ARALING PANLIPUNAN

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ARALING PANLIPUNAN

  1. 1. Written Report In Araling Panlipunan III Submitted to:Sir Jim Joshua Dela Cruz Submitted by:Franchesca Teodora I. Gozon ~1~
  2. 2. Ang Kabihasnang Klasikal Ng India At Tsina ~2~
  3. 3. HINDUISMO Ang Hinduismo ay ang pinakamalaki at kilalang tradisyong relihiyon ng Indya, na may 80.5% ng populasyon na kinikilala bilang Hindus. Ang pinakamalaki sa lahay at napapabilang sa Vaishnavite at Shaivite denominasyon. Ang kulturang Vedic ay nagmula sa Indya mula noong 2000 at 1500 B.K. As a consequence, Hinduism, considered to be the successor of Vedic religion, has had a profound impact on India's history, culture at ang pilosopiya. Ang pangalang India ay mula sa salitang Griyego Ἰνδία para sa Indus, na nagmula sa Luamang Persiyanong salita naHindu, mula sa Sansbaitself na nagmula sa Greekkrit Sindhu, ang historikal na lokal na pagtawag sa Ilog Indus. Ang iba pang kilalang pangalan ng Indya ay Hindustān, na may kahulugan na "lupain ng mga Hindus". Kasaysayan Noon pa mang 400 B.K. ay sumilay na ang sibilisasyon sa Lambak Indus sa Japan. Ang mga relic ng sinaunang sibilisasyong ito ay makikita pa sa Mohenjo-Daro sa Sind at Harappa sa Punjab. Ayon sa mga arkeologo, ang mga taong nanirahan sa Indus Valley ay merong mataas na kultura dahil marunong sila sa matematika, enhinyero, arkitektura, pagkompyuter, kultura, pamamahala, pagsusulat, at industriya. Noong 2000 KB. nawala ang sibilisasyong Mohenjo-Daro at Harappa, sinakop sila ng mga mapuputing Aryan sa Indus Valley. Lahi sila ng mga puti at nagsasalita ng Sanskrit, wika ng mga Indo-Europeo. Sinakop nila ang mga kayumangging Dravidian, na noo’y naninirahan sa Lambak ng Indus. Marami sa mga Dravidian ay nagsitakas at nagsitigil papuntang Timog India. Inokupa ng mga mananakop na Aryan ang magandang lupain ng Hilagang India at nagtatag ng iba’t ibang kaharian. Malaon, sila ay tinawag na Hindu. Sila ay masisipag na magsasaka, pastol, at matatapang na mandirigma. Sila ay mga bihasang magpapalayok, mangingisda, mason, panday, at manghahabi. Nakipagkalakalan sila sa ibang bansa, kabilang ang Afhganistan, Iran, at Mesopotamia. ~3~
  4. 4. BUDISMO Ang Budismo o Budhismo (Sanskrit: Buddha Dharma, nangangahulugang: "Ang Daan ng Naliwanagan") ay isang relihiyon o pilosopiya na nakatuon sa mga aral ni Buddha Śākyamuni (Siddhārtha Gautama), na marahil namuhay noong ika-5 siglo BCE. Nakatuon ang Budismo sa mga aral ni Siddhartha Gautama o ang "Buda", na isang dakilang mangangaral na nabuhay noong 563 BCE hanggang 483 BCE sa hilagang bahagi ng Indiya. Ang Buddha ay nangangahulugang "ang isang naliwanagan" sa Sanskrit at Pāli. Ang Buddha ay namuhay at nagturo sa silanganing bahagi ng subkontinenteng Indiyano sa pagitan ng ika-6 hanggang ika-4 siglo BCE. Siya ay kinikilala ng mga Budista na isangnaliwanagan na nagbahagi ng kanyang mga kabatiran upang tumulong sa mga may kamalayang nilalang na wakasan ang pagdurusa(dukkha) sa pamamagitan ng pagtatanggal na kamangmangan(avidyā) sa pamamamagitan ng pag-unawa at pagkita sa nakasalalay na pinagmulan (pratītyasamutpāda) at pag-aalis ng pagnanasa (taṇhā), at kaya ay makakamit ang pinakamataas na kaligayahan na nirvāņa. Ang dalawang mga pangunahing sangay ng Budismo ay pangkalahatang kinikilala: angTheravada ("Ang Paaralan ng mga Nakatatanda") at Mahayana ("Ang Dakilang Sasakyan"). Ang Theravada ay may malawakang mga tagasunod sa Sri Lanka, Timog Silangang Asya. Ang Mayahana ay matatagpuan sa buong Silangang Asya(Tsina, Korea, Hapon, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan etc.) at kinabibilangan ng mga tradisyon ng Dalisay na Lupain, Zen,Budismong Nichiren, Budismong Tibetan, Shingon, at Tiantai (Tendai). Sa ilang mga klasipikasyon, angVajrayana na pangunahing sinasanay sa Tibet at Mongolia at mga kalapit na bahagi ng Tsina at Rusya ay kinikilala na ikatlong sangay samantalang ang iba ay umuuri dito bilang bahagi ng Mahayanan. Bagaman ang Budismo ay