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Social justice and Rights


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Social justice and Rights

  1. 1. Social Justice and Rights Child Right and Poverty in Development Spring 11
  2. 2. Social Justice and Rights <ul><li>Social Justice : distribution of good, money and services </li></ul><ul><li>State & Market </li></ul><ul><li>Market is one important mechanism for distribution of social goods but only one. </li></ul><ul><li>Fairness is not the guiding principle </li></ul><ul><li>Objective to ensure life & freedom </li></ul>
  3. 3. Social Justice and Rights <ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Law : god or universal harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Rights => violation & demand </li></ul><ul><li>Human Rights: human being +moral concern + more relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Right holders ---- WHO? </li></ul><ul><li>Duty bearers ----- WHO? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Social Justice and Rights Isaiah Berlin Why should I (or anyone) obey anyone else? If I disobey, may I be coerced? By whom and to what degree? To coerce a person is to deprive him or her of freedom
  5. 5. Social Justice and Rights <ul><li>Freedom of what? Two senses: </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of being free- freedom/ liberty </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of acquire the capacity of being free </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to choose give the opportunity to decide what to do + also responsibility on what to do = accountability and demand of duty </li></ul><ul><li>Capability is the power and ability to do something for our own happiness </li></ul>
  6. 6. Social Justice and Rights Functional capabilities = basic building blocks that make human life possible and worthwhile (Martha Nussbaum) 1. Who define what interests and goods are basic or fundamental? In the case of children needs and rights are interpreted from adult point of view not as different others. What children are not yet 2. What about social realization and social power? Freedom from systematic oppression.Children as oppressed minority
  7. 7. Social Justice and Rights <ul><li>Freedom of what? Two senses: </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of being free- freedom/ liberty </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of acquire the capacity of being free </li></ul><ul><li>1. Freedom = avoid interference (from state)/ no action but protection against </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Civil and Political Rights </li></ul>
  8. 8. Social Justice and Rights 2. Capacity of being free = create capabilities/ proactive action Positive Rights Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Equal opportunities = Equity Positive conception of freedom --- Virtue as public action/altruism/solidarity Development as Freedom A. Sen
  9. 9. Social Justice and Rights <ul><li>Freedom --- Freedom from WHAT? </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from fear: </li></ul><ul><li>Political freedom, conflict prevention, hazard management, climate change adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from want: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to water, health, education, roads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedom to live in dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment, participation, legal reform. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Social Justice and Rights <ul><li>Theories of Distributive Justices: </li></ul><ul><li>LIBERALS </li></ul><ul><li>Utilitarian </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of justice/ Rawls </li></ul><ul><li>LIBERTARIAN </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIALISTS </li></ul>
  11. 11. Social Justice and Rights LIBERALS Utilitarian: Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, J. Stuart Mill, Pareto Two principles 1. Rational choice of individuals Information + free choice 2. Maximization of an economic wide WELFARE function Individual maximize their utility ==> Society maximize total utility Critics: total utility not care of distribution
  12. 12. Social Justice and Rights LIBERALS Theory of justice: John Locke, Rousseau, Kant, John Rawls Two liberal principles + Maximin principle “ Maximize the welfare of the LAST well-off (min) subject to the preservation of LIBERTY Priority to liberty over other values Greatest Equal Liberty Principle: Each person have the greatest liberty that is compatible with other people having the same liberty Critics: which liberties?, claims about greates liberty can not be value-free
  13. 13. Social Justice and Rights <ul><li>LIBERALS Theory of justice: Rawls’ basic liberties </li></ul><ul><li>Political liberty </li></ul><ul><li>Liberty of conscience </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom and right to hold personal property </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom determined by rule of law </li></ul><ul><li>Critics: according to Gray Rawls move from indeterminacy to arbitrariness => there are rival freedoms and tensions and conflicts among basic liberties and rights </li></ul><ul><li>e.I. Free speech vs violence or racism </li></ul><ul><li>CONFLICT AMONG BASIC LIBERTIES ARE NOT ANOMALIES </li></ul>
  14. 14. Social Justice and Rights <ul><li>LIBERTARIAN: Hayek, Robert Novik </li></ul><ul><li>Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Rational choice of individuals (same ) </li></ul><ul><li>Distributive outcomes result from self-ordering - the market order - and not the result of desing of central authority </li></ul><ul><li>Social outcomes can be good or bad but NOT just or unjust </li></ul><ul><li>Individual behavior can NOT be extrapolate to society </li></ul><ul><li>Critics: injustice in initial distribution (birth lottery) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Social Justice and Rights SOCIALIST: MARX Theory of exploitation Workers are the only souse of value creation => unequal exchange between workers and capital / social class struggle Critics: denied role entrepreneur and other factors of production ‘ Reconstructed’ Marxist: Ronald Dourking Consider other ‘internal resources’: talent, skills, ambition
  16. 16. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 PREAMBLE Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights . Social Justice and Rights
  17. 17. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS <ul><li>Article 1 </li></ul><ul><li>All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights . </li></ul>
  18. 18. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS <ul><li>Is there an universal core criterion of social justice? </li></ul><ul><li>YES HR but </li></ul><ul><li>Why violation of HR are so permanent and massive? </li></ul><ul><li>How can severe poverty of half of humankind continue? </li></ul><ul><li>Why the citizen of the affluent western states not find it morally troubling? => Double standards Thomas Pogge </li></ul>
  19. 19. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS <ul><li>All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights . </li></ul><ul><li>BUT millions of children and women do not enjoy their rights because of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty and inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict and violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and political exclusion and discrimination </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS <ul><ul><li>HR = people mobilization and struggle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not permanent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not fixed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claims about rights are the end-products of long and complicate chains of acts and reasoning </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS <ul><ul><li>Human Rights protect human interests that are often in conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of conflict among HR: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education: teachers’ strike vs. children right to education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive rights ( abortion) vs. right to survive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breastfeeding vs. mothers freedom </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS <ul><ul><li>How should Human Rights be conceived? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HR are not immutable truths, free-standing morals absolutes whose contents are self-evident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As human interest change or new issues appear so do rights </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS <ul><ul><li>The aim of HR is not to project a single regimen. Is to assure ‘Modus Vivendis’ among regimens that will always be different John Gray Two Faces of Lib </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The HRBA to development strengthens the State’s capacity to meet democracy’s expectations <ul><li>Directs attention and resources to the poorest, marginalized, and discriminated against </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters democratic participation, citizenship, and empowerment of the disenfranchised, women and youth </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters integrated solutions to problems of social development and disparities </li></ul><ul><li>Builds capacity of the state to assume its obligations and of people to claim their rights </li></ul><ul><li>Demands accountability </li></ul>