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「Can Currency Go Beyond the Nation?」 ~Network Society and The New Currency

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「Can Currency Go Beyond the Nation?」 ~Network Society and The New Currency

  1. 1. 「 Can Currency Go Beyond the Nation? 」 ~ Network Society and The New Currency June 14, 2014 The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Interdisciplinary Information Studies Yohei Yamaguchi
  2. 2. 2 Self-Introduction • A boy who loved art and literature but ended up in the Faculty of Political Sciences and Economics. Experience the reality bite there. • Joined the department of consulting in Tomatsu (accounting firm) in 1999. Engaged in M&A • Transferred to Andersen & Andersen in 2000. Big boom time of foreign capitol coming into Japanese market. • Left the industry in 2004. • First published book about the investment on stock market became a bestseller in 2005. Start up own business on IR education. Sold the business in 2010. 34 year-old ( 2010 ) 18 year-old ( 1995 ) Enter Waseda University Start up the business To challenge the capitalism 43 year-old Joining the world of M&A ( ex. GM/Isuzu Kanebo, Daiei ) Sold business Born as a second son My name Yohei derives from the philosophy word “sublation” and “peace” 0 year-old ( 1975 ) ▲ Oil Shock ▲ The Collapse of Bubble Economy ▲ The Big Bang ▲ Lehman Shock ▲ Today ▲ Crimes by Aum Shinrikyo Cult Kobe Earthquake 70 year-old Philosophical days ・・・ 38 year-old Re-debut as a creator of the business ( Form the trading market of the knowledge secret ・・・ secret ・・・
  3. 3. 3 My Business Model • Create business under the mission of “to provide the energy toward the creative potential” Blue Marine Partners Co., ltd. Writing/ lecturing Business creation • Medical HR development in Vietnam • Healthcare / Lifelog • Bank of Mitsubishi • University of Tokyo • Keio high- school • Diamond • Asky Shares Co., Ltd • Web business • Value Matrix • Gift • Firms • opentime Consulting • Business strategy • Capital policy • Social system design investment Provide the energy toward the creative potential Cool Japan in Hoi An Ispace.inc • Moon- probe project 「 HAKU TO 」 • R&D of the probe robot on polar exploratio n investment investment • Retail business in Hoi An • Intern- ship business
  4. 4. Does economy require currency? • What is currency? The premise and the definition –   History –   Limitation (in terms of the communication) –   What is about –   To what extent, it reaches the stage of “currency”? Does it mortal? –   What makes it work as “currency”? • New currency – Go beyond the nations ( BitCoin / Attempt of local currencies ) • Non-monetary economy ( The economy which doesn’t use the currency; its potential and its limitation) – Gift economy – The potential of network economy – Time Republic 4
  5. 5. 5 Q:   What does money mean to you?
  6. 6. 6 What is money? • “Ultimate reality” • “It is necessary to do anything” • “Money is a social voting right” ( Dai Matsumoto, the president of Monex) • “Money is energy” ( Joseph Campbell, the author of ‘Power of Myth’ ) • “Quantified value” (2ch) • “Power” • “Potential” • “The deviation value of the capitalism society” ( The president of a venture company ) • “The cause of the idleness and the result of exploitation” or “the cause of potential and the result of contribution” • “Moneys is a truth drug, which reveals the human nature” • ・・・
  7. 7. 7 Money as a communication tool • Money is one of the communication tools in the society. It is a common language in the society. – “Money is more global than English” (advert from Nikkei Veritus) – “You will be fine as long as you take your credit card and cash” • Money has high multiplicity use but very little depth as the communication tool. money languages ( its spirit ) Multiplicity of use Depth body language value/ religion ? love ?
