Risks and strategies adopting agile in medium and large organizations
SaiHo Yuen M.Sc, ift.a, SCJP, PSM I, ITIL email@example.com 17 February 2012 1st INTERTIONAL CONFERENCE ON AGILE AND LEAN SOFTWARE METHODSAdopting Agile in medium and large organizationRISKS AND STRATEGIES
Me Canada, Québec M.Sc. from U. Montréal and U. Rostock Software Developer, Project Manager SCRUM Master and Agile transition Netscape, Database, Civil engineering Scientific & Military research and Government Employers of my area SME in high technologies, Game industries Insurance companies, Banking and GovernmentThe world I liveWho am I?
Why are you doing this ? What are you looking for ? Why Agile ? What Agile means to you ? Is Agile the right answer ? How are you going to do it ? Where do you stand ? What do you have ? What do you need ? They will guide you into all the truth!What is yours?Every why hath a wherefore
Problems What makes Agile adoption so difficult? Risks Some common pitfalls you may want to avoid! Strategies Some ideas to make your adoption a little bit easier!Concerto in 3 Movements
Too Many Reasons! Migration means change complex and underestimated, so often unmanaged Change doesn’t mean only the process or tools Also the people and specially the people Process can’t never change people (a lasting change come always from the inside) Capability of change is different for everyone, thus every organization Isolated initiative, trial and errorWhat makes Agile migration so difficult?Introduction
A successful Agile project means a lot, but not everything (A certain type of project under certain conditions with a very specific team) An idea, a thought, a state of mind, a philosophy Knowing is one thing; Doing is quite another; Too many “ways”, “practices”, “products” and “Tools” Everyone has his own idea and model Are we getting the right helps, coaching on the right things? So on and so on…Too many ways to get lost!Why so difficult?
Well, I have to say…Yes An established culture and structure You can hardly play with the magic triangle Different levels of hierarchy has different goals Nothing is personal, thus everything becomes personal Informal VS officialDoes size really matter?Small, medium, large
Complex business model and structure First mission is not always software development Business and TI don’t mixed, thus don’t understand Concurrence from inside and outside Resources availability & distributed Teamwork (International laws) Governance & procurement model UnionThey also have money!Complicated, but don’t forget…
Version One 2011 SurveyLeading causes of failed Agile projectsSo far, how do we do?
Version One 2011 SurveyBarriers to further Agile adoptionAny icebergs ahead?
Understands the risks and chooses the right strategy! Understand the strategy and choose the right risks!A dog chasing its tail?So, where should we start?
Culture and Structure The personality of your organization. You may not notice it, but it is certainly there Process It isn’t about how we change, but how to make it acceptable Human factor (Resistance) First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident Communication Most known problem, but still always underestimatedCome from not knowing what youre doing!Risks
Consistency for an organization and its people Order and structure for activity within an organization Boundaries and ground rules Communication patterns Membership criteria Patterns for internal relationships among peopleWhy so important?Organizational Culture
Condition for reward and punishment Expectations and priorities Define performance Approach to management Limits strategy ProductivityWithout it, there will be no soul!Organizational Culture
Why is it so popular among Agilists?William E. Schneider’s Model
20 Questions from William E. SchneiderWhen we worry about something in the organization, it is usually about:a) Losing. We worry most about being also-rans or having our reputationharmed because we couldn’t deliver as well as, or better than our competitors.b) Stagnation. We worry most about failing to progress, simply existing fromday to day, or even going backwards.c) Vulnerability. We worry most about being in a position where others havemore power or market share than we dod) Lack of unity. We worry most about the team being broken up or alienatingour customers. We worry about a lack of trust among ourselves.What’s your culture?Freud on the sofa
R. Harrison Power, role, task and person orientation T.E. Deal and A. A. Kennedy Tough-guy/macho, work hard/playhard, bet-your-company and process W. Bennis and b. Nanus Formalistic, collegial and personalistic O’ J. O’Toole Meritocracy, egalitarianism, behaviorism and humanism Giving a name to your culture is not important. Understand it, it is.Yes, of course!Other models?
