Image courtesy Central Asia Institute. Scholars in Rawalpindi
Don’t start giggling, jumping, etc!!! Remain serious whilst expressing passion Image Courtesy Central Asia Institute. Greg, Khyber & Amira
School life expectancy=number of years a child is expected to remain in school. (www.cia.com) briefly mention Afghan Girl.
Infant mortality is deaths/live births. 2nd highest in world after Angola. Fertility rate is relevant because the more educated a woman is, the fewer children she has. (www.cia.com) Image is a woman named Siamoy from Badakshan, Afghanistan
Due the remoteness of northern Pakistan, statistics include little if any data from these areas. Notes from the Afghanistan slides apply to this one as well. (www.cia.com)
Due the remoteness of northern Pakistan, statistics include little if any data from these areas. Notes from the Afghanistan slides apply to this one as well. (www.cia.com)
This slide is for comparison to the previous (www.cia.com)
Bridge was replaced in 1995 before the school could be built. This is the original yak-hair bridge into Korphe. You walk on the center rope and hold on the the outer two. If you slip, you die.
Explain terrorist and military activity in the region, including recent operation in Marjah, Helmand, Afghanistan. Also, significance of the Wakhan corridor schools and people.
Image courtesy Central Asia Institute (Mortenson, Three Cups of Tea 173, 194-195; Mulrine, U.S. News and World Report; www.ikat.org) The next three slides discuss the subpoints in greater detail.
Bring up saying “Give a man a fish, teach a man to fish.” Children often teach their parents what they learn in school. (Mortenson 173; Mulrine, U.S. News and World Report) Unlike other forms of aid such as food, clothing and shelterEducation does not run out, wear out or fall apartIt never needs repairs and can never be taken from a personGultori school, Image courtesy Central Asia Institute
All numbers are in USD. Comparisons-1. BMW (www.bmw.com) 2. 40 in. LCD TV (www.amazon.com) 3. brand-name/designer boots (www.dsw.com) 4. Hollister t-shirt www.hollister.com)Using local businesses and unskilled labor from villagers keeps costs low and helps economy. School supplies include uniforms, often a child’s first new clothes. Also compare to tomahawk missile, $840,000.(www.ikat.com)
(Mulrine, U.S. News and World Report) High education professions such as teachers and doctors are desperately needed in remote villagesImage courtesy Central Asia Institute. A widow from Korphe with her six children, Azhera
) Image courtesy Central Asia Institute, Simdara Toilet School. Young girls 4-5 yrs old were using an abandoned latrine as a school
Mention Mortenson’s meeting with Rumsfeld and the military/hospitality factor. Hospitality is a very important part of all the tribes and villages from Wakhan to Helmand. A person in need is never refused help. However, a person who storms in with a gun is always refused. Donald Rumsfeld was willing to give Mortenson all the money he needed if American materials, troops and teachers were sent in to build and staff the schools. Mortenson said no. (Mortenson, Three Cups of Tea 194-195;)
First school, Korphe-bridge had to be built first. A landslide took out some of the roads, so men carried roof beams about 15 miles to the village. Also, women’s empowerment-with a bridge, women can visit relatives they haven’t seen since marriage. (Mortenson 140)Image courtesy Central Asia Institute
This could possibly even correlate to lower American taxes= if military bills are lowered because of increasing education. (www.cia.com; Rubin, Philadelphia Inquirer; Bulik, Philadelphia Inquirer) also relates to slide on cost effective-ness
For the purpose of this presentation, I am using the word “madrassa” to mean a Saudi-funded, sunni-wahabi military training camp that provides little to know real education. (Wahabism is the most conservative sect of Sunni Islam and is based on a very literal interpretation of the Qur'an. It is the religion practiced by the Taliban.) A madrassa is also used to mean a Sunday-school like program that is affiliated with a local mosque.A boy could be sent to a madrassa anywhere between six and twelve years old. A girl would be married around the age of sixteen, but in extreme cases could be married as young as nine. (www.ikat.com; Rubin Philadelphia Inquirer)
Pakistan’s school system only goes to tenth grade, so college starts around the age of 15-16. In a college, students may have to copy out books by hand because there aren’t enough, study by candle light and possibly hire bodyguards/soldiers/ chaperones for protection. Statistically, the more education a woman have, the fewer children she has. This stabilizes population growth. (www.ikat.com; Rubin Philadelphia Inquirer)
70% of Taliban fighters are mercenaries who have virtually no other way to make a living. The Afghan gov. tried and failed to start a program that would give jobs to Talibs. Mortenson’s schools provide a moderate curriculum of Arabic (the Qur'an) and the differences between Sunni and Shi’a and some are slowly beginning to introduce Judeo-Christian classes. (Basset, Telegraph; Mulrine, U.S. News and World Report; CNN, Damon)
I’m using the term “militant Islam” to mean Al-Qaeda and the Taliban. Illiterate religious people can be easily manipulated by others claim to have studied Islam. A supposedly educated mullah/imam can convince an illiterate person that they must fight/kill/ hate the west/America in order to reach heaven and ultimate salvation. But if that person has read the Qur’an, they will realize that Islam is just a façade for the Militant’s violence. Islam is a religion of peace and life, strongly opposed to violence and death.
