Eye on Defense- March 2013


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EY India's quarterly defense news letter.

  • For AMCA & Tejas MK2, MK3 fighters a commonality of engines is a dire-tatamount requirement, in order to cut overall projects costs well into the future- 2030's!! Two different engines from two different manufacturers is just wasting of funds for production and TCO's of these engines. Also, TVC nozzle is a MUST-requirement, at least for the future AMCA & MK3 Tejas versions! Sincerely hope that HAL ADA teams takes these factor into serious consideration, when they finally decide on what engines to go in for MK2 in the next year or so. Same manufacturer of engine for MK2 MUST provide TVC nozzles for future engine tranches.
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Eye on Defense- March 2013

  1. 1. Eye on defence March 2013 Dear readers, The Indian defense sector is currently in the middle of a storm. I sincerely hope that this does not derail our planned and ongoing procurement programs, which may then seriously affect the operational capability and morale of our armed forces. The Union Budget was presented in the Parliament on 28 February. Whether the Defense Budget grew by 5% or 14% is an argument that has not been settled yet. There is also uncertainty over the increase in the Defense Budget, especially when the exchange rate of the US dollar last year is compared to the one at present. We provide a high-level analysisContents of this year’s Defense Budget, and hope to help answer this query. India’s artillery modernization program has not made any ground level progress• Introduction 01 in the past two decades. In our article, we try to provide a holistic picture of the• India’s Defese Budget 2013–14: same. Thus, we have not limited ourselves to only large-caliber weapon systems. a high-level analysis 02 The range, accuracy and availability of missile systems are a potent force• Artillery modernization program of multiplier for any defense force. In our article we have attempted to present the the Indian Army 05 entire gamut of currently ongoing missile programs (purchase, indigenous, co-• Missile projects of India 13 develop) in India. We may, of course, have overlooked a few, and look forward to hearing from our readers for updates.• Request for information (RFI) (December 2012–March 2013) 23 Among the regular sections, we have industrial license applicants, new projects and investments, joint ventures and alliances, country-level deals and the latest• Request for proposals (December buzz in the industry. 2012–March 2013) 24• List of industrial licenses (ILs) filed for I hope you find the first issue of this year useful. It has been our constant the period between November 2012 endeavor to make this publication increasingly relevant to you and we will greatly and February 2013 27 appreciate your comments and suggestions in this regard.• New projects/investments/ contracts 29• Joint ventures and alliances 32 • Country-level deals and K. Ganesh Raj initiatives 35 Partner and Leader • Industry buzz 36 Aerospace and Defence Practice• Sources 42
  2. 2. India’s Defense Budget 2013–14:a high-level analysisAs part of the Union Budget presented in the Parliamentof India for fiscal year 2013–14, the allocation forcapital expenditure (mostly used for fresh procurementprograms of military hardware and platforms) was fixedat US$16.06 billion. This is an increase of 9 percentagepoints, as compared to the original planned capitalexpenditure of US$14.74 billion for the last fiscal year,2012–13.Overall, the budgetary allocation for India’s defenseforces has been raised to US$ 37.72 billion currently,as compared to the last fiscal year’s figure of US$35.82billion — an increase of 5.31 percentage points. Most ofIndia’s procurements are in US dollars (imports). If wecompare the current exchange rate to that prevailing inthe same time last year, we see that the US dollar hasappreciated by approximately 10% and, thus, the budgethas actually not seen any increase. For our graphs, we have taken the exchange rate at 1US$ = INR54 Total defense expenditure (US$ billion) 37.72 35.82 33.06 2012-13 (Budget) 2012-13 (Revised) 2013-14 (Budget)Percentage increase from 2012–13 (Budget): 5.31%Percentage increase from 2012–13 (Revised): 14.10%Eye on defence | 2
  3. 3. Capital budget for last year was reduced by INR100 In the current year, the Air Force has been allocatedbillion in January. The Navy and the Army were the ones approximately 29% of capital to procure aircraft andaffected most by this reduction. The Air Force, on the aero engines. With several past commitments (C-17;other hand, having already spent most of its allocation, P8I; C-130J first tranche; Basic Trainer, LCA, SU-30MKI)had remained largely untouched by the reduction. and other large programs under negotiation (Apache; Chinook; A330MRTT), the Air Force needs to evaluate Capital expenditure (US$ billion) whether it has adequate funds to sign the MMRCA contract in this financial year as the Ministry of Defence 16.06 14.74 (MoD) will have to make a down-payment of up to 15% of 12.88 the contract value to Dessault Aviation. This year, the Army has also allocated only INR10 million toward the ”Make” programs. This has made it almost impossible to expect any major progress in the tactical communication system (TCS), future infantry combat 2012-13 (Budget) 2012-13 (Revised) 2013-14 (Budget) vehicle (FICV) and battlefield management system (BMS) programs in the current financial year.Percentage increase from 2012–13 (Budget): 9.00%Percentage increase from 2012–13 (Revised): 24.67% Breakdown of capital expenditure (US$ billion)8.00 5.53 5.545.00 4.42 4.334.00 3.49 3.30 3.22 2.893.002.00 0.86 0.86 0.941.00 0.37 0.30 0.27 0.07 0.07 0.080.00 2012-13 (Budget) 2012-13 (Revised) 2013-14 (Revised) Army Navy Airforce Defence Ordnance Factories R&D OtherEye on defence | 3
  4. 4. Revenue expenditure (US$ billion) 21.65 21.08 20.17 Percentage increase from 2012–13 (Budget): 2.73% Percentage increase from 2012–13 (Revised): 7.35% 2012-13 (Budget) 2012-13 (Revised) 2013-14 (Budget)Breakdown of revenue expenditure (US$ billion)16.00 15.15 14.47 14.1114.0012.0010.00 8.00 6.00 3.28 3.17 3.39 4.00 2.32 2.11 2.26 2.00 1.11 0.96 1.03 0.00 -2.00 -0.10 -0.18 -0.17 2012-13 (Budget) 2012-13 (Revised) 2013-14 (Budget) Army Navy Air Force Defence Ordnance Factories R&DEye on defence | 4
  5. 5. Artillery modernization program —the Indian ArmyKeeping in mind the dismal state of artillery, the Army Artillery Imports — Indiainitiated an Artillery Modernization Program or Field 70Artillery Rationalization Plan (FARP) in 1999. Key 60acquisitions included: Amiunt in $ million 50• 155 mm Towed guns 40• 155 mm Air Mobile Ultra Light Howitzers 30 20• 155 mm Wheeled guns 10• 155 mm Self-propelled tracked and wheeled guns 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011• 155 mm Mounted gun systemsMulti-barrel rocket launchers, missiles, surveillance Source: SIPRI, Compiled by Q-Tech Synergyand counter bombardmentequipment, ammunition andcommunication equipmentwere also acquired.Indian Army’s artillerymodernization plan hasbeen a non-starter over thelast two decades for various INR 28 billionreasons. Each of the Army’s180 artillery regiments has18 guns, and they have notreceived any new equipmentsince the last majoracquisition of 410 pieces of39-calibre 155 mm FH-77B INR 32 billionhowitzers from AB Bofors in1987. Furthermore, between INR 47 billion2000 and 2011, India spentonly around US$277 millionto procure artillery items,mainly propelling chargesand other items. Ten years INR 85 billionis almost one-third of thelife of the main equipment. INR 34 billionSchedule replacement shouldhave ensured the inductionof almost one-third of theplanned equipments by now.Eye on defence | 5