No matter which culture there is always an organizational structure Huge impact on adoption, but often ignored Reflects decision making, tasks execution, communication pathway Competitions between divisionsWe are sisters, and therefore, born to be rivalsThe Other Boleyn Girl
Change requires an adequate preparation Simplicity necessitates understanding complexity Each problem has multiple solutions We can not predict the best solutions Ever-changing environment requires ever-changing process Change process depend on its environment And as soon as the process exists, it changes its environment and itself Each strange solution is the best one somewhereIt isn’t about how we change, but how to make it acceptableProcess
All plausible solutions should be examined The process should gather and synthesize different viewpoints Raison of change has to be clearly defined Processes has to be transparent and meaningful Otherwise, it won’t able to mobilize people and increase the resistance Confusion may occur If different “changes processes” are already underway or planned The process should not ignore organization‘s core cultural, values and past eventsProcess
happiness does not necessarily mean commitment false signals can easily lead to misinterpretations The responsibilities has to be clearly defined The lack of or too many responsible impair the process Adequate means to measure is required Therefore, it is difficult to manage, monitor and measure the impacts of the process and the process itself It may take considerable time before the new performance indicators and incentive systems are acting in line with the objectives which can greatly affect the mechanism of decision makingProcess
Capability of change is different for everyone Changes always clashes with old habits Resistance to change caused often by the loss of acquired (recognition, prestige, social status, power, job security, etc..) Fear of the unknown and failure reduces the desire for change Doubts about the reasons of change hinder the motivation of those involved Understanding the vision, purpose and importance of the changeResistance is futile…eventually?Human factor
The benefits of change should be visible to those concerned All participations should be properly managed and encouraged Incentives and recognition should be properly granted Participations may not properly evaluated by the old and new metrics Change increases necessarily the existing conflictsHuman factor
What shall we do?(Active & Like Status quo) Align incentive Create dissatisfaction with the status quo Acknowledge and confront fearWith a vengeance?Diehards
What shall we do?(Passive & Like Status quo) Change the composition of the team Praise the right behaviour Involve them Model the right behaviours yourself Identify the true barrierOf the One ring?Followers
What shall we do?(Passive & don’t like Scrum) Let time run its course Provide training Solicit peer anecdotes Appoint a champion skeptic Push the issue Build awarenessFinger of St Thomas?Skeptics
What shall we do?(Active & Don’t like scrum) Success Reiterate and reinforce the commitment Move them Fire them Be sure the right people are talkingAn ardent believers?Saboteurs
What’s his name again?A smart guy does a stupid thing?
Robert Kegan and Lisa Laskow Lahey Resistance doesn’t mean opposition nor inertia Unwittingly caught in a Competing Commitment The Competing Commitment is created by a Big AssumptionBut it doesn’t mean there is nothing!Real Men Don’t Cry
1) What would you like to see changed at work, so you could be moreeffective, or so work would be more satisfying?2) What commitment does your complaint imply?3) What you are doing, or not doing, to keep your commitment from being fullyrealized?4) Imagine doing the opposite of the undermining behaviour. Do you feel anydiscomfort, worry or vague fear?5) By engaging in this undermining behaviour, what worrisome outcome areyou committed to preventing?5 QuestionsThe competing commitment
1) Create a sentence stem that inverts the competing commitment, then “fill inthe blank”2) Test and Consider replacing the big Assumption a) Notice and record current behaviour b) Look for contrary evidence c) Explore the history d) Test the assumption e) Evaluate the resultSome little stepsBig Assumption
The communication plan is always required (planned and supported) Access to information should be homogeneous, uniform, continuous and transparent Information should come from and receive from official channels (eg. through the hierarchy, official statements, etc.) Communication should promote understanding of the objectives of the changeDo we need oil for an engine?Communication
Communication should focus on quality rather than quantity Organization confuses information with communication People are flooded with all kinds of information but it doesn’t help them to better understand the situation Communication relies heavily on technology and organization structure face to face communication is underestimated Communication should accompanied by appropriate activities Communication should not focused exclusively on the objectives the reasons that command are important= Information + relationship + FeedbackCommunication
Well, fortunately there is none! (Otherwise, it will be a little bit boring!) Never forget: A lasting change come always from the insideIs there any magic bullet?Strategies
Why are you doing all this ? What are you really looking for ? Why Agile ? What Agile means to you ? Is Agile the right answer ? Thinking Agile + acting Agile = Being Agile (sometime, you may also have to love it)Water cannot rise higher than its source, neither can human reasonOnce again, Why?
