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Kanban - follow your own path to agility

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Kanban is a 2nd generation approach to Agile which enables practitioners to evolve their own unique processes. This was my key note address to the Scrum Gathering China, Hangzhou 2016

Published in: Leadership & Management
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Kanban - follow your own path to agility

  1. 1. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Kanban follow your own path to agility Evolve your own unique process! What is Kanban? How do you implement it? What are the benefits? Scrum Gathering China Hangzhou, October 2016
  2. 2. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Bruce Lee’s Journey in Martial Arts
  3. 3. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Bruce Lee rejected traditional teaching and styles of Chinese martial arts There are some parallels in the story of Bruce Lee and the emergence of his approach to Kung Fu Lee rejected the idea of following a particular style of Chinese Martial Arts
  4. 4. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Snake Monkey Mantis Tiger Kung Fu Panda simplified the art to only four styles
  5. 5. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. There are in fact very many styles…
  6. 6. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. “Dry land swimming” provides a false sense of capability The only way to learn is to train with a live opponent Lee rejected the many styles of martial arts for various reasons, mainly that they gave the practitioners a false sense of capability, putting them at risk in real combat situations He was against Kata (learning patterns without an opponent) and described them in derogatory terms such as "dry land swimming.“
  7. 7. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Kanban rejects the idea of defined Agile “methodologies”!
  8. 8. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Lee wanted to start from first principles and core concepts Four ranges of combat • Kicking • Punching • Trapping • Grappling *Apparently still called the Five Ways, there are actually now six **with the later inclusion of SAA **The fact that The Five Ways has six elements is evidence of evolution in action ***Incorporated core ideas such as "center line" and single fluid motion from Wing Chun and parrying from Epee Fencing**** ****Not a Chinese Martial Art and hence evidence of "no limitation as limitation" Five* Ways of Attack*** • Single Direct Attack (SDA) • Attack By Combination (ABC) • Progressive Indirect Attack (PIA) • (Hand) Immobilization Attack (HIA) • Attack by Drawing (ABD) • Single Angle Attack (SAA)
  9. 9. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Lee’s approach still needed a name He named his approach Jeet Kune Do - the way of the intercepting fist - after one of the practices taught in his method He was quick to point out that it was just a name, a way of communicating a set of ideas. He was passionate that practitioners shouldn't get hung up on the name or the inclusion of any one move or action.
  10. 10. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Kanban is just a name! The Kanban Method is named for use of kanban systems - a single practice within a wider philosophy
  11. 11. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Jeet Kune Do Using no way as way Having no limitation as limitation
  12. 12. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Jeet Kune Do encourages development of a uniquely personal style a framework from which to pick & develop a personal style an evolutionary approach where adoption of maneuvers is learned & reinforced by training with an opponent Nothing was sacred "absorb that which is useful“ discard the remainder
  13. 13. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Training with an opponent provides the core feedback loop to drive adaptation Lee pursued ever more elaborate approaches to protected real combat training to enable the closed loop learning that was core to the evolutionary nature of JKD
  14. 14. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Kata are not adaptive In comparison with JKD, patterned styles of martial arts taught with "kata" were open loop and not adaptive. There is no adaptation of style from practicing kata. Instead you must follow the style precisely.
  15. 15. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Kanban – follow your own path to agility! Kanban is the Agile method with a “methodology”! There is no defined Kanban Process!
  16. 16. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. What is a kanban system? (かんばん)
  17. 17. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. A Kanban Systems consists of “kanban” (かんばん) signal cards in circulation
  18. 18. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Kanban has two meanings Kanban has two meanings in Japanese. Both meanings are incorporated into the Kanban Method Kanban written in Kanji (Chinese characters) 看板 means “visual (or sign) board” Kanban written in Japanese alphabet, hiragana (at Toyota), かんばん means signal card(s) In Chinese, only the 看板 version exists. It is usually interpreted as a verb “looking at the board” Visualization of invisible work is useful but it is the Toyota signal card system that is most interesting and most influential in changing how we work!
  19. 19. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. The Kanban Method – an alternative path to agility!
