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Kanban
and evolutionary management
Presents

Lessons we can learn
from Bruce Lee’s
journey in martial arts
Presenter
David J. Anderson
Lean Kanban
Central Europe
Hamburg
November 2013
Release 1.0

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Bruce Lee’s Journey in Martial Arts

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Bruce Lee rejected traditional teaching and styles
of Chinese martial arts
• There are some parallels in
the story of Bruce Lee and
the emergence of his
approach to Kung Fu
• Lee rejected the idea of
following a particular style
of Chinese Martial Arts

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Kung Fu Panda simplified the art to only four
styles

Mantis
Snake

Tiger

Monkey
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

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There are in fact very many styles…

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

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“Dry land swimming” provides a false sense of
capability

• The only way to learn is to train with a live opponent
• Lee rejected the many styles of martial arts for various reasons,
mainly that they gave the practitioners a false sense of
capability, putting them at risk in real combat situations
• He was against Kata (learning patterns without an opponent)
and described them in derogatory terms such as "dry land
swimming.“
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Lee wanted to start from first principles and core
concepts

Four ranges of combat
•
•
•
•

Kicking
Punching
Trapping
Grappling

Five* Ways of Attack***
• Single Direct Attack (SDA)
• Attack By Combination (ABC)
• Progressive Indirect Attack
(PIA)
• (Hand) Immobilization Attack
(HIA)
• Attack by Drawing (ABD)
• Single Angle Attack (SAA)

*Apparently still called the Five Ways, there are actually now six **with the later inclusion of SAA
**The fact that The Five Ways has six elements is evidence of evolution in action
***Incorporated core ideas such as "center line" and single fluid motion from Wing Chun and parrying from Epee Fencing****
****Not a Chinese Martial Art and hence evidence of "no limitation as limitation"

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Lee’s approach still needed a name
• He named his approach
Jeet Kune Do - the way of
the intercepting fist - after
one of the practices taught in
his method
• He was quick to point out that
it was just a name, a way of
communicating a set of
ideas. He was passionate
that practitioners shouldn't
get hung up on the name or
the inclusion of any one
move or action.
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Jeet Kune Do

Having no
limitation as
limitation
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Using no
way as way
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Jeet Kune Do encourages development of a
uniquely personal style

"absorb that which is
useful“
discard the remainder
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.

• a framework from
which to pick &
develop a personal
style
• an evolutionary
approach where
adoption of
maneuvers is
learned &
reinforced by
training with an
opponent
• Nothing was sacred
Training with an opponent provides the core
feedback loop to drive adaptation
Lee pursued ever
more elaborate
approaches to
protected real
combat training
to enable the
closed loop
learning that was
core to the
evolutionary
nature of JKD
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Kata are not adaptive

In comparison with JKD, patterned styles of martial
arts taught with "kata" were open loop and not
adaptive. There is no learning from practicing kata

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Martial Arts viewed through a Cynefin* Lens
Complex
Jeet Kune
Do
Emergent Practices

Complicated
Patterned
Styles
Good Practices

Chaotic

Simple

Novel Practices

Individual
Best Practice
Kata

*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynefin
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Lee’s genius was recognizing hand-to-hand
combat is an unordered problem
• Patterned styles are
perfectly good for
controlled circumstances
such as competition
• Sporting combat is an
ordered domain problem
• Street fighting is not orderly
and therefore emergent
practice is required
• Unordered problem
required a new philosophy
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Motivation for the Kanban Method

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Traditional Change is an A to B process
Designed
Current
Process

Defined
transition

Future
Process

• A is where you are now. B is a destination.
• B is either defined (from a methodology definition)
• or designed (by tailoring a framework or using a model
based approach such as VSM* or TOC TP**)

• To get from A to B, a change agency*** will guide a
transition initiative to install B into the organization
* Value stream mapping, ** Theory of Constraints Thinking Processes
***either an internal process group or external consultants
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Change initiatives fail (even) more often than
projects
Change initiatives
often fail (aborted)
or produce lack
luster results
They fail to
institutionalize
resulting in
regression back to
old behavior
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Daniel Kahneman has given us a simple model for
how we process information
Learning from
theory

Learning by
Experience

SLOW

FAST

But fast to learn

But slow to learn
System 1
Sensory Perception
Pattern Matching
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Daniel Kahneman
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.

System 2
Logical Inference
Engine
How we process change…
I logically evaluate
change using System 2
I adapt quickly

I feel change emotionally
using System 1
Silicon-based
life form

I adapt slowly
Daniel Kahneman

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.

Carbon-based
life form
Adopting new processes challenges people
psychologically & sociologically
• New roles attack identity
• New responsibilities using new
techniques & practices threaten
self-esteem & social status
• Most people resist most change
because individually they have
more to lose than gain
• It is safer to be conservative and
stick to current practices and
avoid shaking up the current
social hierarchy
• Only the brave, the reckless
or the desperate will pursue
grand changes
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
The Kanban Method…
• Rejects the traditional
approach to change
• Believes, it is better to avoid
resistance than to push
harder against it
• Don’t install new processes
• Don’t reorganize

• Is designed for carbon-based
life forms
• Evolutionary change that is
humane
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
The Kanban Method…
• Catalyzes improvement
through use of kanban
systems and visual boards*
• Takes its name from the use
of kanban but it is just a name
• Anyone who thinks Kanban is
just about kanban (boards &
systems) is truly mistaken

*also known as "kanban" in Chinese and in Japanese when written with Chinese characters
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
The Kanban Method is a new approach to
improvement

Kanban is a
method
without methodology
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Water flows around the rock

“be like water”

the rock represents resistance
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