  8. 8. 8 “the monetary money” is expanding as quantity • During the year 2000 〜 2006, the growth rate of the real economy is about 1.4. However that of the monetary economy is triple the amount. Year 2000 Year 2006 (日本政策投資銀行 鍋山徹 ファイナンス稲門会講演資料『成長市場をみる三つの目と人間力の 3 要素』をもとに作成) About 570 trillion USD About 70 Trillion USD About 190 Trillion USD About 50 Trillion USD   Trade Global money   GDP blue ; the real economy orange ; the monetary economy Derivative market Drastic increase
  9. 9. 9 The multiplicity of use of the money is also expanding; are we selling our soul? • Division of labor through the currency has become more and more advanced, which makes your labor less and less. • What about the things you cannot let others do for you. What can money buy and what cannot? Where is the border? – Land in the moon ( 3000JPY ~) and island in South – Network business and headhunting CEO – Cornea ( 30,000 USD), liver(130,000 USD), heart(150,000 USD) – Virgin (10,000 GBP) and cord blood – Waste or the right to emit CO2 – Backdoor admission (5million JPY) or a decision of “not guilty” – A couple buster (1.5 million JPY) and matchmaking business(300,000 ~ JPY) – Holding patent right on DNA
  10. 10. 10 What will happen to the money? • The money used to be just a medium of exchange. However, it has reached to the stage that it can replace the value of human being….what happens next? Self- sufficiency Medium of exchange Value index Value itself Socialdevelopment Where money locates The age of specialization Monetary economy Capitalism Collective conscious Organic society Money will be merged into the world and it has become as numbers or symbols nothing more. Production factor A turnabout of monetary economy and The real economy takes place at this point Money decides everything ! Money becomes the component part of the vision
  11. 11. 11 The change of the foundation of money creditGold/mineral money Nation-state ( sovereign ) before present Credit creation money money money money money future credit Credit creation money money money corporates ( global companies ) individual
  12. 12. 12 Three-layered structure of the world bonding ( network ) corporates ( global companies ) Nation-state ( sovereign )
  13. 13. 13 The 40% of the top 100 GDP in the world are “corporates”   The List made by Masahiro Kotosaka/All the GDP and sales are nominal values Rank Country/Company GDP/Revenue 1 United States 14,657.80 2 China 5,878.26 3 Japan 5,458.87 4 Germany 3,315.64 5 France 2,582.53 6 United Kingdom 2,247.46 7 Brazil 2,090.31 8 Italy 2,055.11 9 Canada 1,574.05 10 India 1,537.97 11 Russia 1,465.08 12 Spain 1,409.95 13 Australia 1,235.54 14 Mexico 1,039.12 15 Korea 1,007.08 16 Netherlands 783.29 17 Turkey 741.85 18 Indonesia 706.74 19 Switzerland 523.77 20 Poland 468.54 21 Belgium 465.68 22 Sweden 455.85 23 Saudi Arabia 443.69 24 Taiwan Province of China 430.58 25 Wal-Mart Stores Inc. (NYSE:WMT) 421.85 26 Norway 414.46 27 Austria 376.84 28 Argentina 370.27 29 Royal Dutch Shell plc (LSE:RDSA) 368.06 30 South Africa 357.26 31 Islamic Republic of Iran 357.22 32 Exxon Mobil Corporation (NYSE:XOM) 341.58 33 Thailand 318.85 34 Denmark 310.76 35 Greece 305.42 36 United Arab Emirates 301.88 37 BP plc (LSE:BP.) 297.51 38 Venezuela 290.68 39 China Petroleum & Chemical Corp. (SEHK:386) 290.11 40 Colombia 285.51 41 Toyota Motor Corp. (TSE:7203) 241.97 42 Finland 239.23 43 Malaysia 237.96 44 Portugal 229.34 45 Hong Kong SAR 225.00 46 Singapore 222.70 47 PetroChina Co. Ltd. (SEHK:857) 222.26 48 Egypt 218.47 49 Nigeria 216.80 50 Israel 213.15 51 Ireland 204.26 52 Chile 203.32 53 Czech Republic 192.15 54 Chevron Corporation (NYSE:CVX) 189.61 55 Philippines 188.72 56 Total SA (ENXTPA:FP) 188.37 57 EDF Trading Limited 187.66 58 ConocoPhillips (NYSE:COP) 179.16 59 Pakistan 174.87 60 Shell Trading International Limited 174.11 61 Volkswagen AG (DB:VOW) 170.13 62 AXA (ENXTPA:CS) 164.94 63 Romania 161.63 64 Algeria 160.27 65 Peru 152.83 66 General Electric Co. (NYSE:GE) 150.21 67 Glencore International plc (LSE:GLEN) 144.98 68 New Zealand 140.43 69 Kazakhstan 138.43 70 Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. (KOSE:A005930) 137.95 71 Ukraine 136.42 72 Berkshire Hathaway Inc. (NYSE:BRK.A) 136.19 73 General Motors Company (NYSE:GM) 135.59 74 Eni SpA (BIT:ENI) 132.73 75 Kuwait 131.32 76 Daimler AG (XTRA:DAI) 131.09 77 Qatar 129.49 78 Hungary 128.96 79 Ford Motor Co. (NYSE:F) 128.95 80 Petroleo Brasileiro (BOVESPA:PETR4) 128.45 81 Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE:HPQ) 127.16 82 Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corp. (TSE:9432) 125.70 83 E.ON AG (DB:EOAN) 125.31 84 Allianz SE (DB:ALV) 124.28 85 AT&T, Inc. (NYSE:T) 124.28 86 Carrefour SA (ENXTPA:CA) 120.49 87 Gazprom Open Joint Stock Company (RTS:GAZP) 117.83 88 Hitachi Ltd. (TSE:6501) 116.49 89 Assicurazioni Generali SpA (BIT:G) 116.32 90 GDF Suez (ENXTPA:GSZ) 113.28 91 Nestlé S.A. (SWX:NESN) 111.97 92 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (TSE:7267) 110.97 93 McKesson Corporation (NYSE:MCK) 109.87 94 Panasonic Corporation (TSE:6752) 109.10 95 E.ON Sales & Trading Gmbh 108.39 96 Verizon Communications Inc. (NYSE:VZ) 106.57 97 Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. (TSE:7201) 105.50 98 LUKOIL Oil Company (RTS:LKOH) 104.96 99 Bangladesh 104.92 100 Siemens AG (DB:SIE) 104.53