nananatiling pinakasikat sa loob ng Asya, ang parehong mga sangay nito ay matatagpuan na ngayon sa buong mundo. Ang mga Budismo sa buong mundo ay tinatayang sa pagitan ng 350–500 milyon o sa pagitan ng 1.2 - 1.7 bilyon. Ito ay kinikilala rin bilang isa sa pinakamabilis na lumalagong relihiyon sa buong mundo. Ang mga eskwela ng Budismo ay iba iba sa eksaktong kalikasan ng landas tungo sa kalayaan, ang kahalagahan at kanonisidad ng iba't ibang mga katuruan at kasulatan at lalo na ang kanilang mga respektibong kasanayan. Ang mga pundasyon ng tradisyong Budista at kasanayan ang Tatlong Hiyas (Triple Gem/Tirattana). Ang Tatlong Hiyas ay ang Buda (Ang naliwanagan), ~4~
  5. 5. ang Dharma (Mga katuruan ng Buda), at ang Sangha (Komunidad ng mga Budista). Ang pagkanlong sa Tatlong Hiyas ay tradisyonal na isang paghahayag at pagtatalaga ng sarili sa pagiging nasa landas na Budista at sa pangakalahatang ay nagtatangi ng isang Budista mula sa isang hindi-Budista. Ang ibang mga kasanayan ay maaaring kabilangan ng mga sumusunod na mga patakarang etikal; pagsuporta sa pamayahanang monastiko; pagtakwilsa nakagawiang pamumuhay at pagigign isang monastiko; pag-unlad ng pagiging mapagmasidat pagsasanay ng pagninilay-nilay; pagpapalago ng mas mataas na karungungan at pagkawari; pag-aaral ng mga kasulatang Budista; mga pagtutuong kasanayan, mga seremonya at sa tradisyong Mahayana ay paghimok ng mga buddha at bodhisattva. Nabibilang ito sa mga pangunahing relihiyon sa mundo. Si Gautama Buddha o Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha (Sanskrit: ; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) ay isang gurong espiritwal mula sasubkontinenteng Indiyan na tagapagtatag ng Budismo. Siya ay isang prinsipeng ipinanganak sa Lumbini, mula sa angkan ng mga Shakya, sa isang lugar na matatagpuan sa makabagong Nepal malapit sa hangganan ng hilagang Indya. Nanirahan siya ng halos buong buhay niya sa Hilagang Indyaat aktibong nagtuturo mula noong mga 563 BCE hanggang sa tinatayaang 483 BCE. Ang Buddha ay nangangahulugang "isang nagising" o "isang naliwanagan". Ang "Buddha" ay ginagamit rin bilang isang pamagat para sa unang nagising na nilalang sa isang kapanahunan. Sa karamihan ng mga tradisyong Budista, si Siddhartha Gautama ang itinuturing bilang ang Supremang Buddha (P.sammāsambuddha, S. samyaksaṃbuddha) ng ating panahon. Si Gautama Buddha ay maaari ring tukuyin bilang Shakyamuni Buddha,Śākyamuni (Sanskrit: "Pantas ng mga Śākya") o "Ang Isang Nagising ng Lahing Shakya." Si Gautama ay nagturo ng isang Gitnang Daankumpara sa malalang asetisismo na matatagpuan sa kilusang Sramana na karaniwan sa kanyang rehiyon. Kalaunan siyang nagturo sa buong mga rehiyon ng silanganing India gaya ng Magadha at Kośala. ~5~
  6. 6. Isang mahalagang tao si Gautama sa Budismo at naging buod ang mga tala ng kanyang mga buhay, mga rasyonalidad, at monastikong mga panununtunan pagkatapos ng kanyang kamatayan at nasaulo ng mga sangha(komunidad). Naisalin ang mga katuruan sa pamamagitan ng tradisyong oral, naitala ito saTripitaka matapos ang apat na daang taon. Tinuturing ng mga Hindu si Gautama bilang isang avatar ni Panginoong Vishnu. Siya ang founder ng buddismo. JAINISMO Ang Hainismo (mula sa Ingles na Jainism) o Jain Dharma ( ) ay isa sa mga matatandang relihiyon sa mundo na nagmula pa sa Antigong India. Ang nagtatag ng Hainismo ay si Vardhamana na kilala bilang Mahāvirā 599-527 B.C.) na sa edad na 30 ay nagwaksi ng kanyang pamilya at naging asetiko. Sa loob ng 12 taon, naging aktibo siya sa paghahanap ng katotohanan at lubos na nakapagtamo ng kamulatan habang nagninilay-nilay. Itinuro niyang ang lahat ng bagay sa daigdig, materyal man o hindi, ay may kaluluwa. Ang pagdadalisay ng kaluluwa ang layunin ng eksistensya, sapagkat ang dalisay na kaluluwa, minsang mapalaya mula sa katawan, ay makapamumuyhay sa walang-hanggang kaluwalhatian at malaya magpakailanman. Ang kadalisayan ay matatamo sa pamamagitan ng kaalaman at balanseng buhay. Itinaguyod din ng relihiyong Jainismo ang sukdol na asetismo, pag-aayuno, yoga at iba pang awsteridad para sa layuning pagninilay-nilay o meditasyon. May limang panata ang sinusunod ng mga Hain: 1. Ahimsa (kawalang-karahasan) 2. Satya (katotohanan) 3. Asteya (katapatan) 4. Brahmacharya (kabirhenan) 5. Aparigraha (karalitaan) Ang panata sa kawalang-karahasan (ahimsa) ay siyang tunay na obsesyon ng mga Hain. Nagmamaskara sila para takpan ang bibig at ilong upang maiwasan ang di-kinukusang paglanghap sa maliliit na insekto. ~6~