  20. 20. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Kanban Method “a 2nd Generation Agile Method” A “meta” approach intended to drive improved agility without replacing your existing way of working Not a Defined Process (or SDLC) 1st Generation Agile Methods are designed to replace existing ways of working with a new way Kanban is designed to enhance your existing way of working, even when that existing way is Scrum (or another 1st Generation Agile method)
  21. 21. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. The Kanban Method Simple Underlying Principles 1. Intangible Goods (professional services) businesses can be managed like physical, tangible goods businesses 2. Represent intangible goods with tangible artifacts 3. Make invisible work & workflows visible 4. Control & limit inventory of intangible goods
  22. 22. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. The Kanban Method Service Delivery Principles 1. Understand and focus on your customers’ needs and expectations 2. Manage the work, let people self-organize around it 3. Evolve your management policies to improve customer & business outcomes
  23. 23. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Seeing Services Learn to view what you do now as a set of services. Don’t reorg, just see things differently! Examples: HR provides services throughout the organization, but they also need services from IT Marketing provides services to product development but they need services from Sales and from IT IT provides services to Customer Support. There is an interdependency between Customer Support, QA, and IT Engineering. Different feature teams or product teams may have dependencies on each other Many groups are dependent upon specialist individuals
  24. 24. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. F F O M N K J I Pull For each service implement a Kanban “pull” system Ideas D Dev Ready G 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 3 Test Ready 5 F B CPull Pull * There is capacity here UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ Pulling work from development will create capacity here too – the pull signals move upstream! Now we have capacity to replenish our ready buffer Kanban has been called “Iterationless” Agile. Batches of work are replaced with continuous flow of work
  25. 25. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Commitment is deferred E D Commitment point F F FF F F F G Pull Wish to avoid aborting after commitment Ideas Dev Ready 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 3 Test Ready 5 UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ We are committing to getting started. We are certain we want to take delivery. Ideas remain optional and (ideally) unprioritized Kanban implements the Lean principle of “just in time” through the practice of deferred commitment
  26. 26. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Test Ready F F FF F F F Decoupled Cadence Improved Optionality EG D Replenishment Discarded I Pull Ideas Dev Ready 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 35 UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ The frequency of system replenishment should reflect arrival rate of new information and the transaction & coordination costs of holding a meeting Lead time The frequency of delivery should reflect the transaction & coordination costs of deployment plus costs & tolerance of customer to take delivery Delivery For software development skill in configuration management is an enabling capability for Kanban
  27. 27. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Agility = Capability x Optionality Skills Experience Capacity # Options x Frequency of decision making
  28. 28. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Test Ready Flow Efficiency F E I G D GY PB DE MN P1 AB Customer Lead Time Waiting Waiting WaitingWorking * Zsolt Fabok, Lean Agile Scotland, Sep 2012, Lean Kanban France, Oct 2012 ** Hakan Forss, Lean Kanban France, Oct 2013 Ideas Dev Ready 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 35 UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ Flow efficiency measures the percentage of total lead time is spent actually adding value (or knowledge) versus waiting Flow efficiency % = Work Time x 100% Lead Time Flow efficiencies of 1-5% are commonly reported. *, ** > 40% is good! Working WaitingWorking Multitasking means time spent in working columns is often waiting time
  29. 29. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Waiting Waiting WaitingWorking Working WaitingWorking Test Ready Implications of low Flow Efficiency F E I G D GY PB DE MN P1 AB Ideas Dev Ready 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 35 UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ Low flow efficiency means that most of lead time is influenced by environmental factors that are unlikely to change soon Customer Lead Time In a low flow efficiency environment, Class of service is much more likely to influence lead time than any other factor As a result, lead time is not very sensitive to the size or complexity of a single work item, or to the specific people involved or their individual capabilities
  30. 30. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Fragile lead time distribution Weibull, k=0.8 Mode < 1 Median = 6 Mean = 9 Tail = 55 3 outliers > 55 High value = 77 High value = 100 x Mode Typical of IT operations work or very low organizational maturity and capability software development
  31. 31. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. More Robust Lead Time Mode = 10 Median = 11 Mean = 12 Tail = 60 2 outliers > 60 High value = 105 High value = 10 x Mode Typical of higher organizational maturity & capability software development with Kanban. Scrum teams often produce kappa ~= 1.2 Increased “focus” from WIP limits with Kanban improves shape, shifting it right (up) This is more desirable – shorter tail = more predictable
  32. 32. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Delivery Capability has 3 Dimensions Service Delivery Agility Commitment frequency Lead Time Delivery Frequency LeadTime Short Long Delivery Service Delivery Agility Commitment Frequent Seldom Frequent Seldom More Agile Less Agile Kanban system dynamics
  33. 33. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Avg. Lead Time Avg. Delivery RateWIP Pool of Ideas Ready To Deliver Little’s Law Delivery Rate (from the kanban system) System Lead Time WIP =Delivery rate (or “velocity”) is another measure of capability
  34. 34. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. When should we commit? impact When we need it Zone of possible delay cost If we start here Commitment point timeJan 10 Nov 11 To consider the best time to start something we can examine the probable opportunity lost by multiplying the lead time probability distribution function against the Delivery Delay Cost function. By sliding the lead time distribution across the Delivery Delay Cost we can compare the Probable Delay Costs for a delay in starting