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The Kanban Method

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

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Kanban should be like water*
In change
management,
resistance is from
the people involved
and it is always
emotional (system 1)
To flow around the
rock, we must learn
how to avoid
emotional resistance
* http://joecampbell.wordpress.com/2009/05/13/be-like-water/
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Principles behind the Kanban Method
• Start with what you do now
• Agree to pursue evolutionary change
• Initially, respect roles, responsibilities and job
titles
• Encourage acts of leadership at all levels
The first 3 principles were specifically chosen to
address System 1 objections, to flow around the
rock of emotional resistance in humans
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
The Kanban Lens
Kanban asks us to view the world of work through a
new lens
• Creative work is service-oriented
• Service delivery involves workflow
• Workflow involves a series of knowledge discovery
activities

Kanban would be less applicable if a serviceorientated view of work were difficult to conceive or
the work was sufficiently new that a definable series of
knowledge discovery activities had not emerged
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
6 Practices Enable Process Evolution
The Kanban Method
Visualize
Limit Work-in-progress
Manage Flow
Make Policies Explicit
Implement Feedback Loops
Improve Collaboratively, Evolve Experimentally
(using models & the scientific method)

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Start with what you do now
• The Kanban Method evolved with the principle
that it “should be like water” - enable change
while avoiding sources of resistance
• With Kanban you start with what you do now,
and "kanbanize" it, catalyzing the evolutionary
process into action. Changes to processes in
use will occur
• Evaluating whether a change is truly an
improvement is done using fitness criteria
that evaluate an external outcome

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Fitness Criteria

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Fitness criteria are metrics that measure
observable external outcomes
• Fitness criteria are metrics
that measure things
customers or other external
stakeholders value
•
•
•
•

Delivery time
Quality
Predictability
Safety (conformance to
regulatory requirements)

• or metrics that value actual
outcomes such as
• customer satisfaction
• employee satisfaction

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Net Promoter Score is a Fitness Evaluator
but is it the only metric we need?
• Steve Denning has proposed
that Net Promoter Score
(NPS) is the only metric that
business should care about
• NPS is interesting because
it is a fitness evaluator. It
will indicate whether a
business (or product) is likely
to survive & thrive
• But is it the only metric we
need?
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.

Steve Denning
Net Promoter Score is a way of evaluating
customer satisfaction

• In a general sense and at an abstract level NPS tells us whether
customers like what we offer but we cannot know what they truly
care about
• For the abstract problem of, “Can we measure customer
satisfaction?” NPV is a reasonably good measure, if used properly

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
The problem with Net Promoter Score is that it
doesn’t tell you what to do!
• Net Promoter Score (if used properly) will tell
you whether your product or service is likely to
continue selling
• However, it doesn’t give you any clues about
what to do or how to improve
• If NPS is your only metric you’re left to randomly
experiment to generate a higher score
• Like biological evolution, random mutation is
expensive, takes a long time & involves luck
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Can we be smarter by using better fitness criteria
than NPS?
• If we have a service-oriented view of the world,
and want to evaluate service delivery then we
already know what customers care about
•
•
•
•

Lead time
Quality
Predictability
Safety (or conformance to regulatory reqs)

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
If we order a pizza we know what we care about…
• Fast delivery
• lead time from order to
delivery

• Accuracy and quality
• Pepperoni not Hawaiian
• Still warm on delivery

• Predictable Delivery
• If they say “ready in 30
minutes”, we want delivery in
25-35 minutes
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
If we need a medical procedure…
• Short waiting time
• Queuing time from diagnosis to procedure

• Short procedure & recovery time
• Fast procedure, fast recovery time, implies minimally
invasive surgery and use of technology to reduce the craft
input and eliminate variability

• Predictability of schedule & outcome
• Procedure should proceed as scheduled
• Outcome should have high probability of success

• Safe
• Low risk of complications
• Regulatory health & safety procedures followed

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Validate Fitness Criteria with real customers
• It is necessary to keep checking that the fitness
criteria we are measuring do indeed matter to
customers
• Variation in what matters to different customers
provides the opportunity to segment demand
and offer different classes of service within your
kanban system
• e.g. Will you pay extra to have your pizza delivered
faster?

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Which system is fitter?
System B

System A Mean 17 days

Mean 12 days

30

14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

25
20
15
Frequency

10

Frequency

5
0
5

Lead Time (Days)

10

15

20

25

30

More

Lead Time in Days

We don’t know!
System B is faster but without understanding
customer expectations, both may be fit enough
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Measuring delivery against expectation
System B

System A Mean 17 days
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

System B is clearly fitter!

Mean 12 days

30
25
20
15

Frequency

10

Frequency

5

System B delivers 5/7 within expectations
System A only delivers 3/7 within expectations
0

5

10

15

Lead Time (Days)

20

10
8
6
4
Frequency

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Frequency

-15

Lead Time Expectation Spread (Days)

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

More

System B

12

0

30

Lead Time in Days

System A

2

25

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

20 More

Lead Time Expectation Spread (Days)

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Business Risks, Fitness Criteria & Classes of
Service should all align
• If your kanban system is designed properly the
classes of service you are offering should align
with the true business risks in the domain
• And the metrics being used to evaluate system
capability, should be fitness criteria that are
derived from the business risk being managed
• For example, cost of delay requires us to
measure lead time

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Evolutionary change has no defined end point
Initial
Process

Evaluate
Fitness
Roll
back

Evaluate
Fitness

We don’t know the
end-point but we do
know our emergent
process is fitter!
Evaluate
Fitness

Roll
forward

Evolving
Process

Evaluate
Fitness

Evalua
Fitnes

Future process is
emergent

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Multiple Lens
Kanban viewed through a Cynefin*work types
Multiple classes of
service

Kanban systems alone
aren’t enough in the
unordered domain

Complex
Kanban
Method
Emergent Practices

Complicated
Deep
Kanban
Good Practices
System
Single work type
Single class of service

Chaotic
Novel Practices

*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynefin
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Simple
Simple
Kanban
Best Practice
System

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Enabling Evolutionary Management

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Institutionalize feedback systems to enable
evolutionary change

Operations
Review
System
Capability
Review
Standup
Meeting

manager to subordinate(s)
(both 1-1 and 1-team)

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Disintermediate!
Risks, fitness criteria & classes of service should
be explicit & transparent
Operations
Review

Lead time
Quality
Predictability

Expose risk, classes of
service & fitness criteria
at all 3 levels of
Lead time
Quality
feedback
System

Capability
Review

manager to subordinate(s)
(both 1-1 and 1-team)

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Predictability

Standup
Meeting

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.

