Physical features of India


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The six different physiographical features of India are:
1. The Himalayas,
2. The Northern Plains,
3. The Peninsular Plateau,
4. The Coastal Plains,
5. The Indian Desert, and
6. The Islands

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Physical features of India

  1. 1. PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA Prepared by: Aggraj Sharma
  2. 2. MAJOR PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS  The physical features of India can be grouped into the following divisions: 1. The Himalayan Mountains 2. The Northern Plains 3. The Peninsular Plateau 4. The Indian Desert 5. The Coastal Plains 6. The Islands
  3. 3. THE HIMALAYAN MOUNTAINS  Found in the northern borders of India.  Run in West-East direction from the Indus to the Brahmaputra.  Cover about 2,400 Km with width varying from 400 Km to 150 Km.  Consists of three parallel ranges: 1. The Great or Inner Himalayas or the ‘Himadri’. 2. The Lesser Himalayas or the ‘Himachal’. 3. The ‘Shiwaliks’.
  4. 4. THE GREATER HIMALAYAS  Average height of peaks is 6,000m.  All prominent peaks lie here.  The core of this par is composed of Granite.  It is snow bound.  Glaciers descend from this range.  They were formed geologically as a result of the collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia.
  5. 5. THE LESSER HIMALAYAS  Altitude varies from 3,700 to 4,500m.  Average width is 50 Km.  Mainly composed of highly compressed and altered rocks.  The Pir Panjal Range, Dhaula Dar and the Mahabharat ranges are prominent ones.  The valley of Kashmir, Kangra and Kullu valley in Himachal Pradesh lie here.
  6. 6. THE SHIWALIKS  Altitude varies between 900 to 1,100m.  Width varies from 10-50 Km.  Composed of unconsolidated sediments.
  7. 7. THE NORTHERN PLAINS  The Northern Plains has been formed by the interplay of three major river systems, namely: 1. The Indus, 2. The Ganga, 3. The Brahmaputra; and their tributaries.  Fertile plains formed by the deposition of alluvium.  Agriculturally a very productive part of India.  The area covered by this plain is 7 lakh kilometers.  The plain is about 2400 km long and 240 to 320 km broad.
  8. 8. THE PENINSULAR PLATEAU  The peninsular plateau is a tableland composed of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks.  This plateau consists of two broad divisions, namely: 1. The Central Highlands 2. The Deccan Plateau
  9. 9. THE CENTRAL HIGHLANDS  The part of Peninsular Plateau lying to the North of the Narmada river covering a major area of the Malwa plateau is known as the Central Highlands.  The rivers in this region are the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and the Ken.  The slope of this region is from Southwest to Northeast.
  10. 10. THE DECCAN PLATEAU  The Deccan Plateau is a triangular landmass lying to the South of the Narmada river.  The Satpura range is in the North while the Mahadev, the Kaimur hills and the Maikal range form its eastern extensions.  The plateau is higher in the West and slopes gently eastwards.  Other hill ranges are the Garo, the Khasi and the Jaintia hills.
  11. 11. THE WESTERN GHATS & THE EASTERN GHATS  The Western Ghats and The Eastern Ghats mark the Western and the Eastern edges of the plateau respectively.  The Western Ghats are continuous and can be passed through passes only (the Thal, Bhor and Pal Ghats).  The average height if the Western Ghats is 900- 1600m whereas that of the Eastern Ghats is 600m.  The Western Ghats cause orographic rains.
  12. 12.  The highest peaks of Western Ghats include the Anai Mudi (2,695 metres) and the Doda Betta (2,637 metres).  Mahendragiri (1,501 metres) is the highest peak in the Eastern Ghats.  The black soil area of the peninsular plateau is known as Deccan Trap.  This is of volcanic origin and hence rocks are igneous.
  13. 13. THE INDIAN DESERT  The Indian Desert lies towards the western margins of the Aravali hills.  It is an undulating sandy plain covered with sand dunes.  This region receives very low rainfall below 150mm per year.
  14. 14. THE COASTAL PLAINS  The Peninsular plateau is flanked by stretch of narrow coastal strip, running along the Arabian Sea on the West and the Bay of Bengal on the East.  The northern part of the Western Coastal Plains is called the Konkan (Mumbai-Goa), the central stretch is called the Kannad Plain while the southern stretch is known as the Malabar Coast.  The northern part of the Eastern Coastal Plains is called the Northern Circar while the southern part is called Coromandel Coast.
  15. 15. THE ISLANDS  India consists of two island groups, The Lakshadweep Islands on the West near the Malabar Coast and The Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the East in the Bay of Bengal.  The Lakshadweep islands are composed of small coral islands.
  16. 16. THANK YOU