  6. 6. The Government needs to acquire between 2,700 and attempt by the MOD to procure these guns, which are3,600 guns over the next 15 to 20 years. The Army has expected to equip nine regiments. Another procurementissued several tenders for procuring types of Howitzers, of 100 155 mm self-propelled tracked guns, neededbut has failed to follow up with selection and contracts to arm five regiments, is currently underway. For this,due to various reasons. Procuring towed Howitzers for 79 a fresh RFP was issued in 2009 after the indigenousregiments is the key requirement at the moment. After DRDO BHIM program (Denel G-6 gun on Arjun tankfour failed attempts, the Army came out with a fresh chassis) was scrapped in 2006. At present, the tendersglobal request for proposal (RFP) for these guns at the of the contenders are being formulated on technicalbeginning of 2011. The evaluation process is currently parameters. The Army also needs 814 155 mm mountedexpected to be under way. Furthermore, , India is guns to arm its 40 regiments (RFP expected to be issuedprocuring 145 M-777 Ultra Light Howitzers (ULHs) from soon). These are required for upgrading the firepower ofa US-based company, BAE System, through the Foreign the Army’s mountain-based artillery regiments. Over andMilitary Sales (FMS) route. These howitzers are expected above these procurements, there is a requirement of 1,to equip seven medium-artillery regiments. The Minister 50,000 rounds of 155 mm ammunition (of all types).of Defense has also initiated the procurement of Wheeled The following table illustrates the programs for 155Self-Propelled 155mm guns and has re-floated a fresh mm howitzers related to the Indian Army’s Artilleryglobal request for information (RFI). This is the fourth Modernization Programme: Type Total quantity Category Cost Likely contenders Status 155 mm Total: 1580 Buy US$1.78 Nexter (France) RFP for these guns was issued at towed gun 400 (direct billion Elbit (Israel) the beginning of 2011. BAE did not purchase) + Both are confirmed respond. The first set of trials related 30% offset 1180 (to be built contenders. to this is currently taking place in indigenously) Rajasthan. 155 mm 100 Buy US$778 Nexter, BAE A fresh RFP was issued in 2009. The tracked million tenders of the contenders are currently Gun under formulation. 155 mm 145 Buy US$647 BAE Systems The Army is expected to procure Ultra Light (through million M-777 ULHs from BAE Systems Howitzer FMS) through the FMS program. 155 mm Total: 400 Buy-Make US$889 Konstrukta Defence A fresh RFI was issued in 2012. wheeled (Global) million – Konštrukta; 180 (direct self- SpGHZuzana 2; purchase) + propelled Nexter CAESAR; BAE- 220 (to be built gun Bofors FH77 BW L52 indigenously) Archer; Samsung Techwin 155 mm Total: 814 Buy-Make US$1.9 Not known Government approval has been given, mounted 200 (direct (Global) billion and the procurement process is gun purchase) + expected to commence soon. 614 (to be built indigenously)Source Compiled By: Q-Tech SynergyEye on defence | 6
  7. 7. Indigenous artillery systems extended range (base bleed) ammunition and rocket- assisted ammunition at the desired range. The platformThe MOD has issued a letter of intent for the Ordnance has ammunition-carrying capacity of 26 projectiles andFactory Board (OFB) to manufacture approximately 26 charges on board. The main weapon, along with its114 155 mm 52 caliber Howitzers utilizing the sub assemblies, is expected to be manufactured in Indiadrawings earlier transferred by Bofors. The project on transfer of technology (ToT).is worth INR12.6 billion (US$352 million). OFB isalready engaged in locally producing most of the gun’s With the procurements not making much headway,components, including the barrel, breach mechanism, owing to repeated cancellations of RFP or blacklistingmuzzle break, loading trough, recoil system, elevation of firms, the MOD has been considering changing theand traversing cylinders. categorization of its artillery program from “Buy and Make (Global)” to simply “Buy and Make”. This is likelyIn addition to the manufacture of FH77 B02 155 mm/ to help include domestic defense companies in the52 caliber Howitzers, the DRDO and the Indian Army international bidding process.are expected to develop a fully indigenous 155 mm/52 caliber gun. ARDE, a Pune-based DRDO laboratory,has been spearheading the project. Recently, it held an Force multipliersinteraction with various Indian private sector industries Beside the guns, a number of force multipliers are crucialto explore the feasibility of involving private firms in the for the modernization of artillery in the army. Thesedevelopment of Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System include the following:(ATAGS). • Precision-guided and extended range munitions.Until recently, the manufacturing of weapon systemswas the sole preserve of the government sector, which • Bi-modular charge systemshad the requisite technological infrastructure and the • Electronic fusesfacilities. However, in recent years, the Indian privatesector, with its superior technical and manufacturing • Automated fire control systemsskills, has taken on the challenge. As a case in point, • Medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAVs andTata Power SED has developed a prototype 155 mm, 52 high-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAVscaliber truck- mounted gun-Howitzer. Mounted on an 8x8truck, the gun is 50% indigenous and has been set up for • Forward observer equipmentdynamic firing trials, followed by road trials. The weaponsystem has tactical and road-strategic mobility. It has a Precision-guided munitions (PGMs)range of 600 km without refueling, and can travel at aspeed of up to 85 km/hour. It can fire all kinds of 155 The artillery needs large quantities of precision-guidedmm NATO standard rounds, standard HE ammunition, munitions (PGMs) for accurate targeting. However, PGMs still need to enter service in numbers large enough to make a real difference. Precision Guidance Kit (PGK) 155 mm projectile accuracyEye on defence | 7