Lead time
Quality
Predictability
Is there room for improvement?

Ready
For
Delivery Delivered

Pool
of
Ideas

Testing
FlowCommitted measures the
efficiency Development
3
∞
percentage of total lead time
2
3
∞
Ongoing
Done
is spent actually adding value Verification Acceptance
(or knowledge) versus waiting efficiency% = Work Time
Flow

commonly reported*, **

Multitasking means time spent
E in working columns is often
waiting time

G

PB
GY

DE

Waiting Working

MN
AB

Waiting

Working

Lead Time
* Hakan Forss, Lean Kanban France, Oct 2013
** 2% reported by Zsolt Fabok, Lean Kanban France, Oct 2012

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

x 100%

Lead Time

F Flow efficiencies of 1-5% are P1
D
I

∞

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.

Waiting

Waiting
Other metrics should only be used as input to
models to drive improvement
• Flow efficiency will help us
identify wasteful delay
• Time blocked and blocker
clustering will help identify
wasteful delay from specific
assignable causes such as
vendor dependency
• Metrics like this help us focus
improvement initiatives to
improve the fitness criteria
results – e.g. removing delay
improves lead time
http://www.klausleopold.com/2013/09/blocker-clusters-problems-are-not.html

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Know why you are using a metric!
• Is your metric a fitness criteria that assesses
system capability and indicates fitness for
purpose and likelihood of surviving and thriving
by satisfying customers?
• Or, is your metric evaluating and guiding a
specific change to improve fitness of the
system?
• If neither, you don’t need it!
• Metrics guiding improvements should be
temporary & discarded when no longer needed
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Comparing
Kanban with Jeet Kune Do

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Jeet Kune Do is a framework for fighting
JKD contains a martial art
framework. It contains a core set
of principles based on an
underlying theory of fighting and
vulnerability of the human body:
concepts such as "center line"
from Wing Chun, for example.
Center line

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Kanban is a framework for service-delivery
management
• Kanban is a management method. It directly
addresses service delivery and evolutionary
change (management)
• It creates a mechanism for framing operational
decisions such as
• Risk (or Value) trumps Flow, Flow trumps Waste
Elimination
• Use of pull systems and the consequent concept of
deferred commitment (real option theory)

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Kanban may be analogous to JKD for Service
Delivery Management
• Kanban provides a management framework for
evolving uniquely tailored workflows for
improved service delivery
• Kanban embraces the idea of “using no way as
way” – evolving your own style of service
delivery
• Kanban embraces the idea of “no limitation as
limitation” by encouraging the use of models
from many domains to improve workflows and
service-delivery

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
More Evolutionary Management

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
The Kanban Method makes a business fitter for
purpose
• The Kanban Method enables a business to
improve its service delivery so that it is fitter for
purpose and more likely to survive & thrive
• The Kanban Method enables an adaptive
capability within the organization so that it can
adapt to changing demands and other risks in
the external environment

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Lean Startup is another evolutionary approach

Build-Measure-Learn
Cycle

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

• Lean Startup focuses on
validating assumptions about
the fitness for purpose of a
product or service offering
• It does this by “engaging the
enemy” directly using
techniques to create “safe-tofail” experiments
• For example, “Fake a
Feature”

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Lean Startup makes a product or service fitter for
purpose
• By use of techniques that validate assumptions
early and quickly, Lean Startup enables a
product or service offering to evolve quickly
• In doing so the product or service becomes fitter
for purpose and is more likely to survive and
thrive

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Like Kanban, Lean Startup is a Pragmatic
approach
• Lean Startup suggests that you don’t speculate
about the future behavior of people, rather you
set up experimental situations and observe what
they actually do
• In this respect, Lean Startup is like behavioral
economics applied to product or service design
• Like Lee’s philosophy in JKD, it engages the
opponent (uncertainty) directly

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Businesses need to do both – be adaptable and
adapt their products
• Adaptive capability enables a business to insure
it is doing things right and continuing to do them
well in the face of a changing external
environment
• Adaptive product or service design enables a
business to insure it is doing the right thing and
continuing to offer the right things to a fickle and
evolving market

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Together Kanban & Lean Startup bring the
philosophy of JKD to modern creative
knowledge work industries
• Don’t adopt a methodology or patterned style
• Engage the opponent (uncertainty & risk) directly
in a safe environment
• Learn from fast feedback
• Adapt a unique product, service or method of
service delivery that is fitter-for-purpose

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Conclusion

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
The future of creative knowledge work should be
inspired by Bruce Lee & JKD
Our opponents are uncertainty & risk.
Engage directly
Visualize & make them explicit throughout
the workflow & at all 3 levels of reporting
Teach beginners to set up safe-tofail, learning environments at the
individual, workflow & business unit levels
Evolutionary methods are required to help
us manage in complex environments
If humans are involved the environment is
Train with live opponents
complex
Fitness-for-purpose & sustainability come
No kata
from developing strong adaptive capability

No "dry land swimming“

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Thank you!
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
About

[Replace with personal bio]
David Anderson is a thought
leader in managing effective
software teams. He leads a
training, consulting, publishing
and event planning business
dedicated to
developing, promoting and
implementing sustainable
evolutionary…
He has 30 years experience in the high technology industry
starting with computer games in the early 1980’s. He has led
software teams delivering superior productivity and
quality using innovative agile methods at large companies
such as Sprint and Motorola.
David is the pioneer of the Kanban Method an agile and
evolutionary approach to change. His latest
book, published in June 2012, is, Lessons in Agile Management
– On the Road to Kanban.