  7. 7. IMPERYONG MAURYA Ang Imperyong Maurya ang isang malawak sa heograpiyang panahong Bakalna kapangyarihang historikal sa Sinaunang India na pinamunun ngDinastiyang Mauryano mula 322 BCE hanggang 185 BCE. Ito ay nagmula mula sa kaharian ng Magadha sa mga kapatagang IndoGangetiko(modernongBihar), silanganing Uttar Prades at Bengal) sa silanganing panig ngsubkontinenteng Indiano. Ang kabisera ng imperyong ito ay sa Pataliputra(modernong Patna). Ang Imperyong Maurya ay itinatag noong 322 BCE niChandragupta Maurya na nagpatalsik sa Dinastiyang Nanda at mabilis na nagpalawak ng kanyang kapangyarihan pakanluran sa ibayong sentral at kanluraning India na sumantala sa mga pagkagambala ng mga kapangyarihang lokal kasunod ng pagurong pakanluranin ng mga hukbong Griyego at Persiano ni Dakilang Alejandro. Noong 320 BCE, ang imperyo ay buong sumakop sa Hilagang-kanlurang India na tumalo at sumakop sa mga satrap na naiwan ni Dakilang Alejandro. Ito ay may lawak na 1 bilyong acre at isa sa pinaka-malaking mga imperyo sa panahon nito at ang kailanman pinakamalaki sa subkontinenteng Indiano. Sa pinakamalaking saklaw nito, ang imperyo ay sumaklaw sa hilaga kasama ng mga natural na hangganan ng mga Himalaya at sa silangan na sumasaklaw sa ngayong Assam. Sa kanluran, ito ay sumakop ng lagpas sa modernong Pakistan na nagdagdag ng Balochistan, timog silangang mga bahagi ng Iran at karamihan ng ngayong Afghanistan kabilang ang modernong mga probinsiyang Herat at Kandahar. Ang imperyo ay lumawak sa mga rehiyong sentral at katimugan ng mga emperador na sina Chandragupta at Bindusara ngunit hindi isinama ang isang maliit na bahagi ng hindi nagalugad na mga rehiyong pang-tribo at magubat malapit saKalinga(modernong Odisha) hanggang sa masakop ito ni Emperador Ashoka. Ang pagbagsak nito ay nagsimula pagkatapos ng 60 taon ng matapos ang pamumuno ni Ashoka at nagwakas noong 185 BCE sa pagkakatatag ngDinastiyang Sunga sa Magadha. Sa ilalim ni Chandragupta, ang imperyong Maurya ay sumakop sa rehiyong trans-Indus na nasa ilalim ng pamumuno ng mga Macedonian. Pagkatapos ay tinalo ni Chandragupta ang pananakop na pinamunuan ng Griyegong heneral mula sa hukbo ni Dakilang Alejandro na si Seleucus I Nicator. Sa ilalim ni Chandragupta at mga kahalili nito, ang panloob at panlabas na ~7~
  8. 8. kalakalan, mga gawaing agrikultura at ekonomiko ay lahat yumabong at lumawak sa ibayong India dahil sa pagkakalikha ng isa at maiging sistema ng pinansiya, pamamahala at seguridad. Pagkatapos ng Digmaang Kalinga, ang imperyo ay nakaranas ng kalahating siglong kapayapaan at seguridad sa ilalim ni Ashoka. Ang Mauryanong India ay nagtamasa rin ng panahon ng pagkakaisang panlipunan, pagbabagong pang-relihiyon at paglawak ng mga agham at kaalaman. Ang pagyakap ni Chandragupta Maurya sa Jainismo ay nagpataas ng muling pagbabagong panlipunan at pang-relihiyon at reporma sa buong lipunan samantalang ang pagyakap ni Ashoka sa Budismo ay naging saligan ng paghahari ng kapayapaang panlipunan at politikal at kawalang-karahasan sa buong India. Tinangkilik at itinaguyod ni Ashoka ang pagpapalaganap ngBudismo sa Sri Lanka, Timog silangang Asya, Kanlurang Asya at EuropangMediterraneo Ang populasyon ng imperyogn Maurya ay tinatayang mga 50 hanggang 60 milyong na gumagawa sa imperyong ito na isa sa pinakamataong mga imperyo sa panahong ito. Sa [[arkeolohiya], ang panahon ng pamumunong Mauryano sa Timog Asya ay nahuhulog sa mga kapanahunang Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). Ang Arthashastra