  14. 14. 14 ( Ref. ) The comparison of the currencies issued by the private companies in Japan • Edy comes top followed by Suica. But iD by NTT Docomo and WAON by AEON increases their circulation. ( Reference : NIKKEI, Press releases, individual PASMO ( PASMO 協議会加盟事業者) 12.99M ( 2009 年 7 月末) 8,477 shops ( 2009 年 1 月末) WAON ( AEON ) 10.60M ( 2009 年 7 月末) 28,500 shops ( 2009 年 6 月) nanaco ( Seven & I HLDGS ) About8.9M ( 2009 年 9 月 1 日現在) 27,541 shops ( 2009 年 9 月 1 日現在) Edy (ビットワレット) 51.4 M circulation ( 2009 年 9 月 1 日現在) 153,000 shops ( 2009 年 9 月 1 日現在) iD ( NTTDocomo ) 10M people ( 2009 年 8 月時点) 約 42 万 terminals ( 2009 年 7 月末) No. of circulation No. of shops where have terminals Suica ( JR East ) 26.81M ( 2009 年 7 月末) 59,220 shops ( 2009 年 3 月末) Rakuten card ( Rakuten ) 50M people ( 2009 年 2 月) 10,304 shops ( 2009 年 10 月) Tpoint ( CCC ) About 3,319 people ( 2009 年 8 月末) 約 29,000 shops ( 2009 年 8 月末) Lawson point ( Lawson ) About 7.50M people ( 2008 年 10 月末) N/A ANA Mileage Club ( ANA ) About 18M people ( 2009 年 1 月末) 90,000 shops ( 2009 年 1 月末) JAL Mileage Bank ( JAL ) 20.69M people ( 2008 年 12 月末) N/A 40M circulation 70,000 shops
  15. 15. 15 Transition of the characteristics of the currency: from “gold” to “bit” • The currency has been changed its form and characteristics and has increased its liquidity. • In future, the currency will be issued without authority more and more. It will be embedded in the information flow and melt into the world. There will be lots of “half- matured” currency in the process of currency making and they will be connected to each other. Credit outsourcing happens very often Outsourced credits (currencies) which are similar to each other stick together and expand themselves The credit melts into the information (web) as to become symbols and numbers Blog, publishing, point-system Social trading ゙・・・
  16. 16. 16 The world moves on to the stage where the credit” issued by individual” will“ “ be more focused and cherished Capitalism Credit Economy goods credit credit goods goods goods credit trade currency collateral collateral trade network credit goods credit goods credit goods credit goods credit goods credit goods A B A B (*) unstable credit →
  17. 17. 17 Multi-polarized Money The peak of market share of money in communication market will be 2015 and it will decline in future The market share of money in the communication market 20082005 20151980 Collapse of Subprime Loan 2050 Bubble Economy and its collapse Economy based on seniority Highly networked Information society by IT innovation The market share Money The market share of non-monetary economy Totalamountofcredit
  18. 18. The ratio of majority/minority has become 6 :4 • Big changeover the ratio between the majority and the minority in Japanese society 18     Majority NEET ( 600,000 people), Young temp workers, LGBT ( one out of 15 people), Single mother ( 700,000 people ) , Elderly people who live on his/her own (1 million people), People with annual income below 2M JPY ( 10 million people …) Minority 40 % 60 % Full-time employee, employees of the big corporates, public sectors, professionals and their family
  19. 19. “Vertical” and “Horizontal” • The established system of majority→Vertical • The counter system of marginalized minority→Horizontal 19      Majority Vertical/hierarchical system “Absorb” from the lower and “shower” from the top Senior people Next senior people Common people Minority Money/Time Horizontal system Distribute/share the necessary resources on a case by case basis Collect and distribute Resources Verticalpipeline Majority Minority
  20. 20. The philosophy of “vertical system” belongs to the majority • Basic principle is “absorb from the bottom and shower from the top”, which has been established already • The majority provides “commodities (such as money, vote, energy)” which is necessary for their living (food, clothing, and housing) • Very convenient system when you are in survival mode 20      Majority Senior people Next senior people Common people Money/Time Verticalpipeline Top-down system is the basic principle of the majority ・・・・ •Money •Energy •Vote •Policy making
  21. 21. The philosophy of “horizontal system” belongs to the minority • The minorities are marginalized and decentralized. It has to be connected horizontally. The internet allows and strengthen their horizontal ties • Mutual aid system, which is suitable for satisfying the social desire of human being (desire for acknowledgement and bonding) • Not suitable for distributing the commodities based on the mass production 21 Horizontal distribution/sharing is the basic principle of the minority ・・・・ •Money→crowd-funding •Knowledge/information sharing •Energy→smart grid •Policy making→grass root system Minority Collect and distribute Resources