David is a founder of the Lean Kanban Inc., a business
dedicated to assuring quality of training in Lean and Kanban
for knowledge workers throughout the world.

dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
Acknowledgements
Joe Campbell first blogged about the similarity in philosophy between the
Kanban Method and the teachings of Bruce Lee. He coined the phrase “Kanban
should be like water”.
The data on slides 45 & 46 was provided by Raymond Keating of CME Group.
This presentation was inspired by Alistair Cockburn’s blog post “The End of
Methodology”. My approach to change was influenced by an observation from
Peter Senge, “People do not resist change, they resist being changed!” “Safeto-fail Experiment” is a term used by Dave Snowden in his Cynefin framework.
Steve Denning proposed NPS as the only metric that matters in his
book, “Radical Management.”
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo

Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.

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Key note - Lean Kanban Central Europe 2013 - Kanban & Evolutionary Management

  • 1. Kanban and evolutionary management Presents Lessons we can learn from Bruce Lee’s journey in martial arts Presenter David J. Anderson Lean Kanban Central Europe Hamburg November 2013 Release 1.0 dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 2. Bruce Lee’s Journey in Martial Arts dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 3. Bruce Lee rejected traditional teaching and styles of Chinese martial arts • There are some parallels in the story of Bruce Lee and the emergence of his approach to Kung Fu • Lee rejected the idea of following a particular style of Chinese Martial Arts dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 4. Kung Fu Panda simplified the art to only four styles Mantis Snake Tiger Monkey dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 5. There are in fact very many styles… dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 6. “Dry land swimming” provides a false sense of capability • The only way to learn is to train with a live opponent • Lee rejected the many styles of martial arts for various reasons, mainly that they gave the practitioners a false sense of capability, putting them at risk in real combat situations • He was against Kata (learning patterns without an opponent) and described them in derogatory terms such as "dry land swimming.“ dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 7. Lee wanted to start from first principles and core concepts Four ranges of combat • • • • Kicking Punching Trapping Grappling Five* Ways of Attack*** • Single Direct Attack (SDA) • Attack By Combination (ABC) • Progressive Indirect Attack (PIA) • (Hand) Immobilization Attack (HIA) • Attack by Drawing (ABD) • Single Angle Attack (SAA) *Apparently still called the Five Ways, there are actually now six **with the later inclusion of SAA **The fact that The Five Ways has six elements is evidence of evolution in action ***Incorporated core ideas such as "center line" and single fluid motion from Wing Chun and parrying from Epee Fencing**** ****Not a Chinese Martial Art and hence evidence of "no limitation as limitation" dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 8. Lee’s approach still needed a name • He named his approach Jeet Kune Do - the way of the intercepting fist - after one of the practices taught in his method • He was quick to point out that it was just a name, a way of communicating a set of ideas. He was passionate that practitioners shouldn't get hung up on the name or the inclusion of any one move or action. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 9. Jeet Kune Do Having no limitation as limitation dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Using no way as way Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 10. Jeet Kune Do encourages development of a uniquely personal style "absorb that which is useful“ discard the remainder dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. • a framework from which to pick & develop a personal style • an evolutionary approach where adoption of maneuvers is learned & reinforced by training with an opponent • Nothing was sacred
  • 11. Training with an opponent provides the core feedback loop to drive adaptation Lee pursued ever more elaborate approaches to protected real combat training to enable the closed loop learning that was core to the evolutionary nature of JKD dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 12. Kata are not adaptive In comparison with JKD, patterned styles of martial arts taught with "kata" were open loop and not adaptive. There is no learning from practicing kata dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 13. Martial Arts viewed through a Cynefin* Lens Complex Jeet Kune Do Emergent Practices Complicated Patterned Styles Good Practices Chaotic Simple Novel Practices Individual Best Practice Kata *http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynefin dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 14. Lee’s genius was recognizing hand-to-hand combat is an unordered problem • Patterned styles are perfectly good for controlled circumstances such as competition • Sporting combat is an ordered domain problem • Street fighting is not orderly and therefore emergent practice is required • Unordered problem required a new philosophy dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 15. Motivation for the Kanban Method dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 16. Traditional Change is an A to B process Designed Current Process Defined transition Future Process • A is where you are now. B is a destination. • B is either defined (from a methodology definition) • or designed (by tailoring a framework or using a model based approach such as VSM* or TOC TP**) • To get from A to B, a change agency*** will guide a transition initiative to install B into the organization * Value stream mapping, ** Theory of Constraints Thinking Processes ***either an internal process group or external consultants dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 17. Change initiatives fail (even) more often than projects Change initiatives often fail (aborted) or produce lack luster results They fail to institutionalize resulting in regression back to old behavior dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 18. Daniel Kahneman has given us a simple model for how we process information Learning from theory Learning by Experience SLOW FAST But fast to learn But slow to learn System 1 Sensory Perception Pattern Matching dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Daniel Kahneman Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. System 2 Logical Inference Engine
  • 19. How we process change… I logically evaluate change using System 2 I adapt quickly I feel change emotionally using System 1 Silicon-based life form I adapt slowly Daniel Kahneman dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Carbon-based life form
  • 20. Adopting new processes challenges people psychologically & sociologically • New roles attack identity • New responsibilities using new techniques & practices threaten self-esteem & social status • Most people resist most change because individually they have more to lose than gain • It is safer to be conservative and stick to current practices and avoid shaking up the current social hierarchy • Only the brave, the reckless or the desperate will pursue grand changes dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 21. The Kanban Method… • Rejects the traditional approach to change • Believes, it is better to avoid resistance than to push harder against it • Don’t install new processes • Don’t reorganize • Is designed for carbon-based life forms • Evolutionary change that is humane dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 22. The Kanban Method… • Catalyzes improvement through use of kanban systems and visual boards* • Takes its name from the use of kanban but it is just a name • Anyone who thinks Kanban is just about kanban (boards & systems) is truly mistaken *also known as "kanban" in Chinese and in Japanese when written with Chinese characters dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 23. The Kanban Method is a new approach to improvement Kanban is a method without methodology dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 