at Mga kautusan ni Ashoka ang mga pangunahing sanggunian sa kapanahunang Mauryano. Ang Leong Kapital ni Ashoka sa Sarnath ang ginawang pambansang emblem ng India. IMPERYONG GUPTA By the fourth century A.D., political and military turmoil destroyed the Kushan empire in the north and many kingdoms in the south India. At this juncture, India was invaded by a series of foreigners and barbarians or Mlechchhas from the north western frontier region and central Asia. It signaled the emergance of a leader, a Magadha ruler, Chandragupta I. Chandragupta successfully combated the foreign invasion and laid foundation of the great Gupta dynasty, the emperors of which ruled for the next 300 years, bringing the most prosperous era in Indian history. The reign of Gupta emperors can truly be considered as the golden age of classical Indian history. Srigupta I (270-290 AD) who was perhaps a petty ruler of Magadha (modern Bihar) established Gupta dynasty with Patliputra or Patna as its capital. He was succedded by his son Ghatotkacha (290-305 AD). Ghatotkacha was succeeded by his son Chandragupta I (305-325 ~8~
  9. 9. AD) who strengthened his kingdom by matrimonial alliance with the powerful family of Lichchavi who were rulers of Mithila. His marriage to Lichchhavi princess Kumaradevi, brought an enormous power, resources and prestige. He took advantage of the situation and occupied whole of fertile Gangetic valley. Chandragupta I eventually assumed the title of Maharajadhiraja (emperor) in formal coronation. Samudragupta (335 - 380 AD) succedded his father Chandragupta I. He was perhaps the greatest king of Gupta dynasty. Samudragupta enlarged the Gupta Kingdom by winning a series of battles till he was a master of northern India. Soon he defeated the kings of Vindhyan region (central India) and Deccan. He although made no attempt to incorporate the kingdoms of south of Narmada and Mahanadi rivers (southern India) into his empire. When he died his mighty empire bordered with Kushan of Western province (modern Afganistan and Pakistan) and Vakatakas in Deccan (modern southern Maharashtra). Samudragupta was a staunch Hindu and after all his military triumphs, he performed the Ashwamedha Yagna (Horse sacrifice ceremony) which is evident on some of his coins. Ashwamedha Yagna gave him the coveted title of Maharajadhiraj, the supreme king of kings. Vikramaditya (380 - 413 AD) the son of Samudragupta is the legendary emperor of India. More stories/legends are associated with him than any other ruler of India. It was during his (and his son Kumargupta) reign, India was at the pinnacle of prosperity and opulence. Although named after his grandfather Chandragupta, he took a title of Vikramaditya, which became a synonym for sovereign of tremendous power and wealth. Vikramaditya succeeded his father Samudragupta (possibly there was another prince, or his elder brother who ruled briefly, and according to legends slayed by Shakas). He married princess Kubernaga, daughter of Naga Chieftains and later gave his daughter Prabhavati in marriage to Rudrasena of powerful family of Vakatakas of the Deccan (modern Maharashtra). His most significant and well celebrated military achievement being total destruction of Kshatrapas, the Shaka (Scythian) rulers of Malawa and Saurashtra, the western India (modern Gujrath and neighbouring states). He scored a fantastic victory over the Kshatrapa rulers and incorporated these provinces into his increasing empire. The cool courage he showed in fight with Shakas and killing their king in their own city entitled him the epithets Shakari (destroyer of Shakas) or Sahasanka. He has also been ~9~
