e.g. club: ‘a social organization’ ; ‘a blunt weapon’. Meronymy: A term that is used to describe a part-whole relationship between lexical items. e.g. ( arm, leg, body, elbow, hand, finger) are all meronyms of human.
  18. 18. Summaries: Semantic Relations among Words Metonymy: A word substituted for another word with which it is closely associated, e.g. diamond for a baseball field. Retronymy: An expression that would once have been redundant, but which societal or technoligical changes have made nonredundant, e.g. silent movies  movies  silent movies Polysemy: A word which has two or more related meanings. e.g. bright: ‘shining’ ; ‘intelligent’ Converseness: a reciprocal semantic relationship between pairs of words such as (Husband-wife- Child-parent-sell-buy)
  19. 19. THAT’S ALL FOR TODAY SEE YOU NEXT TIME The third week English Semantic