Symphony in 6 Movements (Inspired by John P. Kotter & Ken Schwaber) Establish a sense of urgency Teams of powerConsolidate, institutionalize Create visions and valuesand produce more Communicate everything Re- Plan to Re-plan, small victories All models are wrong, but some are useful! My two cents
Point out the facts: Good, Bad and Ugly (sometime Weird) Examine environment and competitive realities for potential crises and untapped opportunities Statue quo is more dangerous than the unknown Never underestimated the difficulty of driving people out of the comfort zonesUnderstands where we standEstablish a sense of urgency
Lean Management Mieux, plus vite avec les mêmes personnes (Pierre Pessiardi) Mieux, mê Pessiardi) 4 metricsActiveTurnovers lost without this computer systemReplacement cost by menTotal costThe annual saving oragnisation realize that if it abolished the systemCarte d’état-major
PassiveThe expense would be needed to bring the application to productivitystandards consistent with your purposeThe number of unprocessed demandsNumber doesn’t lie
Two committees : Director (3 + 1) and Coordination (5) Director : approve and guide the change Coordination : make the change Change agent: Informer when sit on the director committee Groups with shared idea and enough power to lead the change Never forget the ones whom oppose it, Union, RH and You (change agent) Rotate committee members Work as a team outside the normal hierarchyIt takes two to make a thing go right!Teams of power
Create visions and values to direct the change effort Develop strategies for realizing those visions and values (Backlog of things to be changed) Don’t present a vision too complicated or too vague to be communicated in 5 minutes Define organization and team’s values (be specific, measurable, meaningful, attainable, realistic and Timed) Vision and values must respond to the organization existing core culture (Never try to change your organization culture in one step)Vision is the art of seeing what is invisible to others LCreation visions and values
1) Give the list to the team (you can add any new values)2) Together, they must select between three and seven, they consider mostimportant, according to project, situation, culture and their personality3) Do the same thing with stakeholder (outside of the team)4) Gather both groups, talk about the selections and the mutual expectationsuntil you reach consensus on a merged list of three to seven values5) Once you have the values, make them clear to everyoneDo-It-Yourself Team Values
Otherwise, there will be only two candidatesChoose wisely your values…
Use every vehicle possible to communicate the new vision, values, strategies and all things you do Communication comes in both words and deeds, set example Communicate to whom are hurt the most Transparency Use the same language of your listenersCommunication works for those who work at it.Communicate everything
Responsible (The Doer) Accountable (The Buck stops here) Consult (In the loop) Inform (Keep in the picture)RACI / RASCI / RACI-VS / CARIO /Responsibility assignment matrix
Galati, Tess (2001, Paractical Communication, inc.) How well the Medium is suited to Hard copy Phone call Voice mail E-mail Meeting Web site Assesing commintment 3 2 3 3 1 3 Building consensus 3 2 3 3 1 3 Mediating a conflit 3 2 3 3 1 3 Resolveing a misunderstanding 3 1 3 3 2 3 Addressing negative behavior 3 2 3 2 1 3 Expressing support/appreciation 1 2 2 1 2 3 Encourage creative thinking 2 3 3 1 3 3 Making an ironic statement 3 2 2 3 1 3 Conveying a reference document 1 3 3 3 3 2 Reinforcing ones authority 1 2 3 3 1 1 Providing a permanent record 1 3 3 1 3 3 Maintaining confidentiality 2 1 2 3 1 3 Converying simple information 3 1 1 1 2 3 Asking an information question 3 1 1 1 3 3 Make a simple request 3 1 1 1 3 3 Giving complex instruction 3 3 2 2 1 2 Addressing many people 2 3 2 2 3 1Using the right tool for the right jobMedia Choice Table
Follow organization’s governance and procurement model Never ask for exception, but you can explain why you aren’t do that Choose visible problems if the problem is too big, choose a smaller related problem Define and engineer visible performance improvements Encourage risk taking, and non traditional ideas, activities and action Plan and Keep Re-planning, create maximum of small victories (In sprint) Recognize and reward ones who contribute to the improvementPlan to Re-plan, small victories
Agile is a philosophy, many many “reincarnations” Use the practices that are suited to you Be very honest Respect the meaning of the practices Choose carefully the practices, because some practices must come-in pairA, B, C ⊆ D, D ⊆ E → A, B, C ⊆ EClothes dont make the man
Use increased credibility from early wins to change systems, structure, and policies undermining the vision Hire, promote and develop ones who can implement the vision and values Reinvigorate the change process with new project and change agents Articulate connections between Agile and organization successCreate leadership development and succession plans consistent with the AgileConsolidate, institutionalizeand produce more
C. Director C. CoordinationMille viae ducunt homines per saecula RomamSCRUM
Credibility Don’t be a prince, neither a priest; Be pragmatic and persuasive If you want something done practice your patience Restrains your desire for control and need for importance Don’t copy and paste Walk the Talk Conductor of orchestraEnemies withinOne more thing…
I know one thing, that I know nothingComments, Questions, Objections?