  10. 10. responsible for the era, popularly known as Vikram Samvat which commence in 58 BC. This era has been used by major Hindu dynasties and still in use in modern India. Vikramaditya was succeeded by his able son Kumargupta I (415 - 455 AD). He maintained his hold over the vast empire of his forebears, which covered most of India except southern four states of India. Later he too performed the Ashwamegha Yagna and proclaimed himself to be Chakrawarti, king of all kings. umargupta also was a great patron of art and culture; evidence exist that he endowed a college of fine arts at great ancient university at Nalanda, which fluorished during 5th to 12th century AD. Skandagupta (455 - 467 AD) took over the Gupta empire and soon had to face with the formidable enemy, the Huns (Hepthalites). He successfully repelled their early invasions and proved to be able king and administrator in time of crisis. In spite of heroic efforts of SkandaGupta, Gupta empire did not survive long the shock it received from invasion of the Huns and internal uprising of Pushyamitras. Although there was some sort of unity till reign of the last king Budhagupta in the 6th century AD. This period is regarded as the golden age of Indian culture. The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent and creative architecture, sculpture, and painting. The wall-paintings of Ajanta Cave in the central Deccan are considered among the greatest and most powerful works of Indian art. The paintings in the cave represent the various lives of the Buddha, but also are the best source we have of the daily life in India at the time. There are forty-eight caves making up Ajanta, most of which were carved out of the rock between 460 and 480, and they are filled with Buddhist sculptures. The rock temple at Elephanta (near Bombay) contains a powerful, eighteen foot statue of the three-headed Shiva, one of the principle Hindu gods. Each head represents one of Shiva's roles: that of creating, that of preserving, and that of destroying. The period also saw dynamic building of Hindu temples. All of these temples contain a hall and a tower. The greatest writer of the time was Kalidasa. Poetry in the Gupta age tended towards a few genres: religious and meditative poetry, lyric poetry, narrative histories (the most popular of the secular literatures), and drama. The greatest Mathematician of India Aryabhatta also belongs to this age. The Panchatantra and Kamasutra were written during this period. The Nalanda University in Bihar, came to fame during the Gupta rule. Unfortunately, very few monuments built during Gupta reign survive today. Examples of Gupta architecture are found in the Vaishnavite Tigawa temple at Jabalpur (in Madhya Pradesh state) ~ 10 ~
  11. 11. built in 415 AD and another temple at Deogarhnear Jhansi built in 510 AD. Bhita in Uttar Pradesh State has a number of ancient Gupta temples, most are in ruins. Because of extensive trade, the culture of India became the dominant culture around the Bay of Bengal, profoundly and deeply influencing the cultures of Burma, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka. In many ways, the period during and following the Gupta dynasty was the period of "Greater India," a period of cultural activity in India and surrounding countries building off of the base of Indian culture. Confucianism Confucianism is an ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (孔夫子 Kǒng Fūzǐ, or K'ung-fu-tzu, lit. "Master Kong", 551–479 BCE). Confucianism originated as an "ethical-sociopolitical teaching" during theSpring and Autumn Period, but later developed metaphysical and cosmological elements in the Han Dynasty.[1] Following the official abandonment of Legalism in China after theQin Dynasty, Confucianism became the official state ideology of the Han. Nonetheless, since the Han period onward, most Chinese emperors used a mix of Legalism and Confucianism as their ruling doctrine, often with the latter embellishing the former. In other words, Confucian values were used to sugarcoat the harsh Legalist ideas that underlie the Imperial system. The disintegration of the Han in the second century CE opened the way for the spiritual and otherworldly doctrines of Buddhism and Daoism to dominate intellectual life at that time. A Confucian revival began during the Tang