24. Water flows around the rock “be like water” the rock represents resistance dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 25. The Kanban Method dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 26. Kanban should be like water* In change management, resistance is from the people involved and it is always emotional (system 1) To flow around the rock, we must learn how to avoid emotional resistance * http://joecampbell.wordpress.com/2009/05/13/be-like-water/ dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 27. Principles behind the Kanban Method • Start with what you do now • Agree to pursue evolutionary change • Initially, respect roles, responsibilities and job titles • Encourage acts of leadership at all levels The first 3 principles were specifically chosen to address System 1 objections, to flow around the rock of emotional resistance in humans dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 28. The Kanban Lens Kanban asks us to view the world of work through a new lens • Creative work is service-oriented • Service delivery involves workflow • Workflow involves a series of knowledge discovery activities Kanban would be less applicable if a serviceorientated view of work were difficult to conceive or the work was sufficiently new that a definable series of knowledge discovery activities had not emerged dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 29. 6 Practices Enable Process Evolution The Kanban Method Visualize Limit Work-in-progress Manage Flow Make Policies Explicit Implement Feedback Loops Improve Collaboratively, Evolve Experimentally (using models & the scientific method) dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 30. Start with what you do now • The Kanban Method evolved with the principle that it “should be like water” - enable change while avoiding sources of resistance • With Kanban you start with what you do now, and "kanbanize" it, catalyzing the evolutionary process into action. Changes to processes in use will occur • Evaluating whether a change is truly an improvement is done using fitness criteria that evaluate an external outcome dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 32. Fitness criteria are metrics that measure observable external outcomes • Fitness criteria are metrics that measure things customers or other external stakeholders value • • • • Delivery time Quality Predictability Safety (conformance to regulatory requirements) • or metrics that value actual outcomes such as • customer satisfaction • employee satisfaction dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 33. Net Promoter Score is a Fitness Evaluator but is it the only metric we need? • Steve Denning has proposed that Net Promoter Score (NPS) is the only metric that business should care about • NPS is interesting because it is a fitness evaluator. It will indicate whether a business (or product) is likely to survive & thrive • But is it the only metric we need? dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Steve Denning
  • 34. Net Promoter Score is a way of evaluating customer satisfaction • In a general sense and at an abstract level NPS tells us whether customers like what we offer but we cannot know what they truly care about • For the abstract problem of, “Can we measure customer satisfaction?” NPV is a reasonably good measure, if used properly dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 35. The problem with Net Promoter Score is that it doesn’t tell you what to do! • Net Promoter Score (if used properly) will tell you whether your product or service is likely to continue selling • However, it doesn’t give you any clues about what to do or how to improve • If NPS is your only metric you’re left to randomly experiment to generate a higher score • Like biological evolution, random mutation is expensive, takes a long time & involves luck dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 36. Can we be smarter by using better fitness criteria than NPS? • If we have a service-oriented view of the world, and want to evaluate service delivery then we already know what customers care about • • • • Lead time Quality Predictability Safety (or conformance to regulatory reqs) dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 37. If we order a pizza we know what we care about… • Fast delivery • lead time from order to delivery • Accuracy and quality • Pepperoni not Hawaiian • Still warm on delivery • Predictable Delivery • If they say “ready in 30 minutes”, we want delivery in 25-35 minutes dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 38. If we need a medical procedure… • Short waiting time • Queuing time from diagnosis to procedure • Short procedure & recovery time • Fast procedure, fast recovery time, implies minimally invasive surgery and use of technology to reduce the craft input and eliminate variability • Predictability of schedule & outcome • Procedure should proceed as scheduled • Outcome should have high probability of success • Safe • Low risk of complications • Regulatory health & safety procedures followed dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 39. Validate Fitness Criteria with real customers • It is necessary to keep checking that the fitness criteria we are measuring do indeed matter to customers • Variation in what matters to different customers provides the opportunity to segment demand and offer different classes of service within your kanban system • e.g. Will you pay extra to have your pizza delivered faster? dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 40. Which system is fitter? System B System A Mean 17 days Mean 12 days 30 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 25 20 15 Frequency 10 Frequency 5 0 5 Lead Time (Days) 10 15 20 25 30 More Lead Time in Days We don’t know! System B is faster but without understanding customer expectations, both may be fit enough dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 41. Measuring delivery against expectation System B System A Mean 17 days 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 System B is clearly fitter! Mean 12 days 30 25 20 15 Frequency 10 Frequency 5 System B delivers 5/7 within expectations System A only delivers 3/7 within expectations 0 5 10 15 Lead Time (Days) 20 10 8 6 4 Frequency 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Frequency -15 Lead Time Expectation Spread (Days) dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo More System B 12 0 30 Lead Time in Days System A 2 25 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 More Lead Time Expectation Spread (Days) Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 42. Business Risks, Fitness Criteria & Classes of Service should all align • If your kanban system is designed properly the classes of service you are offering should align with the true business risks in the domain • And the metrics being used to evaluate system capability, should be fitness criteria that are derived from the business risk being managed • For example, cost of delay requires us to measure lead time dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 43. Evolutionary change has no defined end point Initial Process Evaluate Fitness Roll back Evaluate Fitness We don’t know the end-point but we do know our emergent process is fitter! Evaluate Fitness Roll forward Evolving Process Evaluate Fitness Evalua Fitnes Future process is emergent dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 44. Multiple Lens Kanban viewed through a Cynefin*work types Multiple classes of service Kanban systems alone aren’t enough in the unordered domain Complex Kanban Method Emergent Practices Complicated Deep Kanban Good Practices System Single work type Single class of service Chaotic Novel Practices *http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynefin dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Simple Simple Kanban Best Practice System Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 45. Enabling Evolutionary Management dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 46. Institutionalize feedback systems to enable evolutionary change Operations Review System Capability Review Standup Meeting manager to subordinate(s) (both 1-1 and 1-team) dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 47. Disintermediate! Risks, fitness criteria & classes of service should be explicit & transparent Operations Review Lead time Quality Predictability Expose risk, classes of service & fitness criteria at all 3 levels of Lead time Quality feedback System Capability Review manager to subordinate(s) (both 1-1 and 1-team) dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Predictability Standup Meeting Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Lead time Quality Predictability