  8. 8. Less than 1% of Indian munition is precision-guided. modules and 100,000 low-zone modules. In JuneThe present stocking levels are rather low. Previously, 2005, a ban was imposed on Denel, and the contractIndia had imported 3,000 Krasnapol terminally guided with Denel was cancelled. By then, Denel had suppliedmunitions (TGMs) and 81 laser designators from Russia 178,000 high-zone modules, of which only 87,750 werefor INR5.22 billion. These have failed to perform accepted. The remaining 90,500 were rejected in joint-adequately. Further, last year, a deal worth US$100 receipt inspection. Thus, of the total 300,000 high-zonemillion was signed with Israel’s Rafael for 500 NGPGMs. modules, only 87,750 were received/ accepted. Another contract was signed in March 2009 between OFB andThe Indian Army has a huge requirement of about IMI of Israel to set up an ordnance complex of five plants50,000 155 mm PGMs. Some global procurement has in Nalanda, Bihar. The collaboration was touted as beingalso been initiated in this regard by way of issuance of able to manufacture 155 mm bi-modular charge systemsRFIs by the Defence Ministry, as indicated below. and other propellant charges for heavy-caliber artillery Date of Issue Product Category Quantity Worth Remarks 31 March 10 120 mm long- Buy Not US$25million Key companies expected to range mortars with specified respond to the tenders: ammunition system • BAE Systems Raytheon 14 May 10 155 mm trajectory- Buy Not US$25 million– correctable specified US$30 million • Israel’s IAI Russia’s KBP munitions Instrument Design Bureau 29 August 11 120 mm mortar Buy Not Not known • ATK terminally guided specified munitions(TGM) 2008 Sensor-fused Buy-Make 4800 US$120 million Not known munitions (SFM)Source Compiled By: Q-Tech Synergy ammunition at a project cost of US$260 million. AnBi-modular charge systems (BMCS) advance amount of US$120 million was paid to IMI. However, due to the controversy regarding IMI deals, thisBMCSs are the propellants required to fire ammunition contract was cancelled.of high-caliber Howitzers and artillery guns. BMCSproduction in Indiahas been marred Current charges Modular charges Modular charge benefitswith controversies. In PerformanceFebruary 2002, the • Permits higher rate of fireproject in Nalanda was • Extends performanceslated to be undertaken • Improved logisticsby the South Africanfirm Denel and an Costinitial US$60 million • More economical then current chargeswas spent. At the same • Allows for up to 20% savings in O&S coststime, a second contractwas signed with M/s Environmental • Virtually eliminates burning residualDenel for the supply chargesof 300,000 high-zone • Eliminates Lead • Significant reduction in volatile organic compounds during manufactureEye on defence | 8
  9. 9. Thus, plagued by delays in procurement owing to a series Electronic fusesof failed attempts at producing critical componentsfor artillery shells, OFB has decided to take on the India continues to use mechanical fuses over electronicresponsibility to produce BMCS indigenously. OFB has fuses, as the former offer greater precision. Currently,now tied up with the DRDO to locally produce bi-modular there is a deficiency of more than 1 million electroniccharges that have already undergone trials. The MoD has fuses for artillery guns alone. Owing to limited sourcenot set a timeline for the project. OFB hopes to make the of supply, the timeline for meeting the immediateplants fully functional by early 2013, and ready the final requirement of 1 million fuses is anticipated to beproducts soon thereafter. five to six years. However, at this stage, it will be difficult to predict the timeline for the completeSignificantly, the Army issued an RFI for BMCS for 155 transformation of fuse inventory to its electronic mode.mm Howitzers in 2011. Recently, OFB has issued an The rate of acquisition is expected to be incrementedExpression of Interest for the design, fabrication, supply, by approximately 15%–20% each year. The absence oferection and commissioning of the following plants: indigenous capability in the electronic fuses technology• Single-base propellant plant and its variants offers market opportunity to establish a JV to fill the void. Taking the average price of an• NC-NG paste plant electronic fuse to be US$ 300 (INR15,000) , the existing• Triple base propellant market can be pegged at approximately US$30 million (INR1500 million). The requirement is bound to increase• Combustible components manufacturing plant when conversion for mortars takes place. Since electronicThese plants are required for establishing manufacturing time fuses will have applications for air defense, navalfacilities for BMCS for 155 mm gun ammunition. and air platforms, the annual market size for electronic fuses may be closer to US$ 2 billion ( INR100 billion). RFPs issued for electronic fuse for 155 mm, 130 mm and105 mm Caliber Total Variants Quantity Respondent 730 quantity 155 mm 392300 Percussion 290700 BEL, ECIL,HBL, 490 Proximity 50700 Micron 450 Carrier Shell 50900 320 300 130 mm 286900 Percussion 256900 BEL, ECIL, Yugo 210 Proximity 25000 Export, HBL Carrier Shell 5000 105 mm 320800 Percussion 150000 BEL, ECIL 2015 2017 2019 Proximity 50800 Quantity (in 000) Cost (in INR million) Carrier Shell 120000Eye on defence | 9
  10. 10. Automated fire control systems Market potential in IndiaAn automated artillery fire-control system (FCS) links fire Since its first purchase of UAVs in the late 1990s,direction centers, gun positions and forward observers. India has reportedly bought UAV platforms worthFCS comprises all the equipment needed, including digital approximately US$1.3 billion . Keeping in mind thecommunication and differential GPS, to accomplish present small holding of UAV systems with the Indianartillery tasks ranging from the observer’s instruments armed forces, and also the recently issued tenders forand fire direction center to fire positions. It enables fast the acquisition of various types of UAV platforms by thereaction time of artillery, firing accuracy and optimal Indian MOD, the UAV segment promises an opportunityefficiency with minimal use of ammunition. It is also greater than US$2 million–US$3 billion in capitalsoldier-friendly. Modern fire-control systems are also able procurement over the next 5–10 years (2012–2020).to aim and fire the weapon(s). The Government, acknowledging the force multiplier role that UAVs are expected to play in the present andFCS is used not only for artillery guns but also in naval emerging network-centric warfare scenario as well asships, tanks, aircraft and helicopters. DRDO has designed the current Naxal situation, has started investing heavilyand developed electro-optical fire control system for in UAVs/UCAVs to meet the armed forces’ operationalthe Navy. The FCS for the T-90 tank was developed with requirements. India is expects to acquire almost all typesthe help of Elbit, Israel. Apart from this, FCS has been of UAVs — tactical UAVs (TUAVs), HALE UAVs, verticaldeveloped in-house by Tata Power SED for its 155 mm, take-off and landing (VTOL) UAVs and MALE UAVs within52 caliber artillery gun. the forecast period of 2012–2020.No RFI has been floated for automated FCS. Anticipated share of UAVs in Indian defense expenditure (in percentage)Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVS) Others 25%In simple terms, UAVs can be described as aerial vehiclesthat operate without a human pilot. UAVs, in addition Air 30%to their main role of intelligence, surveillance, andreconnaissance missions, have entered the domains Naval 15%of electronic attack, strike missions, suppression anddestruction of enemy air defense, communication relays, Land 15%combat search and rescue, and derivations of thesethemes. UAVs or drones are increasingly becoming R&D 10%a part of the Indian armed forces. Furthermore, the C4ISR 4%forces have been operating UAVs for over a decade.The country presently operates Israeli Searcher Tactical UAVs 1%UAVs, Heron Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE)UAVs and Harpy 2 UAVs. Over and above these foreign 0% 10% 20% 30% 40%procurements, all the defense services have indigenously Source: Compiled by Q-tech synergydeveloped UAVs — Nishant and Lakshya — in theirinventory, with more such in the pipeline. It cannot bedenied that India has made some progress in this field.However, it has a long way to go, as the Indian armedforces, including the paramilitary forces, still require alarge number of UAVs in order to meet their military andcivil needs.Eye on defence | 10
