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Swen Follak zu gesundheitlicher Bedeutung allergener Neobiota: "Ausbreitungsdynamik allergener Neophyten in Österreich"

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AGES-Experten zur gesundheitlichen Bedeutung von Neobiota für Mensch, Tier und Pflanze: Nicht heimische Arten (Neobiota) können negative Auswirkungen auf die Gesundheit von Menschen, Tieren und Pflanzen haben. Für die betroffenen Menschen bedeutet dies eine verminderte Lebensqualität, zudem entstehen volkswirtschaftliche Kosten(Behandlungen, Krankenstände). Zu den Folgen für den Menschen kommen negative Auswirkungen aus der Sicht des Naturschutzes, aber auch für die Land- und Forstwirtschaft und die Fischerei. Die AGES-Experten Swen Follak (Pflanzengesundheit und Allergene für Mensch), Rudolf Moosbeckhofer (Bienengesundheit) und Peter Hufnagl (Gesundheit Mensch) gaben bei der dritten Österreichischen Neobiota-Tagung einen Überblick über aktuelle Kenntnisse und diskutiert Handlungserfordernisse im Umgang mit gesundheitlich relevanten nicht heimischen Arten in Österreich: http://www.ages.at/ages/presse/pressemeldungen/ages-experten-zu-neobiota/

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Swen Follak zu gesundheitlicher Bedeutung allergener Neobiota: "Ausbreitungsdynamik allergener Neophyten in Österreich"

