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Invesstigating Important Aspects for Agile Adoption in Malaysia


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Invesstigating Important Aspects for Agile Adoption in Malaysia

  1. 1. Factor Analysis: Investigating ImportantAspects for Agile Adoption in Malaysia Presenter: Jeeson Daniel J Authors: Ani Liza Asnawi, Andrew M Gravell & Garry B Wills University of Southampton, UK {ala08r, amg, gbw} International Conference on Agile and Lean Software Development AgileIndia2012, Bengaluru
  2. 2. OBJECTIVE  To identify clusters of the variables (or items) and how they are inter-related to produce factors.  From here, dimensions and meanings of the variables from the questionnaire can be identified.  Factor analysis can help to provide a summary for data inter-relationship and places those variables into their groups accordingly.International Conference on Agile and Lean Software DevelopmentAgileIndia2012, Bengaluru
  3. 3. Data Collection and Analysis  Online Questionnaire.  Received 207 responses.  For factor analysis: 27 questions regarding the adoption and completed responses equal to 88.  Each variables has a six point Likert-type scale ; strongly disgaree (1) to strongly agree (6).International Conference on Agile and Lean Software DevelopmentAgileIndia2012, Bengaluru
  4. 4. Sample Size and Strength of Relationship  The suitability to conduct factor analysis needs to be checked.  Keiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) – a measure of sampling adequacy ranges from 0 to 1.  From the data, KMO of 0.755 was obtained – (value from 0.7 to 0.8 are good) [1].International Conference on Agile and Lean Software DevelopmentAgileIndia2012, Bengaluru
  5. 5. Factor Extraction  It is one of the procedures in factor analysis.  Involves determining the smallest number of factors (or components) that can best represent the inter-relations among the sets of variables.  Here, principal component analysis is use as the extraction method.  In order to determine how many number of factors are extracted, eigenvalues (or Kaiser criterion) and scree plot can be referred to [2].International Conference on Agile and Lean Software DevelopmentAgileIndia2012, Bengaluru
  6. 6. Factor Extraction: Determine How Many Factorsto Retain:(1) EIGENVALUES rules Compone Eigenvalues Eigenvalues Eigenvalues (cumulative nt (Total) (% of Variance) %) 7.852 29.080 29.080 1 2.534 9.385 38.465 2 1.937 7.173 45.637 3 1.638 6.067 51.704 4 1.543 5.716 57.420 5 1.182 4.378 61.798 6 1.080 4.000 65.798 7 1.028 3.809 69.607 8 0.890 3.295 72.902 9 . . . . . . . . 0.093 0.344 100.000 27 Table 1: Eigenvalues and Total Variance Explained
  7. 7. Factor Extraction: Determine How Many Factors to Retain:(2) SCREE PLOT 9 8 1 7 6 Eigenvalue 5 4 3 2 3 5 2 4 6 8 7 1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Factor (or Component) Number Figure 1: Scree Plot
  8. 8. Factor Rotation and Interpretation  After deciding the number of factors to be retained, the next step is to interpret the variables that are loaded in those factors or components .  For this purpose: the factors are ‘rotated’.  Rotation provides a method for interpretation and from here the interpretability of the factors can be improved. There are two ways in doing rotation : (i) orthogonal (varimax) or (ii) oblique (oblimin)  Oblique rotation used in this analysis.  Oblique rotation produces 2 matrices – (i) pattern matrix and (ii) structure matrix.International Conference on Agile and Lean Software DevelopmentAgileIndia2012, Bengaluru
  9. 9. The Related Variables with Their Loadings (Taken from Pattern Matrix)Factor 1 Factor 21. Software developers have responsibility related 1. We have mixed races in our organisation/team to the organisation’s Agile activities=0.816 (Malay, Indian, Chinese and other races) = 0.8452. Software developers are actively involve in 2. In our organisation, we communicate in the setting goals for Agile activities=0.805 English language = 0.8103. In our software development, identifying project 3. In my experience, a mind set change when scope and suitability of project is important using Agile is important as Agile practice is when using Agile methods =0.674 different from other software4. In our organisation we are encouraged to be methodologies=0.434 open and transparent at all levels=0.4975. Our organisational environment is a personal place where people share a lot of themselves=0.564Factor 3 Factor 41. In our software development, customers are 1. I see customers’ satisfaction when using Agile actively involved in setting goals for our Agile methods=0.881 activities=0.680 2. Our software development becomes easier2. In my experience, practitioners with because both parties (customers and professional skills are needed when practicing developers) are working together when using Agile=0.656 Agile=0.8673. In our software development, customers have 3. I see Agile boost developers’ morale=0.585 responsibility related to the organisation’s Agile 4. In sotware development, Agile methods provide activities=0.615 quicker results=0.4954. In my experience, when practicing Agile, customers also have knowledge of the methods=0.556Factor 5 Factor 61. In my experience, training helps the correct 1. In my experience, Agile methods are suitable for practice of Agile methods in our organisation= - certain technologies= -0.943 0.879 2. In my experience, tools are important to support2. In my experience, continuous learning helps the usage of Agile methods= -0.507 knowledge transfer occuring when using Agile 3. Our organisation emphasises on achievement and methods= -0.811 goal accomplishment where aggresiveness and winning are common themes= -0.414 (removed from the factor)Factor 7 Factor 81. Our organisational environment is a personal 1. In my experience, knowing roles and place where people share a lot of themselves = responsibilities is essential when practicing 0.614 Agile methods = 0.6942. In my experience, I think, knowledge about Agile 2. In my experience, attitude (such as team spirit Table 2: The Related Variables and Their Loadings
  10. 10. Meanings for the 8 factors Interpretation and Meaning for the 8 FactorsFactor 1: Factor 2:Developers’ Involvement and Organisational Culture and PeopleOrganisational-related Aspect Related AspectsFactor 3: Factor 4:Customers’ Involvement when Benefits/Impact when using AgilePracticing Agile methods methodsFactor 5: Factor 6:Disagreement over the Importance Lack of Importance of Technicalof Training and Learning when and Technological Aspects whenusing Agile methods in Malaysia. using Agile methods in MalaysiaFactor 7: Factor 8:Importance of Sharing, Knowledge- Team Commitment and Clarity ofrelated Aspects Purpose
  11. 11. Discussion and Conclusion  Factor analysis identified that organisational and software developers’ involvement as the top factor important in using Agile.  The results also shows ‘language’ as one of the important aspects when adopting Agile methods.  In terms of the impact and benefits Agile can deliver, high loadings (more than 0.8) were found in customer satisfaction and the ease of software development as a result of collaboration between developers and customers.  The results from factor analysis, for the factors (or dimension) important for Agile adoption can help software practitioners to consider these aspects when planning to use the methods – following their organisation and people suitability.International Conference on Agile and Lean Software DevelopmentAgileIndia2012, Bengaluru
  12. 12. References  [1] H. F. Kaiser, "An Index of Factorial Simplicity," Psychometrika, vol. 39, pp. 31- 36, 1974.  [2] A. Field, Discovering statistics using SPSS (introducing statistical methods series): Sage, 2009. Thank you! Any questions please email to Conference on Agile and Lean Software DevelopmentAgileIndia2012, Bengaluru