  11. 11. MALE and HALE UAVs Procurements in the pipelineThe Indian Army’s current UAV fleet includes Israel The Army has IAI-supplied MALE Herons. HavingAerospace Industries’ Searcher-I, Searcher-II and Heron procured 50 Herons, the Army is expected to purchase UAVs. The time has come for the Army to urgently two more troops (six to eight each) of advanced Heronconsider the induction of unmanned combat air vehicles UAVs from Israel for INR11.18 billion (US$225 million).(UCAVs) armed with air-to-surface missiles into service However, given that the Indian Army has HALE UAVs infor air-to-ground precision attacks. MALE UAV flies at an its inventory, there is a huge requirement for them in thealtitude of up to 30,000 feet for extended durations of Indian armed forces.time, typically for 24 to 48 hours, and has a range of up Apart from the previously outright purchase of MALEto 500 km. On the other hand, HALE UAVs fly typically UAVs, the Defence Ministry has initiated a program byat an altitude of 60,000–65,000 feet, at an airspeed of issuing a global RFI for the procurement of unspecifiedmore than 300 knots (560 km/hour). HALE UAVs for the three defense services. Indigenous design and development efforts are also underway, owing to the Governmental push for increased indigenous capability. However, these efforts have seen limited success. Some of the ongoing foreign and indigenous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) programs with regard to MALE and HALE have been given in the table below: Program Manufacturer Approx. Cost Remarks quantity HALE UAVs — foreign procurements HALE Undecided Unspecified US$175 The MOD, in 2009, issued an RFI to initiate the UAVs million procurement of an unspecified number of HALE UAVs (approx.) for the Army, Navy and Air Force. As of now, the RFP is awaited. HALE UAVS — indigenous procurements “Nishant” ADE 12 US$4.47 The Army has already inducted four such drones, which UAV million each can be launched from hydro-pneumatic launchers (approx.) without the need of runways. Eight more are being manufactured. MALE UAVs — indigenous procurements Rustom-I DRDO --- US$ 230 The Cabinet Committee on Security has cleared the million project for 10 Rustom MALE UAVs worth US$230 (approx.) million. Rustom-II DRDO, ADE and 10 US$ 342.25 The first prototype is expected to be ready by the end HALE one selected million of 2013, and the first flight is likely to occur in the first production (approx.) quarter of 2014. The designing of Rustom-II has been agency cum completed, and agencies are selecting a development development partner. Major private sector defense companies have partner submitted their proposal for this. Solar- DRDO ---- --- As of now, the initial work is in progress and a search Powered for a development partner is on. DRDO also has an HALE UAV independent unmanned surveillance air vehicle in the course.Eye on defence | 11
  12. 12. Forward observer equipment measure range, azimuth and vertical angle may also be used for fire control by FOs.Primary tasks of the forward observer (FO) are targetacquisition and fire control. For this, he must be Besides being rugged, the sophistication of the FOadequately equipped. Not only must the FO be able equipment is expected to improve along with theto detect targets in all weathers and during the day or equipment’s portability and ergonomics. Future systemsnight, he must also be able to report the position of are expected to offer infrared illuminating and pointingthese targets to artillery units, other troops or aircraft. laser with longer-range detection, improved image clarityEarlier, the FO used to be equipped with a radio and a and better data sharing capabilities.binocular for this task. Today communications (radio orotherwise) and modems with data inputting capability It is imperative that we think rationally and keepform an integral and important requirement of an FO. logistics in mind while considering the aboveOther equipment for the FO may include binoculars, procurements. Each armament/weapon procuredlaser rangefinder (typically for a range of 5 km), pointer, increases the existing inventory. This leads to aa global positioning system (GPS), digital magnetic variety of calibers, and the associated accessories,compass, digital camera and a hand-held thermal imager such as charges and fuses, each particular to a gun,(HHTI) for surveillance and reconnaissance applications makes the matrix complicated for a normal soldier toduring night. Laser range-finder binoculars, which can handle.Eye on defence | 12
  13. 13. Missile projects of IndiaA missile offers a number of features, such as range, as the production agency. DRDO was also permittedaccuracy, ease of usage and deployment, low readiness significant political discretion to select and build newtime, high flight speeds and accuracy. These add to missile projects.its element of surprise and make it a potent weapon To build the missile portfolio of India, The indigenousof choice among military planners. India has a mature Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP)missile development program which, in contrast to was sanctioned in July 1983. The program has comedevelopment and procurement programs of other a long way since then, and has many achievements toplatforms, has been proceeding largely on schedule, its credit. The program initially comprised the strategicdespite inevitable delays in certain systems. Most missile Agni ballistic missile, the tactical Prithvi ballistic missile,programs have moved from the development to the the Akash and Trishul surface-to-air missiles and the Nagproduction phase in recent years and have provided anti-tank guided missile. Later, Project K-15 was alsosystems and products that cover a large portion of the added to the program. Various missiles that are still inspectrum of land, air and sea-based platforms. The joint their development phase under the IGMDP include theproduction and foreign procurement effort also seems to Surya ICBM, the Dhanush SLBM, the Sagarika SLCM,be proceeding smoothly. the Trishul SAM, and the Astra Beyond Visual RangeHistorically, India’s quest for missile technology has Air-to-Air missile (BVRAAM). Besides TRISHUL, all othernot been smooth. After India test-fired the first Prithvi missiles have been inducted into the armed forces. Onmissile in 1988 and the first Agni missile in 1989, 7 May 2008, DRDO closed the IGMDP and declared itthe Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) led by a success. This was complemented by joint projects,Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK and the such as BRAHMOS and Barak, which were developedUS restricted India’s access to any technology that may through collaboration with other nations having betterhelp the country in its missile development program. technological advancement and global procurementAll the signatory nations of the MTCR were barred from programs in areas, such as air defense, air-to-air missilesproviding critical missile technologies to India. Given and torpedoes.these technology denial regimes and western monopoly This article attempts to outline India’s development andon critical missile technologies, it became imperative procurement programs in missiles and their systems.for India to develop indigenous source of missiles and These will be studied under the following major heads:become self-sufficient. 