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Enlightenment and Revolution


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Enlightenment and Revolution

  1. 2. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>1800s: New ideas began sweeping Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Enlightenment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Before 1500, truth = whatever the Church or ancient texts said </li></ul><ul><li>Suddenly, scholars began to challenge ancient thinkers and the church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Astronomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This launched the Scientific Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New way of thinking about the natural world based on observation and questions </li></ul></ul>Believed only the Church and ancient texts
  2. 3. The 1 ST Guy to Realize We’re Not the Center of the Universe <ul><li>The Church said Geocentric Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth centered universe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wrong about movement of planets, Sun, and Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus said Heliocentric Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun-centered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Was afraid to publish his findings until the year he died </li></ul>
  3. 4. Galileo Gets in Trouble <ul><li>Italian Galileo was a brilliant scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Invented telescope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark spots on sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jupiter has 4 moons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon has rough, uneven surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Church threatened to excommunicate him because his discoveries scared them </li></ul>
  4. 5. Galileo Gets in Trouble <ul><li>If people believed the Church was wrong, they could question and challenge the Church on other things as well. </li></ul><ul><li>So the Church made Galileo say he lied. </li></ul>
  5. 6. “ I Think, Therefore, I Am” <ul><li>Frenchman who believed scientists needed to reject old assumptions and teachings </li></ul><ul><li>Relied on math and logic </li></ul><ul><li>Everything should be doubted until proved by reason. Only thing he was certain of was his existence. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Assaulted by an Apple <ul><li>Isaac Newton explained the law of gravity and laws of motion </li></ul>
  7. 8. Chemistry’s Dad AKA the Man Sophomores Hate <ul><li>Father of Chemistry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed that matter was made up of smaller primary particles that joined together in different ways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pioneered the scientific method </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Enlightenment <ul><li>The Age of Reason </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because Newton used reason to explain laws of nature, people looked for laws governing human behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tenets of the Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logic can alleviate most problems in society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural laws of economics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nature’s laws lead to happiness on earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Society and mankind can be perfected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Society should be free </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Salons: The Philosopher's Tree House <ul><li>Gatherings in people’s homes where philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, and others discussed ideas </li></ul>
  10. 11. Won’t Someone Control Me? <ul><li>English philosopher who wrote the Leviathan (1651) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed humans were naturally selfish and wicked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People must give up rights to a strong ruler; in exchange, they gain law and order. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solution: Social Contract between people and government </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. America’s Godfather <ul><li>People are free and equal and have natural ability to govern themselves </li></ul><ul><li>People’s 3 natural, unalienable rights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose of government is to protect these rights </li></ul><ul><li>Had deep impact on modern political thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that people can overthrow government if it fails to defend natural rights </li></ul><ul><li>America’s Founding Father’s subscribed to Locke’s beliefs </li></ul>
  12. 13. Powers, Please Separate <ul><li>Thought Great Britain was the best governed nation of his day because of monarch, Parliament, and courts </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers- division of power among 3 branches of government </li></ul><ul><li>“ Power should be a check to power.” </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for the U.S. Constitution </li></ul>
  13. 14. Civilization Bad. <ul><li>French philosopher believed man is naturally free but enslaved by the state </li></ul><ul><li>Only good government is a direct democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where people agree to give up some of their freedom in favor of the common good </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Philosopher Woman <ul><li>Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women deserve same rights as men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key to gaining equality and freedom is education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Argued for female education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes one virtuous and useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women should be doctors politicians not just wives </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Baby America, Child of the Enlightenment <ul><li>Enlightenment ideas swept through European society and also to colonial America </li></ul>
  16. 17. A New Type of Nation <ul><li>Representative Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows citizens to vote for their leaders </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Montesquieu’s Influence <ul><li>Baron Montesquieu believed in separation of powers. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. Constitution adopted this belief and established 3 branches of government </li></ul>