  22. 22. Structure of the human desires and the social system • What are we longing for? In accordance with the shift of our desires, the social system also moves on to the next stage. • Desire of the survival is NOT the instinct of human beings nowadays. It is imprinted habit in today’s world. We rather ask for the social desire. 22 Survival ( food, clothing and housing ) Acknowledgement ( identity, respect ) Creation Structure of desires Range of human rights 20thcentury 21stcentury Social system Vertical society ( Money is the common language Horizontal society ( Heart is the common language ?
  23. 23. 23 Perspective on the new industrial structure and related companies • Clear divide on “consumption function” and “consumption bond” in 21st century consumption behavior. • More suitable way to look at the industry is “Which desire do they respond on?” rather than “What do they sell?” Desire to survive ( Infrastru ct-ure ) Social Desire ( Recognition/bonding ) Self-fulfillment Desire ( creation ) Uniqlo United Arrows ・ SHIPS・ Beams Seven & i Watami message ( elderly people care home ) Clothing HousingFood CookPad Share house ・ airbab Mass-automatic supply system established by big corporates ( consumption function ) New business model on 21st century aim to meet this desire ( consumption bond ) Capitalism cannot reach Finance Retail Seven Bank Kiiva ・ Prosper ・ StarBucks Village Vanguard ゙ Seven & i Aeon What do they sell? Whichdesiredotheyrespondon? IT Gree DeNA MS google 23 Member’s only club
  24. 24. Summary of capitalism society (vertical) and network society (horizontal) • Everything is different between vertical and horizontal society 24 Capitalism society ( vertical / economy based on divide ) Network society ( horizontal / economy based on harmony ) Literacy Common language Money ( numerical number) Heart ( individual ) Credit ( contract/value supply) Trust ( unconditional ) Value Verbalized Not visible/Trasnient Class “Hub” is overwhelmingly strongGo upper, you become stronger Response • Build up the unit which is quantified and comparable • Keep building up the bond and trust, not be able to quantify nor comparable Purpose Operation Innovation
  25. 25. There are only 2 ways to consolidate the resources • Energy=consolidated resources • Only 2 things can lock up the resources: “numerical numbers” or “individuals” • Money is about numbers and it embed the credit and the value inside that membrane. • “Individual” in English means that you cannot divide it anymore. It is the smallest unit. You can also embed the trust and value inside that unit. 25 Numbers 123456789.. Individuals ( individual ) cannot divide The common language of the vertical society 「 Yen 」 The common language of the horizontal society 「 En 」 (bond) No “friction” Be able to convey “context” and “value”
  26. 26. 3 issues that horizontal society has and its solution • 1. The cost/pain of “friction” Need to come up with the idea of reduce this cost/pain to keep running the horizontal society For example ・・・ • Expose • Not negotiate • Believe the butterfly effect of the value • Not block others • Make the process open • Mange the distance • Make commitment (make contract/manifest) if necessary • Respect all your surroundings (do not see things vertically) • 2. Weakness can be turned out as “power” ex) failure of the communism • 3. Since “hub” becomes overwhelmingly strong in the horizontal society, it could be easily misled to radical fascism or cult if you allow winner-take-all rule. 26
  27. 27. ( Supplementary Note ) Innovation is about “friction”, it always starts from the extreme scenario and the marginal edge • Friction doesn’t mean something negative. Rather, it is a starting point of the innovative evolution. Core Mainstream Periphery Extreme Reality New idea occurs through the Friction which is exposed to the reality
  28. 28. Maturing of a New Community through proliferation of the Horizontal Society ( 2010~2020 ) • Going through periods of disconnection and uneven distribution/opened, we have reached the period of “multilayered community”. 28 Period of disconnection Period of uneven distribution/opened Period of multilayered community Nation ・ Corporation Google Global capitalism Facebook ( transitional period ) ・ Small-sized, local community ・ Values ・ Skills ( Guild) Multilayered, portfolio typeWindows ( transitional period ) Sharing The door to the world
  29. 29. How Do You Keep Your Identity in the Horizontal Society? • The importance of new way of looking at yourself as you belong more than 1 communities at the same time. • The concept of being “dividable”. 29 Family ・ Share House Workplace ・ Colleagues Community that meets your value What would happen to your identity if you belong to different communities at the same time?