  • 48. Is there room for improvement? Ready For Delivery Delivered Pool of Ideas Testing FlowCommitted measures the efficiency Development 3 ∞ percentage of total lead time 2 3 ∞ Ongoing Done is spent actually adding value Verification Acceptance (or knowledge) versus waiting efficiency% = Work Time Flow commonly reported*, ** Multitasking means time spent E in working columns is often waiting time G PB GY DE Waiting Working MN AB Waiting Working Lead Time * Hakan Forss, Lean Kanban France, Oct 2013 ** 2% reported by Zsolt Fabok, Lean Kanban France, Oct 2012 dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo x 100% Lead Time F Flow efficiencies of 1-5% are P1 D I ∞ Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Waiting Waiting
  • 49. Other metrics should only be used as input to models to drive improvement • Flow efficiency will help us identify wasteful delay • Time blocked and blocker clustering will help identify wasteful delay from specific assignable causes such as vendor dependency • Metrics like this help us focus improvement initiatives to improve the fitness criteria results – e.g. removing delay improves lead time http://www.klausleopold.com/2013/09/blocker-clusters-problems-are-not.html dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 50. Know why you are using a metric! • Is your metric a fitness criteria that assesses system capability and indicates fitness for purpose and likelihood of surviving and thriving by satisfying customers? • Or, is your metric evaluating and guiding a specific change to improve fitness of the system? • If neither, you don’t need it! • Metrics guiding improvements should be temporary & discarded when no longer needed dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 51. Comparing Kanban with Jeet Kune Do dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 52. Jeet Kune Do is a framework for fighting JKD contains a martial art framework. It contains a core set of principles based on an underlying theory of fighting and vulnerability of the human body: concepts such as "center line" from Wing Chun, for example. Center line dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 53. Kanban is a framework for service-delivery management • Kanban is a management method. It directly addresses service delivery and evolutionary change (management) • It creates a mechanism for framing operational decisions such as • Risk (or Value) trumps Flow, Flow trumps Waste Elimination • Use of pull systems and the consequent concept of deferred commitment (real option theory) dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 54. Kanban may be analogous to JKD for Service Delivery Management • Kanban provides a management framework for evolving uniquely tailored workflows for improved service delivery • Kanban embraces the idea of “using no way as way” – evolving your own style of service delivery • Kanban embraces the idea of “no limitation as limitation” by encouraging the use of models from many domains to improve workflows and service-delivery dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 55. More Evolutionary Management dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 56. The Kanban Method makes a business fitter for purpose • The Kanban Method enables a business to improve its service delivery so that it is fitter for purpose and more likely to survive & thrive • The Kanban Method enables an adaptive capability within the organization so that it can adapt to changing demands and other risks in the external environment dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 57. Lean Startup is another evolutionary approach Build-Measure-Learn Cycle dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo • Lean Startup focuses on validating assumptions about the fitness for purpose of a product or service offering • It does this by “engaging the enemy” directly using techniques to create “safe-tofail” experiments • For example, “Fake a Feature” Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 58. Lean Startup makes a product or service fitter for purpose • By use of techniques that validate assumptions early and quickly, Lean Startup enables a product or service offering to evolve quickly • In doing so the product or service becomes fitter for purpose and is more likely to survive and thrive dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 59. Like Kanban, Lean Startup is a Pragmatic approach • Lean Startup suggests that you don’t speculate about the future behavior of people, rather you set up experimental situations and observe what they actually do • In this respect, Lean Startup is like behavioral economics applied to product or service design • Like Lee’s philosophy in JKD, it engages the opponent (uncertainty) directly dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 60. Businesses need to do both – be adaptable and adapt their products • Adaptive capability enables a business to insure it is doing things right and continuing to do them well in the face of a changing external environment • Adaptive product or service design enables a business to insure it is doing the right thing and continuing to offer the right things to a fickle and evolving market dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 61. Together Kanban & Lean Startup bring the philosophy of JKD to modern creative knowledge work industries • Don’t adopt a methodology or patterned style • Engage the opponent (uncertainty & risk) directly in a safe environment • Learn from fast feedback • Adapt a unique product, service or method of service delivery that is fitter-for-purpose dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 63. The future of creative knowledge work should be inspired by Bruce Lee & JKD Our opponents are uncertainty & risk. Engage directly Visualize & make them explicit throughout the workflow & at all 3 levels of reporting Teach beginners to set up safe-tofail, learning environments at the individual, workflow & business unit levels Evolutionary methods are required to help us manage in complex environments If humans are involved the environment is Train with live opponents complex Fitness-for-purpose & sustainability come No kata from developing strong adaptive capability No "dry land swimming“ dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 65. About [Replace with personal bio] David Anderson is a thought leader in managing effective software teams. He leads a training, consulting, publishing and event planning business dedicated to developing, promoting and implementing sustainable evolutionary… He has 30 years experience in the high technology industry starting with computer games in the early 1980’s. He has led software teams delivering superior productivity and quality using innovative agile methods at large companies such as Sprint and Motorola. David is the pioneer of the Kanban Method an agile and evolutionary approach to change. His latest book, published in June 2012, is, Lessons in Agile Management – On the Road to Kanban. David is a founder of the Lean Kanban Inc., a business dedicated to assuring quality of training in Lean and Kanban for knowledge workers throughout the world. dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  • 66. Acknowledgements Joe Campbell first blogged about the similarity in philosophy between the Kanban Method and the teachings of Bruce Lee. He coined the phrase “Kanban should be like water”. The data on slides 45 & 46 was provided by Raymond Keating of CME Group. This presentation was inspired by Alistair Cockburn’s blog post “The End of Methodology”. My approach to change was influenced by an observation from Peter Senge, “People do not resist change, they resist being changed!” “Safeto-fail Experiment” is a term used by Dave Snowden in his Cynefin framework. Steve Denning proposed NPS as the only metric that matters in his book, “Radical Management.” dja@leankanban.com @lkuceo Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.