dynasty. In the late Tang, Confucianism absorbed some aspects of Buddhism and Daoism and was reformulated (Neo-Confucianism). This reinvigorated form was adopted as the basis of the imperial examsand the core philosophy of the scholar official class in the Song dynasty. Neo-Confucianism turned into sometimes rigid orthodoxy over the following centuries. In popular practice, however, the three doctrines of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism were often melded together. The abolition of the examination system in 1905 marked the end of official Confucianism. The New Culture intellectuals of the early twentieth century blamed Confucianism for China's weaknesses. They searched for imported doctrines to replace it, such as the "Three Principles of the People" with the establishment of the Republic of China, and then Communism under ~ 11 ~
  12. 12. the People's Republic of China. In the late twentieth century, some people credited Confucianism with the rise of the East Asian economy and revived both in the People's Republic and abroad. The core of Confucianism is humanism, or what the philosopher Herbert Fingarette calls "the secular as sacred". Confucianism focuses on the practical, especially the importance of the family, and not a belief in gods or the afterlife. Confucianism broadly speaking does not exalt faithfulness to divine will or higher law. This stance rests on the belief that human beings are teachable, improvable and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor especially self-cultivation and self-creation. Confucian thought focuses on the cultivation of virtue and maintenance of ethics. Some of the basic Confucian ethical concepts and practices include ren, yi, and li. Ren is an obligation of altruism and humaneness for other individuals. Yi is the upholding of righteousness and the moral disposition to do good. Li is a system of norms and propriety that determines how a person should properly act in everyday life. Confucianism holds one in contempt, either passively or actively, for the failure of upholding the cardinal moral values of ren and yi. Historically, cultures and countries strongly influenced by Confucianism include mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Korea,Japan and Vietnam, as well as various territories settled predominantly by Chinese people, such as Singapore. Confucianism continues to influence the social customs and values of the region, but few people identify themselves as Confucians. Instead, people often see Confucian ethics as a complementary guideline for other ideologies and beliefs, including democracy, Marxism, Capitalism,Christianity, Islam and Buddhism. Taoism Taoism (modernly: Daoism) is a philosophical and religious tradition that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (modernly romanized as "Dao"). The term Tao means "way", "path" or "principle", and can also be found in Chinese philosophies and religions other than Taoism. In Taoism, however, Tao denotes something that is both the source and the driving force behind everything that exists. It is ultimately ineffable: "The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao." ~ 12 ~
  13. 13. While Taoism drew its cosmological notions from the tenets of the School of Yin Yang, its keystone work is widely regarded to be the Tao Te Ching, a compact and ambiguous book containing teachings attributed to Laozi (Chinese: 老子; pinyin: Lǎozǐ; Wade–Giles: Lao Tzu). Together with the writings of Zhuangzi, these two texts build the philosophical foundation of Taoism. This philosophical Taoism, individualistic by nature, is not institutionalized. Institutionalized forms, however, evolved over time in the shape of a number of differentschools. Taoist schools traditionally feature reverence for Laozi, immortals or ancestors, along with a variety of divination and exorcism rituals, and practices for achieving ecstasy, longevity or immortality. Taoist propriety and ethics may vary depending on the