  1. 1. Österreichische Agentur für Gesundheit und Ernährungssicherheit GmbHwww.ages.at Stehen wir vor einer Welle neuer allergener Neophyten? Ausbreitungsdynamik allergener Neopyhten in Österreich 3. Österreichische Neobiota-Tagung Wien, 26. September 2013 Swen Follak
  2. 2. www.ages.at Agenda • Allergene (neophytische) Pflanzen in Europa und Österreich • Wer kommt noch? • Welche Auswirkungen sind zu erwarten? • Was können wir tun? • Zusammenfassung
  3. 3. www.ages.at Die wichtigsten allergenen Pflanzen in Europa D‘Amato et al. (1992, 2007)
  4. 4. www.ages.at Fallstudie – die Arten … Iva xanthiifoliaArtemisia annuaAmbrosia trifida
  5. 5. www.ages.at … haben gemeinsam: - Korbblütler (Asteraceae) - Neophyten (A. trifida, I. xanthiifolia: Nordamerika; A. annua: China (Innere Mongolei) - unbeabsichtigte Einschleppung im 19 Jh. nach Europa, A. annua auch als Arzneipflanze eingeführt und kultiviert - sommereinjährig, Wärme liebend, windblütig (hoch allergene Pollen!), hohe ökologische Plastizität & Samenproduktion, schnelles Wachstum - besiedeln Ruderalstandorte, Wegränder, Ödland, Flussufer - A. trifida, I. xanthiifolia: Unkräuter in landwirtschaftlichen Kulturen
  6. 6. www.ages.at Velký Osek, Tschechien
  7. 7. www.ages.at Extrem selten, vereinzeltes Auftreten Follak et al. (2013) A. trifida: 8 Funde - Aktuelle Populationen in Österreich!? - Nur auf Ruderalstellen - Etablierte Populationen in CZ, RS
  8. 8. www.ages.at Selten, im östlichen Tiefland Follak et al. (2013) A. annua: 41 Funde - Sehr frühe Funde - Bisher nur temporär aufgetreten?! - Nur auf Ruderalstellen
  9. 9. www.ages.at Dvory nad Žitavou, Slowakei
  10. 10. www.ages.at I. xanthiifolia: 44 Funde Selten, im östlichen Tiefland - Wenige eingebürgerte Populationen - Ruderalstellen, Landwirtschaft (Mais) - In den großen Städten Follak et al. (2013)
  11. 11. www.ages.at … aber Ausbreitung in den Nachbarländern* Follak et al. (2013) * AT, SK, CH, DE, HU, RS, CZ, CR, SI, Nord-IT 1,804 1,063 324
  12. 12. www.ages.at A A. trifida 8 % Potenzielles Areal unter gegenwärtigem Klima Follak et al. (2013) B A. annua 10 % C I. xanthiifolia 13 %
  13. 13. www.ages.at Die Prognose der Veränderung bzw. Erweiterung der potentiellen Areale in Mittel- und Osteuropa basiert auf verschiedenen Klimawandelszenarien. Scenario Ambrosia trifida Artemisia annua Iva xanthiifolia Area suitable [%] Area suitable [%] Area suitable [%] current climate 15.72 28.25 25.99 cgcm2b2a 2050 22.21 81.18 77.91 echam5a1b 2050 15.04 93.40 86.15 hadcm3a1b 2050 24.30 93.64 86.64 hadcm3a2a 2050 16.38 88.04 76.62 hadgem1a1b 2050 13.74 82.63 78.40 Das potenzielle Areal wird größer – Förderung durch den Klimawandel Follak et al. (2013)
  14. 14. www.ages.at Kurz zusammengefasst … - Alle drei Arten sind zurzeit selten in Österreich > zurzeit besteht keine Gefahr für die Gesundheit?! - Aber: - breiten sie sich in den Nachbarländern aus, großes nicht realisiertes Invasionspotenzial in Österreich! - Förderung durch den zu erwartenden Klimawandel Stehen am Anfang ihrer Ausbreitung in Österreich?! Kosten Management vs. Gesundheit (vermiedene Allergiekosten) und Landwirtschaft (vermiedene Ertragsverluste) Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse
  15. 15. www.ages.at Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse Plank et al. (submitted) Konservatives Szenario Worst-Case Szenario Szenario Klimawandel (2011- 2050) A1b (+2.4°C) B2a (+1.5°C) A1b (+2.4°C) B2a (+1.5°C) Kosten Management 20,5 11,0 20,5 11,0 A. annua: Gesundheit 95,0 64,4 1.641,1 1.113,7 A. trifida: Gesundheit 70,5 15,9 818,1 184,4 A. trifida: Landwirtschaft 7,1 0,2 35,5 1,2 I. xanthiifolia: Landwirtschaft 54,7 26,9 273,5 134,3 Nutzeffekte ∑ 206,8 € 96,4 € 2,747.7 € 1.422,6 € • In allen Szenarien werden Nutzeffekte generiert. • Selbst bei sehr konservativen Annahmen liegen die Nutzeffekte immer noch bei ca. 100 Mio. €. • Die größten Nutzeffekte – wie zu erwarten – werden durch die Vermeidung der Pollen- Allergien erreicht
  16. 16. www.ages.at Zusammenfassung • Wer kommt noch? • Welche Auswirkungen sind zu erwarten? - die Vorkommen allergener Neopyhten nehmen weiter zu – Anstieg der von Ihnen ausgelösten Allergien ist zu erwarten - die potenziellen (Gesundheits-)Kosten unterstreichen die Notwendigkeit einer Kontrolle/Eindämmung • Was ist zu tun? - Liste allergener Neopyhten in Österreich - Identifizierung aufkommender allergener Neopyhten - Analyse der Invasionshistorie & aktueller Verbreitung: ergibt wichtige Informationen zu Einschleppungswegen, Habitatbindung und Bekämpfungsmaßnahmen
  17. 17. www.ages.at Zusammenfassung - Aktionsplan: rechtzeitig (= so früh wie möglich!) bekämpfen Eine Kombination aus Management bestehender Vorkommen und ein flächendeckendes Monitoring (für neu auftretende Populationen) könnte helfen, die weitere Ausbreitung der Pflanzen einzudämmen. - Kosten-Nutzen-Analysen können zeigen, dass sich bestimmte Maßnahmen zur Bekämpfung und Eindämmung „lohnen“ - Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse vermittelt trotz vieler Annahmen einen Eindruck der Kostendimension
  18. 18. www.ages.at Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit! This project receives financial support from the Climate and Energy Fund and is carried out within the framework of the “ACRP” Program. http://www.klimafonds.gv.at/foerderungen/projektberichte/forschung/ Fotos © Swen Follak/AGES ; © Pavol Eliáš (Folie 4, Artemisia annua)
  19. 19. www.ages.at D’Amato G., Ruffilli A., Sacerdoti G., Bonini S. (1992): Parietaria pollinosis: A review. Allergy 47, 443-449. D’Amato G., et al. (2007): Allergenic pollen and pollen allergy in Europe. Allergy 62, 976-990. Follak S., Dullinger S., Kleinbauer I., Moser D. & Essl F. (2013): Invasion dynamics of three allergenic invasive Asteraceae (Ambrosia trifida, Artemisia annua, Iva xanthiifolia) in central and eastern Europe. Preslia 85, 41-61. Literatur:

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