Editor's Notes

  1. There are some parallels in the story of Bruce Lee and the emergence of his approach to Kung Fu.Lee rejected the idea of following a particular style of Chinese Martial Arts.
  2. Lee rejected these for various reasons, mainly that they gave the practitioners a false sense of ability and put them at risk in real combat situations. He was against Kata (learning patterns without an opponent) and described them in derogatory terms such as "dry land swimming."
  3. Instead he sought to break the art down into a set of basic principles:The four ranges of combatKickingPunchingTrappinggrapplingand the Five* Ways of Attack***Single Direct Attack (SDA)Attack By Combination (ABC)Progressive Indirect Attack (PIA)(Hand) Immobilization Attack (HIA)Attack by Drawing (ABD)Single Angle Attack (SAA)*Apparently still called the Five Ways, there are actually now six **with the later inclusion of SAA**The fact that The Five Ways has six elements is evidence of evolution in action***Incorporated core ideas such as "center line" and single fluid motion from Wing Chun and parrying from Epee Fencing********Not a Chinese Martial Art and hence evidence of "no limitation as limitation"
  4. He named his approach JeetKune Do - the way of the intercepting fist - after one of the principles taught in his method. He was quick to point out that it was just a name, a way of communicating a set of ideas. He was passionate that practitioners shouldn't get hung up on the name or the inclusion of any one move or action.
  5. The JeetKune Do emblem incorporates the words..."having no way as way." There would be no specific style or school to his approach. It is not fixed or patterned but guided by a set of principles. An individual would adapt their own style that worked best for them by learning the principles and practicing different types of kicking, punching, trapping and grappling."having no limitation as limitation." In other words, Lee would be prepared to pull ideas from any source if it made the (martial) art better and made the individual a better practitioner. His concern was the logical improvement of the method rather than loyalty to any one tradition or tribe. He was happy to borrow ideas from Western traditions as much as Eastern.
  6. While JeetKune Do is often described as a framework from which an individual can pick and choose to develop their own style, it is also an evolutionary approach. Lee referred to "absorb what is useful" and discard the remainder. And this was at the personal level for an individual developing their own style. If they chose to discard "intercepting fist" this would be acceptable. They were following the philosophy faithfully and the inclusion of any one maneuver or set of maneuvers was not critical.
  7. In JeetKune Do training is always with an opponent. This provides the core feedback loop and learning opportunity that allows a practitioner to select that which "is useful" and discard that which is not.Lee pursued ever more elaborate approaches to protected real combat training to enable the closed loop learning that was core to the evolutionary nature of JKD. In comparison patterned styles of martial arts taught with "kata" were open loop and not adaptive.
  8. He named his approach JeetKune Do - the way of the intercepting fist - after one of the principles taught in his method. He was quick to point out that it was just a name, a way of communicating a set of ideas. He was passionate that practitioners shouldn't get hung up on the name or the inclusion of any one move or action.
  9. Traditional change is an A to B process. A is where you are now. B is a destination. B is either defined (from a methodology definition) or designed (by tailoring a framework).To get from A to B, a change agency* will guide a transition initiative to install destination B into the organization.*either an internal SEPG or external consultants
  10. However, change initiatives fail more often than projects fail!Change initiatives often fail (aborted) or produce lack luster results, and fail to institutionalize resulting in regression back to old behavior (and maturity levels).
  11. The reason is people resist change. The traditional change model would work perfectly well with silicon-based life forms because the benefits could be argued and agreed with logical. But carbon-based life forms resist change because they don't process it logically but with their sensory perception, their emotional intelligence, the older brain function Daniel Kahneman calls "system 1".
  12. The reason is people resist change. The traditional change model would work perfectly well with silicon-based life forms because the benefits could be argued and agreed with logical. But carbon-based life forms resist change because they don't process it logically but with their sensory perception, their emotional intelligence, the older brain function Daniel Kahneman calls "system 1".
  13. New roles (defined in the methodology) attack their identityNew responsibilities using new techniques & practices attack their self-esteem and put their social status at riskStatistically, most people resist most change because individually they have more to lose than to gain. Probabilistically, it is safer to be conservative and stick to current practices and avoid shaking up the current social hierarchy. Only the brave or the reckless will pursue grand changes.
  14. The Kanban Method rejects the traditional change management method and rejects the installation of a new style of working - a new methodology. It does this because it is better to avoid resistance than to push harder against it.The Kanban Method introduces an evolutionary approach to change that is humane. It is designed to work with carbon-based life forms processing change with system 1. The Kanban Method catalyzes improvement through the use of kanban systems and visual boards (also known as "kanban" in Chinese and in Japanese when written with Chinese characters). It is from the use of kanban that the method takes its name, but it is just a name. Anyone who thinks Kanban is just about kanban (boards & systems) is truly mistaken. The Kanban Method is an example of a new approach to improvement. It is a method without methodology.
