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Inversion

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Inversion

  1. 1. Inversion alan murray & ana fernández
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><ul><li>The normal word order for English sentences is : </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subject+verb Example : ‘She is laughing .’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We cannot change the word order . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We cannot say : ‘Laughing she is’ nor ‘Is she laughing’ (at least not in an affirmative sentence) </li></ul></ul>alan murray & ana fernández
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><ul><li>But in certain cases we can change the word order to Verb+Subject </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and this is called </li></ul><ul><li>INVERSION </li></ul>‘ Off walked the dragon into the sunset’ ->The normal word order is : ‘The dragon walked off into the sunset’ ‘ Never have I heard such a ridiculous story’ ->The normal word order is : ‘I have never heard such a ridiculous story’ alan murray & ana fernández
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><ul><li>For emphasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To make the sentence more dramatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In literary or formal language (especially negative sentences) </li></ul></ul>When do we use inversion? In the cartoon, why did the little angels use inversion? alan murray & ana fernández
  5. 5. Introduction Dramatizing in a story Emphasis alan murray & ana fernández
  6. 6. Examples of inversion : COMPLEMENT+’TO BE’+SUBJECT <ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The night is tender . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-> ‘Tender is the night’ (poetic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His real plan is to take over the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-> ‘To take over the world is his real plan .’ </li></ul>alan murray & ana fernández
  7. 7. Inversion : Negative adverbs and conjunctions <ul><ul><li>Look at these sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. Seldom have I worked so hard in all my life. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Never have I experienced such cold weather . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely do we start work before 9 in the morning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of word comes first in each sentence? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are all the words at the beginning of the sentences negative? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is the subject? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the ‘normal’ word order in each of the sentences ? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Answers <ul><ul><li>What kind of word comes first in each sentence? </li></ul></ul><ul><li> An adverb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are all the words at the beginning of the sentences negative? </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Well , yes . A word like ‘rarely’ has a ‘restrictive’ meaning and is in a way negative . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is the subject? </li></ul></ul><ul><li> After the auxiliary verb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the ‘normal’ word order in each of these sentences ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. I have seldom worked so hard... </li></ul><ul><li>2. I have never experienced such cold weather . </li></ul><ul><li>3. We rarely start work before 9 in the morning </li></ul>alan murray & ana fernández
  9. 9. Inversion : Negative adverbs and conjunctions <ul><ul><li>Words we use for negative inversion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never..... / Rarely-Seldom.... / Little.... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E.G. Little does he know who is waiting for him . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrases we use for negative inversion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardly/Barely/Scarcely...........when... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No sooner....................................than... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not only........................but...also.............. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On no account........... / Under no circumstances...... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At no time/point... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On no other day..... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only (now, then, occasionally, in the last few days......) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E.G. Under no circumstances must you talk to him about it . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Inversion : Negative adverbs and conjunctions <ul><ul><li>Now try and correct these sentences (if they are wrong!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At no point we were asked our opinion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little they knew he was a spy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom we see each other . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On no other day would the weather be so good . </li></ul></ul>alan murray & ana fernández
  11. 11. Inversion : Answers <ul><ul><li>At no point were we asked our opinion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little did they knew he was a spy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom do/did we see each other . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On no other day would the weather be so good .(CORRECT) </li></ul></ul>alan murray & ana fernández
  12. 12. Inversion : Negative adverbs and conjunctions <ul><ul><li>Not until & only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not until the sun came up did we stop drinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li> notice that the auxiliary is in the middle of the sentence. Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only in Mataró do they have such traffic problems . </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Is ‘only’ a negative word? </li></ul>alan murray & ana fernández
  13. 13. Inversion : Answers <ul><ul><li>Not until the sun came up did we stop drinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li> notice that the auxiliary is in the middle of the sentence. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Because ‘Not until’ first needs a complement . </li></ul><ul><li>It cannot stand on its own . So ‘Not until the </li></ul><ul><li>sun came up’ is like an adverb – an adverbial phrase. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only in Mataró do they have such traffic problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Is ’only’ a negative word? </li></ul><ul><li>Well , ‘only’ excludes other possibilities . Only this , </li></ul><ul><li>not that or the other one . So it is , in a sense , negative . </li></ul>alan murray & ana fernández
  14. 14. Inversion : Negative adverbs and conjunctions <ul><ul><li>Join these sentences using the words in brackets . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He saw the photographs . He realised what had happened (Only) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The police came . She stopped screaming . (Not until) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You will give up smoking . You will feel better . (Not until) </li></ul></ul>alan murray & ana fernández
  15. 15. Answers <ul><ul><li>Only when saw the photographs did he realise what had happened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not until the police came did she stop screaming . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not until you give up smoking will you feel better . </li></ul></ul>alan murray & ana fernández
  16. 16. Other inversions <ul><ul><li>In short answers and other similar structures using SO, NEITHER, NOR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ I’m a plumber”. “Really? So am I” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After AS, SO, SUCH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ So late was it that there was no one in the office” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In conditional sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Had I known it, I’d have left the room” </li></ul>alan murray & ana fernández

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