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Kanban & Organizational Maturity

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This Limited WIP Society Munich talk look at emerging patterns of kanban boards and kanban systems at differing levels of organizational maturity. It presents a new simplified model for understanding maturity and how it relates to fragile, resilient, robust & antifragile organizations, and presents suggestions on how to catalyze evolutionary change using different mechanisms as maturity improves. For Kanban Coaches and Change Leaders.

Published in: Leadership & Management

Kanban & Organizational Maturity

  1. 1. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Kanban & Organizational Maturity Patterns of board & system design and catalyzing evolutionary improvement Presenter: David J. Anderson Limited WIP Society Munich March 2016 Release 1.0
  2. 2. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Five Forms of Proto-Kanban Proto-kanban is a pre-cursor where a visual board exists but a pull system and a service delivery workflow are still emerging. Five forms have been observed: Aggregated Personal Kanban (in the office) Single board with rows for each personal kanban of each team member Team Kanban Essentially a personal kanban board for a small group of people (usually 3 to 4) who collaborate together on the same tasks Per person WIP limit Visualizes some workflow but is not a pull system Often implemented with avatars Common with Scrumban hybrids Aggregated Team Kanban Chained To-Do, Doing, Done boards Again, displays workflow but still isn’t an end-to-end pull system Decoupled Cadences Batches without timeboxed commitments Common with Scrumban hybrids & combined with Per Person WIP Limit
  3. 3. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Personal Kanban Backlog F E G D Next Done 3 In-progress 3∞ ∞
  4. 4. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Aggregated Personal Kanban Backlog F E Team Member G D Next Done 3 In-progress 3 Joe Peter Steven Joann per person∞ ∞per person At this level, we are still focused on organizing & managing people rather than enabling people to self-organize around the work & managing its flow
  5. 5. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Team Kanban Backlog F E G D Next Done 3 In-progress 3∞ ∞ GY PB DE Avatar for each team memberStill at a single team level but maturing to focus on managing work and less on managing workers
  6. 6. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Poorly Understood or Emergent Workflow F E G D Next Done 3 In-progress 6 ∞ GY PB DE Wide in-progress column with tickets positioned left-to-right with estimate of completeness Horizontal position shows percentage complete
  7. 7. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. O P R N M L J Per Person WIP Limit Done F E I Pending G D GY PB DE MN AB Dev/Build/ Test/Deploy Dev Ready GY GY PB PB MN MN DE DE AB AB K Bench Specify ∞∞ ∞ Unbounded Queue Delayed WIP At this level, we are focused on managing work and enabling people to self-organize around it but we aren’t limiting WIP in the system as a whole. Hence, service delivery will not be predictable Moving beyond a single team to a service delivery workflow
  8. 8. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Decoupled Cadences & Constant WIP Backlog F E G D Committed Ready For Delivery In-progress 6 ∞ ∞ GY PB DE Delivered ∞ Replenishment The frequency of system replenishment should reflect arrival rate of new information and the transaction & coordination costs of holding a meeting The frequency of delivery should reflect the transaction & coordination costs of deployment plus costs & tolerance of customer to take delivery WIP limit should be sufficient to keep the team busy until the next replenishment meeting Delivery CONWIP
  9. 9. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Aggregated Team Kanban Done Pool of Ideas F E I Next Deploy- ment Ready G D GY PB DE MN 5 ∞ P1 AB Ongoing Development Testing Done Ongoing Done 3 3 Team 1 Kanban ∞ ∞ Team 2 Kanban
  10. 10. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Aggregated Team Kanban Done Pool of Ideas F E I Next Deploy- ment Ready G D GY PB DE MN 5 ∞ P1 AB Ongoing Development Testing Done Ongoing Done 3 3∞ ∞ Also known as “infinite done queues”
  11. 11. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Aggregated Team Kanban Done Pool of Ideas F E I Next Deploy- ment Ready G D GY PB DE MN 5 ∞ P1 AB Ongoing Development Testing Done Ongoing Done 3 3 Infinite limits on Done columns means that there really isn’t a kanban pull system present. This style of proto-kanban controls multi-tasking but doesn’t limit workflow WIP ∞ ∞
  12. 12. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Benefits of proto-Kanban implementations Benefits Transparency Relief from overburdening Reduced multitasking Improved quality People engaged emotionally More collaboration Greater empathy
  13. 13. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Discussion – Proto-Kanban Reflect on your current Kanban implementation. Are you still at the proto-kanban level? Why do you think that is? Proto-Kanban represents by far the biggest share of adoption in the market, perhaps 80%+. Why do you think that is? In what way is the Aggregated Personal Kanban misaligned with Kanban principles? Why do you think full kanban pull systems are so challenging to adopt?
  14. 14. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Q P O M L K J I Kanban can be represented with slots Ideas D Engin- eering Ready G Ongoing Development Testing Done Test Ready F B CPull Pull * UAT Deploy- ment Ready An empty slot signals pull Pull Pull Pull I Physical slot is a kanban The tickets on the board are not the kanban. Believing the tickets are the kanban is a common misconception This board and the next two all look different but they all visualize the same identical kanban system
  15. 15. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. F F O M N K J I Using movable tokens as kanban is more flexible Ideas D I Dev Ready G Development Testing Test Ready F B C UAT Release Ready In-progress Legend Done Blocked - issue Blocked - defect Colors are used to denote state Physical token such as a magnet is a kanban Moving done items down below a line is an optional enhancement seen in some implementations
  16. 16. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. F F O M N K J I Using movable tokens as kanban is more flexible Ideas D I Dev Ready G Development Testing Test Ready F B C UAT Release Ready In-progress Legend Done Blocked - issue Blocked - defect Override on kanban limit introduces additional “blocked – issue” kanban People working on blocked item “A” have been redirected to work on item “I”