Islam is an open-minded and peaceful religion. These verses promote tolerance for all monotheistic religions, and even claim that anyone who worships 1 God can reach salvation. The Sabians were an early monotheistic group. Note that this is only one interpretation. “those who believe” could be interpreted to mean only Muslims, or only a specific sect of Islam, but this does not effect the second and last bullet. Note the phrase “no fear, nor shall they grieve”
The previous slide’s notes apply here. Also mention sura 109, ayat 6- You have your religion and I have mine.
This refers to a treaty between Muslims and pagans (polytheists), broken by the pagans. According to the previous verses, the Muslims are to give the pagans four months to return to the broken treaty. During these four months, no one is to be harmed. After the four months, only pagans who disregarded the treaty will be attacked. Anyone who upheld the treaty and/or repents is not to be harmed.Without the historical and Qur'anic context, this verse can be very easily misunderstood, or purposefully manipulated.
Qur’an 96: 1-5 These are the very first ayats revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) Therefore, by denying women education, the Taliban and other extremists deny them the ability to follow the first order of the Qur’an. (Bhutto 18)
)Mortenson, 313, 16) Jahan’s late Grandfather, Haji Ali was the village chief. Skardu is the capital and only major city in Baltistan.
Studying for an OB-GYN nursing degree. (Mortenson, 5)
Why it didn’t work: 1. not enough time, only 1 hour to sell 2.the table was very small so there wasn’t enough room for all the food 3. other events in the gym (dancing, etc) took people’s attention
Encouraging donation was the hardest thing to do, because I had to explain my entire project in about thirty seconds to people as they came up to the table and then moved on. People seemed to be more willing to donate to closer and more news-worthy charities, especially Haitian Earthquake Relief.
Last bullet-when asked why I like the middle east so much, I generally say that I am simply fascinated by the culture, politics and religion. Often, people will then point out to me that I’m catholic. Occasionally, people have inadvertently made me feel like I shouldn’t take an interest in Islam and the Middle East
I did not fail. I learned a whole lot, the kind of stuff that one must learn from experience. Still, I was very disappointed afterword.Acknowledge help from Alias and Omar Farigi. I realized that there is a whole lot more to running a bake sale than just baking
I did not fail. I learned a whole lot, the kind of stuff that one must learn from experience. Still, I was very disappointed afterword.Acknowledge help from Alias and Omar Farigi.Icing incident, replaced with sprinkles
Women’s Education<br />“Read! Your Lord is the Most Bountiful one who taught by the pen, who taught man what he did not know.”<br />
Thesis<br />My thesis is to demonstrate the benefits of women’s education in northern Pakistan and Afghanistan, including increased political stability, ability to give back to the community and long term effect.<br />
Relevance<br />After reading Three Cups of Tea, I became very passionate about Pakistan and education.<br />I was already interested in Islam and the Middle East because my debate research.<br />Islam and the Middle East are very important in today’s politics<br />
Pakistan<br />Infant Mortality<br />67.36/1000 (does not include northern areas)<br />Fertility Rate<br />3.43 children per mother<br />
America<br />Literacy<br />Girls 99%<br />Boys 99%<br />School Life Expectancy<br />Girls 16 years<br />Boys 15 years<br />Infant Mortality<br />6.22/1000<br />Fertility Rate<br />2.05 children per mother<br />
Vocabulary<br />Islam- the majority religion in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Islam values peace, tolerance and modesty.<br />Militant Islam- terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda and the Taliban who distort Islam for their own purposes<br />Madrassa- a Saudi-funded, military training camp that masquerades as a school.<br />