1. Air defense programsA slew of public sector firms with independent researchlaboratories were set up throughout country to develop 2. Air-to-air missilestechnologies, sub systems, materials, testing facilities 3. Naval missiles and torpedoesand system integrating agencies, led by DefenceResearch Development Organization (DRDO) as the 4. Land-based and Ballistic missiles systemsdevelopment agency and Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL)Eye on defence | 13
  14. 14. Air Defense Programs of India Rafael Advanced Defense Systems signed a deal in December 2008 for 18 systems. These 18 systems will1. Program: Very Short Range Air Defence Missile replace Russian OSA - AKM (SA-8 Gecko) and ZRK BDSystem (VSHORAD 6-10Km) Strela – 10M (SA-13 Gopher) SAM systems.Ownership: All three forces Rafael is the prime contractor and IAI the major subcontractor for the SPYDER program. SPYDAR usesEstimated size : INR270 billion the Python and Derby Missiles by Rafael. The radar isBackground: Initial requirement is for 800 launchers and from Elta.5,185 missiles. Eventually, as many as 15,000 units may Current situation: Currently, three systems have beenbe procured. These will replace the existing SA-18 IGLA delivered. Furthermore, Rafael is planning a verticalVery Short Range Air Defense Systems. launch medium range system for SPYDAR, similar to thatFive vendors submitted bids against a Buy Global of the SPYDAR Short Range SAM.tender floated by India’s MoD. These include Russia’sRosoboronexport (IGLA), French Thales (Starstreak), 3. Program: Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air MissileSouth Korea’s LIG Nex1 (KP-SAM Shin-Kung), Sweden’s System (QRSAM; 15 km)SAAB (RBS-70 NG0) and France’s MBDA (Mistral). Four Ownership: Indian Armyvendors were reportedly selected for field evaluationtrials scheduled for May 2012. The Thales Starstreak Estimated size : INR45 billionsystem was eliminated after technical evaluation. Background: This is the Indian Army’s effort to acquireThe three contenders currently standing after field trials a quick reaction SAM similar to the procurement ofare France’s MBDA Mistral, Sweden’s Saab RBS 70 NG SPYDER by the IAF.and Russia’s KBM new generation IGLA-S. The army wants to purchase a quick reaction system thatCurrent position: Quality assurance tests at Bangalore can engage targets at a range of 15 km at a minimumand a check-out of the electronics systems on the three altitude of 6,000 meter in less than 6 seconds. It wantsremaining contenders in Ladakh is currently being done. the new systems to have the ability to fire two missilesIn the current phase, there is also expected to be a at a time, and simultaneously guide them to the desireddiscussion on ToT with the default license manufacturing targets.partner Bharat Dynamics Ltd. The MoD released an RFI on 29 January 2010. Approval to procure eight regiments of QR-SAMs worth over2. Program: Low Level Quick Reaction Missile System INR100 billion was accorded in the DAC meeting in(LLRQM; 15 km) June 2012, of which three may be procured during theOwnership: Indian Air Forces ongoing Twelfth Defence PlanEstimated size : INR45 billion Current situation: The army is now expected to issue a global request for proposal to procure these missiles toBackground: In June 2006, SPYDER was selected by replace the Russian-origin Kvadrats. The likely contendersthe Indian Army for protection against Aircraft UAV, in this project include the American Raytheon, the Israelihelicopters, bombers. The procurement was finally Rafael and the French MBDA.approved by the Indian Defence Acquisitions Council inJuly 2008. A contract worth US$1 billion for 18 SPYDERsystems was awarded to Rafael in September 2008without any ToT.Eye on defence | 14
  15. 15. 4. Program: Short Range Surface-to-Air Missile 6. Program: Akash Surface-to-Air Missile SystemSystem (SRSAM; 15–20 km) (25–30 km)Ownership: All forces Ownership: Indian Army and Indian Air ForceEstimated size : INR300 billion Estimated size : INR250 billionBackground: To plug the gap left by the cancellation of Background: This requirement is being fulfilled by thethe Trishul project, DRDO had decided to pursue a joint iconic Akash medium-range mobile surface-to-air missiledevelopment program with MBDA. This project was defense system developed by the DRDO, Ordnancenamed the “Maitri Project” and was estimated to be Factories Board (OFB) and Bharat Electronics (BEL).Theworth USD5 billion. Even after four years of negotiations production agency of Akash Missile is BDL. The systemwith the French MBDA, India and France were not able to has been mounted on T 72 Chassis for mobility.agree on terms of funding and technology transfers for The Army has placed an order worth INR150 billion forthe project. 2000 missiles with BDL, in addition to launchers, groundCurrent position: There have been recent developments stations and radars. The Air Force has placed an orderafter the French PM’s visit to India. The Maitri project worth INR10 billion. In March 2011, the acquisition washas been revived and negotiations concluded at a cost of cleared by the Cabinet Committee on Security.US$6 billion for the joint project. The missiles will be used Current position: The first batch of these missiles for theby the Indian Air Force and the Navy. Army rolled out in September 2012. The IAF has already inducted two squadrons of the Akash Missile.5. Program: Short Range Surface-to-Air MissileSystem (SRSAM; 15–20 km) DRDO has started work on the development of Akash Mk-II version, and it is expected to be ready for its firstOwnership: Indian Army flight in 24 months. The Akash Mk-II is likely to be aEstimated size : INR300 billion longer-range, faster and more accurate SAM. The missile is expected to have an intercept range of 30–35 km andBackground: The Army wanted an SRSAM system that increase the accuracy of the missile’s guidance and firewould be able to engage multiple targets, including those control system.flying up to 500 meter per second, such as UAVs, fighterand surveillance aircraft and helicopters, and have a 7. Program: Medium Range Surface-to-Air Missilemaximum range of not less than 15 km. System (MRSAM; 70–80 km)The Indian Army recently sent RFIs in May 2010 and Ownership: Indian Army and Indian Air Forcesubsequently the RFP in mid 2012. It is understood thatthe RFP was sent to Raytheon of the US, Israel’s Rafael, Estimated size : INR100.75 billionFrance’s MBDA and Thales, Germany’s Diehl Defence, Background: India has started