  17. 17. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. F F O M N K J I Using movable tokens as kanban is more flexible Ideas D I Dev Ready G Development Testing Test Ready F B C UAT Release Ready In-progress Legend Done Blocked - issue Blocked - defect Using physical slots in the previous example has been shown to create inertia to modification & improvement Using movable tokens allows for WIP limits to be easily modified and provides a natural signal token mechanism
  18. 18. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. F F FF F F J I Declaring a kanban quantity is even simpler Ideas D I Engin- eering Ready G 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 3 Test Ready 5 F B CPull PullThese are the virtual kanban * These are the virtual kanbanThese are the (virtual) kanban These WIP limits serve the same function as the magnets or slots This board has even less maintenance overhead than the magnet board UAT Deploy- ment Ready ∞ ∞ A “virtual kanban” pull signal is created by subtracting the column number from tickets currently in the column
  19. 19. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Single Service, Multiple Classes of Service Allocate capacity with kanban limit per color 5 4 4 5 2= 20 total Allocation 10 = 50% ... +1 = +5% 4 = 20% 6 = 30% Input Queue In Prog DoneDoneIn Prog DevelopmentAnalysis Build Ready Test Release Ready
  20. 20. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. 3 Services Aggregated Together 5 4 4 5 2 = 20 total Change Req 12 Maintenance 2 Production Defect 6 Allocation Total = 20 Input Queue In Prog Done Build Ready Test Release ReadyDoneIn Prog DevelopmentAnalysis Released
  21. 21. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Change Requests 3 1 Prod. Defects Maintenance Usability Improvement 2 1 Improving Liquidity through Labor Pool Flexibility Teams F E Engin- eering Ready G D GY PB DE MN 2 P1 AB Ongoing Analysis Testing Done Verification Acceptance 3 3 Ongoing Development Done 3 Joe Peter Steven Joann David Rhonda Brian Ashok Team Lead Junior who will be rotated through all 4 teams Generalist or T-shaped people who can move flexibly across rows on the board to keep work flowing It’s typical to see splits of fixed team workers versus flexible system workers of between 40-60% Roughly half the labor pool are flexible workers Promotions from junior team member to flexible worker with an avatar clearly visualize why a pay rise is justified. Flexible workers help manage liquidity risk better!
  22. 22. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Change Requests 3 1 Prod. Defects Maintenance Usability Improvement 2 1 Improving Liquidity through Labor Pool Flexibility Teams F E Engin- eering Ready G D GY PB DE MN 2 P1 AB Ongoing Analysis Testing Done Verification Acceptance 3 3 Ongoing Development Done 3 Joe Peter Steven Joann David Rhonda Brian Ashok
  23. 23. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  24. 24. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Personal Kanban Aggregated Personal Kanban Team Kanban Emergent/Undefined Workflow Per Person WIP Limit CONWIP Physical space kanban Physical token kanban Virtual Kanban Classes of service Capacity allocation Liquidity optimization Aggregated teams Patterns of Kanban Board Designs
  25. 25. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Risk Hedging Risk Management Benefits of improving maturity
  26. 26. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Learning&improvement Formula for evolutionary change …  Stressor  Reflection Mechanism  Leadership Stressor ReflectionMechanism Kanban Meeting Risk Review & SDR Ops Review Strategy Review Personal WIP Limit Column WIP Limit Row WIP Limit Strategy vs Capability Visualization Replenishment & Delivery Planning Personal Reflection
  27. 27. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.
  28. 28. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. About David Anderson is an innovator in management thinking for 21st Century businesses. He leads a training, consulting, events and publishing business making new ideas accessible to managers across the globe. He has 30 years experience in the high technology industry starting with computer games in the early 1980’s. He has led software teams delivering superior productivity and quality using innovative agile methods at large companies such as Sprint and Motorola. David is the pioneer of the Kanban Method an agile and evolutionary approach to change. His latest book, published in June 2012, is, Lessons in Agile Management – On the Road to Kanban. David is Chairman of Lean Kanban Inc., a global management training, events & publishing business dedicated to offering high quality, innovative, modern management training for the creative knowledge worker industries of the 21st Century.
  29. 29. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Appendices
  30. 30. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Books
  31. 31. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. 2010 – Kanban “blue book”
  32. 32. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. 2012 Lessons in Agile Management The heavily under-rated book that underpins the Kanban Coaching Masterclass and most of the theory behind the Kanban Method
  33. 33. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. 2014 Kanban from the Inside
  34. 34. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Discovery Kanban
  35. 35. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Discovery Kanban Prepares Options Ready for Engin- eering F I Comm- itted D 4 Ongoing Development Done 3 J K 12 Testing Verification 3 L Commitment point 4 - Requi- rements Analysis 2412 - Risk Analysis 4824 - Pool of Ideas ∞ Min & Max limits ensure sufficient options are always available Committed WorkOptions Discarded O Reject P Q $$$ spent acquiring options $$$ spent converting options Embedded Options Done Delivery KanbanDiscovery Kanban
  36. 36. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Roles
  37. 37. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Kanban Roles Are Emerging Ready for Engin- eering F I Comm- itted D 4 Ongoing Development Done 3 J K 12 Testing Verification 3 L Commitment point 4 - Requi- rements Analysis 2412 - Risk Analysis 4824 - Pool of Ideas ∞ Service Delivery ManagerService Request Manager Discarded O Reject P Q Marshals Options Manages Flow Done
  38. 38. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Official Licensed Material Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.

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