Terrain<br />High mountains, low valleys<br />Very steep cliffs, rocky hills<br />Roads are poorly maintained and often dangerous<br />
CAI<br />"We can drop bombs, hand out condoms, put in electricity, but you won't see change without girls' education. I have seen profound change in the villages when girls learn to read and write.” Greg Mortenson, founder of Central Asia Institute<br /> Women’s education is the single most important factor in developing a society<br />Much less expensive than military force<br />Education has a long term effect<br />Education gives back to the community<br />No other form of humanitarian aid is as cost effective, long lasting and life saving as education.<br />
Long Term Effect<br />Give a man a fish and he eats for a day. Teach a man to fish and he eats for a lifetime.<br />Education works in a cycle<br />Students become teachers to other students, their parents and siblings, even their future children<br />
Cost Effectiveness<br />A primary school costs $ 25,000-50,000 to build and support for five years.<br />An annual scholarship for an advanced student is 800 dollars.<br />$100 buys maternal healthcare supplies for a year.<br />$20 provides a student with school supplies for a year.<br />
Giving Back to the Community<br />A woman is more likely than a man to return to her village after high school and college<br />An educated woman who does not have a job will be able to take better care of her children<br />She will also be more likely to send her children to school than keep them at home to work<br />
Local Effect<br />Healthcare<br />Education provides villages with doctors.<br />A fifth grade education drops infant mortality in half.<br />Even the basic knowledge of boiling water before drinking it can save the lives of many small children.<br />
Local Effect<br />Economy<br />Building materials are bought from local businesses.<br />Local teachers are hired.<br />Villages donate land and unskilled labor.<br />
Local Effect, cont’d<br />Infrastructure<br />Depending on the village’s location, a bridge, road or tunnel might have to be built or repaired in order to transport materials.<br />This also makes villages more accessible and less remote.<br />
Global Effect, Part 1<br />Economic Development<br />More educated people are good for the economy because they have more skills<br />A better economy means that less aid is needed<br />More job opportunities for people in remote villages<br />
Global Effect, Part 2<br />Peaceful way of fighting Islamic Extremism<br />With an education, one can become a skilled worker.<br />One can read the Qur'an themselves instead of relying on someone else’s interpretation.<br />Because boys as well as girls are educated, boys are not sent to madrassas<br />Educated mothers are less likely to allow their sons to join the army.<br />
Fighting Terrorism<br />How education fights Militant Islam<br />Provides young adults and teens with skills<br />Moderately educates students about their religion<br />The most progressive schools are beginning to teach about Christianity and Judaism.<br />
Opposition to Violence in the Qur’an<br />Nay,-whoever submits His whole self to God and is a doer of good,- He will get his reward with his Lord; on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. 2:112<br />The Muslim believers, the Jews, the Christians and the Sabians- all who believe in God and the last day and do good- will have their rewards with their Lord. No fear for them, nor shall they grieve. 2:62; 5:69<br />
Continued<br />…For those who believe and do good deeds, there will be no fear, nor will they grieve. 6:48<br />For those who say our lord is God and then follow the straight path there is no fear, nor shall they grieve. 46:13<br />
Violence in the Qur’an<br />When the four forbidden months are over, whenever you encounter the idolaters, kill them, seize them, besiege them, wait for them at every look out post; but if they turn to God, maintain the prayer and pay the prescribed alms, let them go on their way, for God is most forgiving and merciful. 9:5 (the Sword Verse)<br />