cooperating with Israel onRussia’s KBP Tula and Rosoboronexport, Ukraine’s the Barak program for short range SAMs for the Navy,Ukraineexport, Sweden’s SAAB and South Korea’s LIG and has bought missiles of the Barak I variety worthNEX1. “Maitri” may also participate in this program. US$300 million.The tender is for two regiments (36 systems, 1,000 Following the success of Barak 1 system with the Navy, amissiles), estimated to cost approximately US$800 JV was announced in February 2006 between the Israelimillion each. The total requirement is likely to be about firms, Israeli Aerospace Industries (IAI), RAFAEL andeight regiments in the next five to seven years. the DRDO to co-develop the medium-range air defenseCurrent position: Technical evaluation of the proposals system with a range of 70 km for the Navy. The cost ofis currently underway, and trials are slated for this program is estimated to be approximately US$2commencement in the coming winter months. billion. Simultaneously, in July 2006, work commenced on the land variant, MRSAM. The surface-to-air variant is expected to be a derivation of the proposed naval variant and may replace the ageing Pechora systems of the IAF.Eye on defence | 15
  16. 16. This program was christened Barak 8. It was cleared by interception. The two-tiered shield is expected to be ablethe CCS in December 2008. to intercept any incoming missile launched 5,000 km away.In the long term, this four to five year long project aimsto provide India’s military with nine advanced air defense Current position: A new missile by the name of PDVsquadrons, each with two MR-SAM firing units. Each unit, seems to have currently replaced the PAD, with anin turn, is expect to comprise a command and control effective capability to go up to altitudes of 150 km andcenter, acquisition radar, guidance radar and three above.launchers with eight missiles each. Therefore, the total Also under development are the missiles named AD1 andorder is expected to be of 10 C2 centers, 18 acquisition AD2, which can intercept IRBMs and have an effectiveradars, 18 guidance radars, and 54 launchers, armed capacity to go up to altitudes of 150 km at hypersonicwith 432 ready-to-fire missiles. speeds.The missile is from Rafael/ BMC4I is supplied by MBTDivision of IAI Missile Systems and Space Group. TheElta supplies the radar. Indian firms are expected to 9. Missile on offer: Interceptor Missile Systems (70contribute the dual-pulse rocket motor, associated motor km)arming/safing mechanisms and the pneumatic actuationsystem. Ownership: Indian ArmyCurrent position: The trials of the MRSAM system are Background: Rafael is offering its “Iron Dome” rocketlikely to take place in 2013–14 and the induction of the interceptor to the Indian army, which is expected to befirst firing unit into the Services is being planned in the using it against missile attacks. Rafael is also developingthird quarter of 2014. its longer range rocket and ballistic missile interceptor — the “David’s Sling” — scheduled for completion in late8. Program: Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile system 2014. The range of Iron Dome using the Stunner missileor Interceptor Missile System (LRSAM; 150 km) is said to be up to 70 km, while that of “David’s Sling” is said to be 70–250 km, with Arrow 2 and Arrow 3Ownership: All forces missiles.Estimated size: Unknown Current position: The Indian Amy has shown someBackground: As part of the Indian Ballistic Missile interest in purchasing the interceptor system. However,Defence Programme, there is a two-tiered system there seems to be more interest in the “David’s Sling”comprising two interceptor missiles — the Prithvi Air longer-range rocket and missile interceptor than the IronDefence (PAD) missile for high altitude interception and Dome, as it is felt that India’s airspace is too large for athe Advanced Air Defence (AAD) missile for lower altitude short-range system like the Iron Dome.Eye on defence | 16
  17. 17. Air-to-air missile programs of India 3. Program: Short Range Air-to-Air Missile (SRAAM) Ownership: Indian Air Force1. Program: Medium Range Beyond Visual Range Air- Estimated size: INR9 billion (approximately)to-Air Missile (BVRAAM; 50 km)Ownership: Indian Air Force Background: To upgrade its fleet of Jaguar strike jets, India had released a tender to buy short-rangeEstimated size : Unknown infrared homing missiles. RFP was sent to five missileBackground: The indigenous Tejas Light Combat Aircraft manufacturers, including the Raytheon Corporationneeded to be equipped with medium- range BVRAAM from the US, Raphael from Israel, the Europeanmissiles. DRDO had established an indigenous program to missile consortium, MBDA and Diehl from Germany. develop a BVRAAM, but due to delays in its development Approximately 250 to 300 missiles are to be inducted.and the urgency to complete the LCA for user trials, India Current position: Last year, Diehl’s IRIS-T was eliminatedwent to the global market to procure these missiles. from the competition, ahead of field evaluation trials.The IAF was offered the Python and Derby missiles. The Thus, the current competition is between the RafaelDerby missile already equips India’s Sea Harrier jets and Python-5 and MBDA’s Advanced Short Range Air-To-AirSPYDAR anti-aircraft system. Missile (ASRAAM). MBDA is participating in these trials along with its partners ELBIT (Targo Dash V HMS) andCurrent position: LCA Tejas’ twin-seat trainer mock-up on Cobham (JOWL — Jaguar Overwing Missile Launcher).display at Aero India 2013 showed it alongside a Rafael Rafael Python, along with the SPYDAR system, hasPython-5 IR short-range air-to-air missile, Rafael Derby already been bought by India.BVRAAM, Astra BVRAAM and R 73 of Russia. However,this may be a temporary arrangement till the completion 4. Program: Aerial Combat Fire and Forget Missileof the development of Astra. Ownership: Indian Air Force2. Program: Astra Active Radar Homing Beyond Estimated size: INR60 billionVisual Range Air-to-Air Missile (BVRAAM; 80 km) Background: To upgrade its fleet of French Mirage 2000Ownership: Indian Air Force aircraft and replace Matra Super 530D medium-rangeEstimated size : Unknown and Magic-II short-range missiles, India decided to buy the 490 MICA interception and aerial combat fire andBackground: The missile is being developed by the forget air-to-air missile from MBDA, France. This deal wasDRDO to arm various IAF aircraft, including the Tejas, cleared by the Cabinet Committee on Security in JanuarySu-30 MKI, Mirage 2000 and even the Sea Harrier. 2012.Development of BVRAAM started in 2003, and currentlythe development trials are being held. User trials by The missiles are expected to be deployed on thethe IAF can begin only once these trials have been 51 Mirage 2000 aircraft, two of which are alreadycompleted. Current position: Last successful trials of this undergoing upgrades at French facilities (the rest will bemissile were held in December 2012, both from ground upgraded at HAL India) by weapon integrator Thales andlauncher and captive Su 30, to test maneuverability and Dassault as part of a mid-life upgrade.target intercept. It is expected to enter user trials by Current Position: The delivery of missiles is expected to2014. start by 2015, and the integration is likely to be carried out at Hindustan Aeronautic Limited (HAL) in Bangalore.Eye on defence | 17