  30. 30. The Concept of “Dividable Man” 30 True Self • Being “dividable man” is to think that you are a portfolio which made of multiple personalities. There is a “true self” in the core of you. You just use different masks (personas) according to the situations. There is NO “true self”. You are a combination of multiple personalities (portfolio) Old concept of self ( Persona: Mask Theory ) New concept of self ( Dividable Man Theory ) Endless seeking of “true self” No need to search for the true self. Much easier to live your life. Mask A Mask B Mask C
  31. 31. Learn How to Establish A Happy Lifestyle in the Horizontal Society from Alfred Adler’s “Individual Psychology” • The Importance of Feeling of Inferiority • Overcoming Superiority/Inferiority • 7 Principles to Live in the New World – 1. Be aware that all you worries/concerns are attribute to the human relationship issues. – ”2. Disconnect the Issues”: Do not mix up with your issue and that of others. – 3. Being free is to be disliked by others. – 4. However, they are not your enemy. Be connected to others. They are your team mate. – 5. Accept who you are. – 6. Trust other people. The trust should be unconditional. – 7. Happiness is the feeling of contribution and it is based on the premise of the freedom. • Apply and practice the above principles on fields of your work/friendship/love. 31
  32. 32. My Suggestion • Reduce the time you spend for the Vertical Society as little as possible! – Make your relationships as much as efficient with money which is a language of the Vertical Society. – Boost your unit value per hour (ex. 100,000 JPY per hour!) – Reduce your fixed expenses (food, cloth, housing) that consume your money as much as possible. – Join the Horizontal Society which you find interesting/feel passionate about (volunteering, community work, starting up business etc.) – Invest your spare time to the Horizontal Society as much as possible. • Be Brave to Open Your Heart! – Write down all your complex that you feel negative about such as your appearance, dark history of your past etc. Expose them little by little and not hold on to them. – Try to be open mind to the people or things you dislike one step at a time. Go beyond the borders of yourself. • Take Step by Step! – Forgive yourself, who might be an ordinary, not so talented loser. Accept yourself as what you are now. Just build up from zero one by one, step by step. – Do not compare yourself with others, but do compare with yourself in future. 32
  33. 33. 33 References • F.A. Hayek “The Road to Serfdom” • Katsuhito Iwai “To Whom does the Corporation Belong? “( 『会社は誰のものか』 ) “What will Happen to the Corporation from Now on?”( 『会社はこれからどうなるのか ?』 • Hirohumi Uzawa “Social Cost of Automobiles”( 『自動車の社会的費用』 ) • Atsunori Kawamura “The Last Word of Ende” ( 『エンデの遺言』 ) • Karl Marx “Capital” • Katsumi Hirakawa “The Illness so called ‘Limited Company’”( 『株式会社という病』 ) • Andre Comte-Sponville “Le Capitalisme est-il Moral?” (Does Capitalism have Moral?) • David Pitt-Watson “The New Capitalists: How Citizen Investors Are Reshaping the Corporate Agenda” • Rachel Carson ”The Sense of Wonder” • Haruki Murakami “Dance, Dance, Dance” ( 『ダンス・ダンス・ダンス』 ) • Charles D. Ellis “Capital” • G. Edward Griffin “The Creature Jekyll Island” • Jean Peyrelevade “Le Capitalisme Total”
  34. 34. My bibliography published in 2013 34 Thank you!

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