Education in the Qur’an<br />Read! In the name of your Lord who created: He created man from a clinging form. Read! Your Lord is the Most Bountiful one who taught by the pen, who taught man what he did not know<br />Some religious leaders claim that educating girls goes against the Qur’an.<br />
Central Asia Institute Scholars<br />Jahan, Nasreen and Aziza<br />
Jahan Ali<br />Graduated in Korphe’s first class<br />Studied public policy in Skardu<br />Now studying government and hopes to become a member of Parliament.<br />“I want to be a… ‘Super lady’”<br />
NasreenBaig<br />Married at age 15 and forbidden to continue studying<br />Forced to refuse a CAI scholarship<br />10 years later, she was allowed to accept the scholarship<br />
Aziza Hussain<br />From the eastern Hunza Valley, almost China<br />Before she earned a CAI scholarship for a two year health program, about 20 women died in childbirth every year<br />Since she returned to her community in 2000, no one has died in childbirth<br />
Bake Sale<br />I tried to have a bake sale on Diversity Day.<br />With 50 cupcakes, 48 brownies and 2.5 gallons of rice pudding, I thought I’d make a little over $100.<br />This did not work, as I only made nine dollars.<br />
Challenges<br />Getting peoples’ attention<br />This was very difficult as there were many different events happening at the same time.<br />Encouraging donation<br />
Continued<br />Explaining myself<br />Because I am not Muslim or Middle Eastern, many people wanted to know essentially why I cared so much about the Middle East.<br />
Learning Experience<br />It doesn’t always work out the way it’s supposed to.<br />Baking isn’t enough. Icing is also necessary.<br />So are cups, napkins, extension cords, a pair of speakers and some Afghan pop. <br />
Continued<br />Some little thing will go wrong at some point. It won’t ruin everything, and chances are, no one will notice.<br />Every little bit helps.<br />Even though I only made nine dollars, that’s nine more dollars than I had before.<br />
Successes<br />Baked and iced 50 cupcakes and brownies<br />Learned how to make rice pudding, and made 2.5 gallons<br />Managed my baking over a week so that I had time for everything<br />Remembered details like napkins and cups<br />
Conclusion<br />Women’s education is vital to the economy, government and health of northern Pakistan and Afghanistan.<br />
Works Cited<br />Bhutto, Benazir. Reconciliation Islam, Democracy, and the West. New York: Harper, 2008. Print. <br />A., M., trans. The Qur'an (Oxford World's Classics). New York: Oxford UP, USA, 2005. Print. <br />Mortenson, Greg, and David Oliver Relin. Three Cups of Tea One Man's Mission to Promote Peace . . . One School at a Time. New York: Penguin (Non-Classics), 2007. Print. <br />Mulrine, Anna. "Building Safe Schools for Girls in War Zones." U.S. News and World Report 1 Nov. 2009: 52. Print. <br />"Pakistan." CAI World Factbook. 11 Nov. 2009. Web. 30 Nov. 2009. <br />Ronnow, Karin. Journey of Hope 3 (2009). Print. <br />Rubin, Trudy. "The Lesson Jihadis Fear." Philadelphia Inquirer 13 Jan. 2008: C1+. Print.<br />Basset, Kathie. "Author Believes Education Paves Way to Peace." The Telegraph [Alton, IL] 13 Oct. 2009. Print. <br />
Continued<br />Bulik, Lou Anne. "The Power of Small Change." Philadelphia Inquirer. 19 Apr. 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2010. <http://www.philly.com/inquirer/opinion/20100419_The_power_of_small_change.html>. <br />Damon, Arwa. "Pakistan: Taliban Brainwashes Kids with Visions of Virgins." CNN 7 Jan. 2010. Web. 7 Jan. 2010. <br />Mortenson, Greg. Stones into Schools: Promoting Peace with Books, Not Bombs, in Afghanistan and Pakistan. New York: Viking, 2009. Print. <br />Ronnow, Karin. Journey of Hope 1 (2007). Print. <br />Ronnow, Karin. Journey of Hope 2 (2008). Print. <br />”Afghanistan." CAI World Factbook. 11 Nov. 2009. Web. 30 Nov. 2009. <br />Rubin, Trudy. "His Anti-Taliban Weapon: Schools." Philadelphia Inquirer 23 Feb. 2007. Print. <br />World Ark Nov.-Dec. 2009. Web. Dec. 2009.<br />