  15. The Kanban Method rejects the traditional change management method and rejects the installation of a new style of working - a new methodology. It does this because it is better to avoid resistance than to push harder against it.The Kanban Method introduces an evolutionary approach to change that is humane. It is designed to work with carbon-based life forms processing change with system 1. The Kanban Method catalyzes improvement through the use of kanban systems and visual boards (also known as "kanban" in Chinese and in Japanese when written with Chinese characters). It is from the use of kanban that the method takes its name, but it is just a name. Anyone who thinks Kanban is just about kanban (boards & systems) is truly mistaken. The Kanban Method is an example of a new approach to improvement. It is a method without methodology.
  16. Bruce Lee was a philosopher. He majored in philosophy at the University of Washington, Seattle. His own personal philosophy was heavily influenced by Taoism and Buddhism. He brought this philosophy to his interpretation of Kung Fu and the heart of JeetKune Do.One of his key teachings was "to be like water". Water flows around the rock. The rock represents resistance - in fighting, the resistance is from the opponent.
  17. In change management, resistance is from the people involved and it is always emotional.To flow around the rock, we must learn how to avoid emotional resistance.
  18. Kanban, like JKD, _is_ based on simple principles. As already described, these are: service-orientation service delivery involves workflowand work flows through a series of information discovery activitiesThese principles give us a lens through which to view knowledge work activities and some clues as to the applicability of Kanban. Kanban would be less applicable if a service-orientated view of work were difficult to conceive or the work was without a definable workflow.
  19. The Kanban Method evolved with this principle in mind. That we must discover a way that enabled change while avoiding invoking sources of resistance - even better if we could motivate the people involved to advocate for the changes required. With Kanban you start with what you do now, and "kanbanize" it, catalyzing the evolutionary process into action. Changes to processes in use will occur and evaluating whether a change is truly an improvement can be done using fitness criteria that evaluate the external outcome.
  20. Fitness criteria are metrics that measure things customer or other external stakeholders value such as delivery time, quality, predictability, conformance to regulatory requirements or metrics that value actual outcomes such as customer satisfaction or employee satisfaction
  21. If we order a pizza we want it quickly. We want it to be accurate – if we order a pepperoni, we don’t want a hawaiian. And we want predictability of delivery. If they say they’ll be there in 30 minutes, we expect delivery in 25-35 minutes. And we want the pizza to be still warm.
  22. Traditional change is an A to B process. A is where you are now. B is a destination. B is either defined (from a methodology definition) or designed (by tailoring a framework).To get from A to B, a change agency* will guide a transition initiative to install destination B into the organization.*either an internal SEPG or external consultants
  23. Kanban closes the learning loop using 3 feedback mechanisms:the standup meeting in front of the kanban boardthe manager to subordinate meetings (both 1-1 and 1-team)the operations review meetingIronically, these have come to known as the Kanban Kata. Ironic because Lee was opposed to Kata as they normally represent an open loop system without learning.
  24. Kanban closes the learning loop using 3 feedback mechanisms:the standup meeting in front of the kanban boardthe manager to subordinate meetings (both 1-1 and 1-team)the operations review meetingIronically, these have come to known as the Kanban Kata. Ironic because Lee was opposed to Kata as they normally represent an open loop system without learning.
  25. There are some differences between JKD and Kanban. It is dangerous to draw too close an analogy.JKD contains a martial art framework. It contains a core set of principles based on an underlying theory of fighting and vulnerability of the human body: concepts such as "center line" from Wing Chun, for example.Kanban is really a management method. It directly addresses change management. It also creates a mechanism for framing operational decisions through its core concepts such as use of pull systems and the consequent concept of deferred commitment.Kanban does not contain a framework of concepts for doing any specific types of work. There are no techniques for developing software or performing any other type of creative knowledge work.
  26. There are some differences between JKD and Kanban. It is dangerous to draw too close an analogy.JKD contains a martial art framework. It contains a core set of principles based on an underlying theory of fighting and vulnerability of the human body: concepts such as "center line" from Wing Chun, for example.Kanban is really a management method. It directly addresses change management. It also creates a mechanism for framing operational decisions through its core concepts such as use of pull systems and the consequent concept of deferred commitment.Kanban does not contain a framework of concepts for doing any specific types of work. There are no techniques for developing software or performing any other type of creative knowledge work.
  27. For specific domains, Kanban cannot guide you or tell you what to do, there must be knowledge of that domain, such as software engineering, and within those domains, different schools of thought will still exist. Kanban is, therefore, not an equivalent of JKD for software engineering.Kanban is not a framework for evolving a personal style of software engineering, in the way that JKD is a framework for evolving a personal style of combat.Kanban is a complete method for installing evolutionary capability in an organization. It is domain agnostic.
  28. Our opponents are uncertainty & risk. Engage directly. Validate speculation quicklyTeach beginners to set up safe-to-fail, learning environments at the individual, team and project levelEvolutionary methods are required to help us manage in complex environmentsFitness-for-purpose & sustainability come from developing strong adaptive capability