  35. 35. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. The Optimal Time to Start impact When we need it 85th percentile Ideal Start Here Commitment point If we start too early, we forgo the option and opportunity to do something else that may provide value. If we start too late we risk incurring the cost of delay With a 6 in 7 chance of on-time delivery, we can always expedite to insure on-time delivery
  36. 36. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Discovery Kanban Prepares Options Ready for Engin- eering F I Comm- itted D 4 Ongoing Development Done 3 J K 12 Testing Verification 3 L Commitment point 4 - Requi- rements Analysis 2412 - Risk Analysis 4824 - Pool of Ideas ∞ Min & Max limits ensure sufficient options are always available Committed WorkOptions Discarded O Reject P Q $$$ spent acquiring options $$$ spent converting options Embedded Options Done Delivery KanbanDiscovery Kanban
  37. 37. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Roles Ready for Engin- eering F I Comm- itted D 4 Ongoing Development Done 3 J K 12 Testing Verification 3 L Commitment point 4 - Requi- rements Analysis 2412 - Risk Analysis 4824 - Pool of Ideas ∞ Service Delivery ManagerService Request Manager Discarded O Reject P Q Marshals Options Manages Flow Done
  38. 38. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. The Kanban Method Change Management Principles 1. Start with what you do now  Understanding current processes, as actually practiced  Respecting existing roles, responsibilities & job titles 2. Gain agreement to pursue improvement through evolutionary change 3. Encourage acts of leadership at all levels
  39. 39. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. The Kanban Method General Practices 1. Visualize (with a kanban board 看板) 2. Limit work-in-progress (with kanban かんばん) 3. Manage flow 4. Make policies explicit 5. Implement feedback loops 6. Improve collaboratively, evolve experimentally (using models & the scientific method)
  40. 40. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. The Kanban Method Change Management Principles 1. Start with what you do now  Understanding current processes, as actually practiced  Respecting existing roles, responsibilities & job titles 2. Gain agreement to pursue improvement through evolutionary change 3. Encourage acts of leadership at all levels
  41. 41. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Strategy Review Risk Review Monthly Service Delivery Review Bi-WeeklyQuarterly Kanban Meeting Daily Operations Review Monthly Replenishment/ Commitment Meeting Weekly Delivery Planning Meeting Per delivery cadence change change change change change change change change change info info info info info info info info info change info Kanban Cadences Focus on Service DeliveryService Delivery Set Improvement/Evolutionary Set
  42. 42. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. The Essence of Kanban in Action
  43. 43. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Survivability = Agility x Adaptability Capability x Optionality Capability (to manage change) Frequency of change opportunitiesx Skills Experience Org maturity
  44. 44. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Capability OptionalityAdaptability Agility Survivability Out-maneuvered Unfit for purpose failure failure Fragile Easily disrupted Robust Antifragile Evolutionary Capability
  45. 45. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Conclusions
  46. 46. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Capability OptionalityAdaptability Delivered as management training & coaching Focus on managers at all levels Business unit scale Horizontal Applicable to all professional services (not just IT)
  47. 47. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Capability OptionalityAdaptability Typical Agile Method Delivered as methodologies, process improvement & coaching Focus on individuals and teams Vertical Tends to be IT, or software engineering specific
  48. 48. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Conclusions Kanban can improve the agility of any existing process Kanban installs a continuous improvement capability across the organization Kanban can be used to enhance Scrum Kanban can help challenged or failed Scrum implementations Kanban works in circumstances where time-boxed methods are inappropriate or problematic
  49. 49. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Conclusions 1st Generation Agile methods such as Scrum help you adapt to changing requirements by improving optionality Kanban also helps you adapt to changing economic, political and business conditions by installing a capability for continuous improvement and process change management in your organization
  50. 50. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. The future of creative work should be inspired by the philosophy of Bruce Lee Our opponents are uncertainty & risk. Engage directly Visualize & make them explicit with a Kanban board Start with what you do now, make small changes, evolve your capability Evolutionary methods are required to help us respond to complex changing external circumstances Your own unique path to agility will serve you better than a defined process Your capability to evolve will make you robust to uncertain circumstances
  51. 51. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Thank you!
  52. 52. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. About David Anderson is an innovator in management of 21st Century businesses that employ creative people who “think for a living” . He leads a training, consulting, publishing and event planning business dedicated to developing, promoting and implementing new management thinking & methods… He has 30+ years experience in the high technology industry starting with computer games in the early 1980’s. He has led software organizations delivering superior productivity and quality using innovative methods at large companies such as Sprint and Motorola. David defined Enterprise Services Planning and originated Kanban Method an adaptive approach to improved service delivery. His latest book, published in June 2012, is, Lessons in Agile Management – On the Road to Kanban. David is Chairman of Lean Kanban Inc., a business operating globally, dedicated to providing quality training & events to bring Kanban and Enterprise Services Planning to businesses who employ those who must “think for a living.”
  53. 53. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Fragile Lead time distribution data courtesy Andreas Bartel, Hamburg, Germany Robust Lead time distribution data courtesy of an anonymous client in China Acknowledgements
  54. 54. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Appendices
  55. 55. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. Books
  56. 56. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. 2010 – Kanban “blue book”
  57. 57. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. 2012 Lessons in Agile Management The heavily under-rated book that underpins the Kanban Coaching Masterclass and most of the theory behind the Kanban Method
  58. 58. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc. 2014 Kanban from the Inside
  59. 59. dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.

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