  18. 18. 5. Program: Brahmos Air-launched Version 6. Program: Sensor Fused Weapon Ownership: Indian Air Force Ownership: Indian Air ForceEstimated size: INR60 billion Estimated size: INR15.39 billionBackground: Brahmos is a supersonic cruise missile that Background: A request for cluster munitions was madecan be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or by the Indian Government to the US Government inland. It is a joint venture between the Republic of India 2008 for an FMS deal. The deal was cleared by the USDRDO and Russian Federation’s NPO Mashinostroeyenia. Congress in December 2010 for the sale of 512 sensor-Together, they have formed BrahMos Aerospace Private fused bombs, 19 CBU-105 integration test assets andLimited. associated equipment to the Indian Government by Textron Defence Systems.Air-to-air version of the Brahmos Missile is scheduled tobe integrated into the Su 30 MkI platform. The half-ton CBU-105 is supposed to be launched from the SU-30MKI and Jaguar. The CBU-105 can be used toThe plan to induct 200 missiles into the IAF was cleared attack formations of tanks or armored vehicles throughby CCS in 2012. laser and computer equipped submunitions.Current position: The integration for tests is in its last Current position: Textron Systems has started deliveringstages and it is expected to be ready for induction by systems to the US Air Force. Deliveries to the Indian Air2015. Force by the US Air Force are expected to begin in earlyA new, smaller variant of the air-launched Brahmos is 2013.also currently undergoing development. This variantis expected to arm the Sukhoi Su-30MKI, Mirage 2000 7. Missiles on offer: There are various missile systemsand future inductions, such as the 126 multirole combat on offer to the Indian defense forces:aircraft. a. The US is offering 245 Stinger missiles and 56Another variant of the hypersonic type is also currently launchers to India as part of a weapons package forunder development. It is expected to be ready by 2017, the Apache attack helicopters being acquired by theand achieve speeds of up to 7 mach. Indian Air Force (IAF). India has selected the Boeing AH64D Apache for its requirement of 22 attack helicopters, which will have both air-to-ground and air-to-air roles. b. As part of the US$18-billion MMRC aircraft competition, which was won by the French Rafale last year for 126 aircraft, MBDA has offered its Meteor air-to-air missile to India as a weapon for its planned fleet. The missile is in its preproduction phase and was tested from a Rafale in 2011. A fully guided test firing was carried out in 2012.Eye on defence | 18
  19. 19. Naval missiles and torpedoes 3. Program: Light Weight Torpedoes Ownership: Indian Navy1. Program: Indigenous Heavy Weight Torpedoes Estimated size: UnknownOwnership: Indian Navy Background: The Light Weight Torpedo christenedEstimated size: Unknown “Sheyena” has been indigenously developed by theBackground: The Naval Science and Technological National Science and Technology Laboratory (NSTL),Laboratory (NSTL) of DRDO in Visakhapatnam develops Visakhapatnam. The Light Weight Torpedo (TAL) istorpedoes for the Indian Navy. Currently, it is working an electrically propelled, self-homing Torpedo, whichon three heavy-weight torpedo (HWT) projects, named can be launched from both ships and helicopters.Thakshak, Varunastra and Shakti. BDL is currently manufacturing these torpedoes at its Visakhapatnam Unit.Thakshak has two versions, a submarine-launchedvariant with wire guidance and a ship-launched one with Current position: The Navy has currently ordered 25autonomous guidance. It has already entered service with units of this torpedo, but the order is expected to growthe Indian Navy. bigger. The first unit was handed over to the Navy in March 2012, and subsequent deliveries are currentlyVarunastra is a state-of-the-art, ship-launched, heavy- underway. weight, wire-guided, anti-submarine electric torpedo,.equipped with the latest advances in control, homing and 4. Program: Light Weight Torpedoes and Missiles forrecovery aspects, and advanced indigenously developed Boeing P8I propulsion. It underwent user trials last year and isexpected to soon enter service with the Indian Navy. Ownership: Indian NavyThe Shakti, with its thermal propulsion, can generate 500 Estimated size: INR15 billionkilowatts of power and rev up the engine within a second. Background: A formal request was made by the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) to the US Congress2. Program: Heavy Weight Torpedoes from India in June 2011 to buy Lockheed Martin’s MK-54Ownership: Indian Navy lightweight torpedoes from the US for US$86 million through the FMS route. These torpedoes are needed toEstimated size: INR50 billion (Potential) arm the dozen P-8I long-range maritime patrol aircraft.Background: The Navy had floated a tender for 98 Heavy In December 2010, the US DSCA announced India’sWeight Torpedoes to equip its fleet of six Scorpene formal request for up to 21 AGM-84L Harpoon Block IISubmarines (P75), which are currently under production Missiles, 5 ATM-84L Block II Training Missiles, Captiveat the Mazagaon Docks Limited under license from DCNS Air Training Missiles, containers, spare and repairof France and Navantia of Spain. The same torpedoes parts, support and test equipment, publications andare also expected to be selected for the P75I and the INS technical documentation, personnel training and trainingArihant series of submarines. Thus, the total order for equipment, and related support of the US Governmentthis class of torpedoes may reach INR50 billion. and the contractor. The estimated cost is approximatelyCurrent position: WASS, a Finmeccanica group company, US$200 million.was declared L1 in 2010. It had offered the BLACK Current Position: The first P8I was delivered (for testing)SHARK variant of its torpedoes. However, the final in early March this year, along with the Mk-54 torpedoescontract is yet to be signed. and Harpoon missiles.Eye on defence | 19
  20. 20. 5. Program: Project K — Nuclear-launch Capability 7. Program: Barak Long Range Surface-to-Air Missilefrom the Sea SystemOwnership: Indian Navy Ownership: Indian NavyEstimated size: Unknown Estimated size: INR26.06 billionBackground: Background: India started cooperating with Israel on the Barak program for short range SAMs for the Navy anda. Sagarika (K-15): Belongs to the K Missile family and bought US$300-million worth of missiles of the Barak I is a nuclear-capable submarine- launched ballistic variety (short- range of up to 10 km). missile, with a range of 750 km and capacity to carry payloads of 1000 kg. It was successful in trials in Following the success of Barak 1 system with the Navy, a January 2013 and is currently being integrated with JV was announced in February 2006 between the Israeli India’s nuclear-powered Arihant class submarine, firms Israeli Aerospace Industries (IAI) and RAFAEL, which is on sea trials. andIndia’s DRDO to co-develop the Barak-NG medium- shipborne air defense missile system with a range ofb. Shaurya: Developed for a nuclear capable submarine 70–120 km for the Navy. The cost of this program launch capability, SHAURYA is a two- stage, solid- was expected to be US$2 billion. This, along with the propelled, canister-based missile. It can reach speeds development of MRSAM land variant of the air defense of mach 6 even at low altitudes and strike targets systems, was christened Barak 8. 