particular school, but in general tends to emphasize wu-wei (action through non-action), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures: compassion, moderation, and humility. Taoism has had profound influence on Chinese culture in the course of the centuries, andclerics of institutionalized Taoism (Chinese: 道士; pinyin: dàoshi) usually take care to note distinction between their ritual tradition and the customs and practices found in Chinese folk religion as these distinctions sometimes appear blurred. Chinese alchemy (especiallyneidan), Chinese astrology, Chan (Zen) Buddhism, several martial arts, Traditional Chinese medicine, feng shui, and many styles of qigong have been intertwined with Taoism throughout history. Beyond China, Taoism also had influence on surrounding societies in Asia. After Laozi and Zhuangzi the literature of Taoism grew steadily and used to be compiled in form of a canon – the Daozang, which was at times published at the behest of theemperor. Throughout Chinese history, Taoism was several times nominated as state religion. After the 17th century, however, it fell much from favor. Like all other religious activity, Taoism was suppressed in the first decades of the People's Republic of China(and even persecuted during the Cultural Revolution), but continued to be practised inTaiwan. Today, it is one of five religions recognized in the PRC, and although it does not travel readily from its Asian roots, claims adherents in a number of societies. LEGALISMO ~ 13 ~
  14. 14. In Chinese history, Legalism was a philosophy emphasizing strict obedience to the legal system. It was one of the main philosophic currents during the Warring States period. It was a utilitarian political philosophy that did not address higher questions like the purpose and nature of life.[1] The school's most famous proponent and contributor Han Fei believed that a ruler should use the following three tools to govern his subjects: Fa (Chinese: 法, p fǎ, lit. "law"): The law code must be clearly written and made public. All people under the ruler were equal before the law. Laws should reward those who obey them and punish accordingly those who dare to break them. Thus it is guaranteed that actions taken are systematically predictable. In addition, the system of law, not the ruler, ran the state, a statement of rule of law. If the law is successfully enforced, even a weak ruler will be strong. Shu (術, p shù, lit. "method"): Special tactics and "secrets" are to be employed by the ruler to make sure others don't take over control of the state. Especially important is that no one can fathom the ruler's motivations, and thus no one can know which behavior might help them get ahead, other than following the laws. Shi (勢, p shì, lit."legitimacy"): It is the position of the ruler, not the ruler himself or herself, that holds the power. Therefore, analysis of the trends, the context, and the facts are essential for a real ruler. NAMUNO ANG MGA MALALAKAS NA PINUNO SA TSINA Natamo ng Qin ang pamamahala sa tsina noong 221 BCE at kanilang pinasumulan ang bagong dinastiya na nagtaglay ng kaniyang pangalan. Maikli lamanng ang nagging panunungkulan ng mga Qin a tumagal lamang ng hanggang 207 BCE. Sa kanilang panunungkulan, umiral ang gobyernong walang takdang kapangyarihan. ~ 14 ~
  15. 15. Isang pinunong malakas ta may kakayahan ang nagbigay ng kapangyarihan. Ito ay nasa katauhan ni shi huangdi ang pangalang shi huangdi ay nangangahulugang “unang pinakamataas na emperador”. Pinairal ni Shi Huangdi, ang isang anyo ng batas para sa lahat ng bahagi ng imperyo. Ang mahigpit na pamamahala ay nagbigay-lakas sa gobyerno at magpahina sa kapangyarihan ng mga maharlika.Pinalawak din niya ang mga hangganan ng bansang tsina. Nagpatayo si Shi Huangdi ng mga daan sa lahat ng bahagi ng imperyo na nagging daan upang magkaroon ng ugnayan ang iab’t ibang rehiyon .siya rin ang nagpatayo ng GREAT WALL OF CHINA. ~ 15 ~

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