1500 km away, with a payload of 500–1000 kg. This land variant of the K 15 missile underwent successful In 2009, IAI won a deal from the Navy worth US$1.1 trials in January 2013. billion to supply the Barak 8 Missile System.c. K4: This is an intermediate-range (3500 km), The missile system is expected to be delivered by 2017. nuclear-capable, submarine-launched ballistic missile The LR-SAM missiles are scheduled to equip the three under development by DRDO to arm the Arihant Kolkata-class guided missile, destroyers, which were class submarine and to complement K-15 Sagarika. expected to be delivered by Mazagon Docks by 2012, thereby leading to the installation of the Barak-8 systems6. Program: Naval Jaguar Upgrade by 2013. Four additional Kolkata-class destroyers are expected to be equipped with an extended range version ofOwnership: Indian Navy the missile (ER-SAM) capable of intercepting targets 100Estimated size : INR8.5 billion km away. These destroyers are being built in India under the Project 15 A, 15 B and 17 A of the Indian Navy.Background: India signed an agreement with the US forthe sale of 24 Harpoon Block II missiles for 10 Jaguar Current position: Control and Navigation Tests (CNT) foraircraft of the Navy in July 2010 through the FMS route. LRSAM were conducted successfully on 16 July 2012 andThese Jaguars have been upgraded with the IAI ELta’s 18 July 2012. The missile is expected to enter service inEL/M-2032 radar as well as improved electronic defense early 2014.systems.Eye on defence | 20
  21. 21. Land-based missiles and ballistic missiles success in the latest user trials. Though it is yet to be inducted, the Army has decided to buy 13 Nag carrierssystems and 443 Nag missiles in their current state for INR3.35 billion. The above-mentioned programs are expected to1. Program: Anti Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) fill in the gap till Nag is ready for induction.Ownership: Indian Army The DRDL plans to extend the range of the HELINAEstimated size: INR60 billion–INR120 billion (helicopter-mounted Nag) anti-armour missile to more than 20 km for combat aircraft and helicopters. TheBackground: The Army’s initial requirement is DRDL is building a “miniaturized inertial navigationapproximately 2,000 launchers and 24,000 missiles to package” to enhance the existing weapon withoutarm its 356 infantry units. According to the Army, this increasing weight or cost. A feasibility study is officiallyprocurement is expected to be completed in 2017, by underway to integrate the HELINA with the Rustom-Hthe end of the Twelfth Plan. The new missiles are likely to MALE UAV.replace the French Milan (2 km) and Russian Konkur (4km) missiles. 3. Program: Agni Ballistic Missile ProgrammeCurrent position: To fulfill this requirement, the CCScleared the order for 10,000 Konkur M ATGM missiles in Ownership: All forcesOctober 2012. A proposal to buy 25,000 Invar missiles Estimated size: Unknownfor the T-90 tanks was also cleared by the CCS in October Background: The Agni missile is a family of medium to2012. 10,000 missiles are expected to be bought from intercontinental-range ballistic missiles developed bythe Russians. 15,000 missiles are likely to be produced India. The program was launched under the IGMDP. Theunder Transfer of Technology by BDL. following missiles have been developed as part of theA competition for 300 launchers and 8000 missiles is Agni program:also currently underway. The two participating nations in • Agni I is a short-range ballistic missile, with a rangethis project are the US with FGM 148 “Javelin” produced between 700 km and 800 km, and a payload ofby a JV of Lockheed and Raytheon, Israel, with “Spike” approximately 1000 kg. It has been inducted and isproduced by Rafael. currently operational. • Agni II is a medium-range ballistic missile with a range between 2000 km and 2500 km, and a2. Program: Nag Anti Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) payload between 500 kg and 1000 kg. It has beenOwnership: Indian Army inducted and is currently operational.Estimated size: INR3.35 billion • AGNI-III is a nuclear-capable, two-stage, solid- propelled intermediate range ballistic missile withBackground: It is a third-generation “Fire-and-forget” a range between 3500 km and 5000 km, and aanti-tank missile developed in India. It was developed payload of 2490 kg. The Indian Army has conductedunder the Integrated Guided Missile Development multiple successful user trials and it is to be inductedProgram (IGMDP). Nag has both ground as well as a soon.helicopter version mounted on the ALH Dhruv. It also hasa man portable version. • Agni IV is a nuclear-capable, two-stage, solid- propelled intermediate range ballistic missile withTwo different versions of the carrier for NAG missile by a range of 4000 km and a nuclear payload ofthe name of NAMICA has been manufactured by BEL and 1000 kg. It was successfully test fired in 2011,L&T. The production agency for Nag is BDL. and subsequently in September 2012, and will beCurrent position: The Nag has achieved only partial inducted soon. • Agni V is the first three-stage, intercontinental ballistic missile with a range of more than 5000 km and capability to carry 1000 kg of nuclear warhead.Eye on defence | 21
  22. 22. It is capable of canister launch, was successfully test 5. Program: Prahar Ballistic Missile Programme fired in April 2012 and is expected to be inducted in Ownership: All forces 2014–15. Estimated size: Unknown• Agni VI is in its initial stages of development and is expected to be in a range of 10,000 km. No official Background: It is a surface-to-surface missile with a range statement on its development has been issued by the of 150 km and capacity to carry 200 kg of conventional DRDO yet. warhead. The DRDO developed Prahar in 2 years, to specifically bridge the gap in the range between the4. Program: Prithvi Ballistic Missile Programme unguided Pinaka rocket, which has a range of 45 km, and the guided Prithvi missile variants, that can hit targetsOwnership: All forces 250 km to 350 km away.Estimated size: Unknown Current position: The Prahaar is currently underBackground: Prithvi is a nuclear-capable, tactical surface- development and the first successful flight test occurredto-surface short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) developed in July 2011.by the DRDO of India under the IGMDP. The followingmissiles were developed as part of this program: 6. Program: Nirbhay Cruise Missile Programme• Prithvi I (SS-150) — Army Version (range of 150 km, Ownership: All forces with a payload of 1,000 kg). It was inducted by the Estimated size: Unknown Indian Army in 1994. Background: It is India’s first subsonic medium-range• Prithvi II (SS-250) — Capable of striking at a range of cruise missile. Designed and developed at Aeronautical 250 km, with a payload of 500 kg. It was inducted Development Establishment (ADE), a DRDO lab based into the Army in 2004. It was successfully test fired in Bangalore, the two-stage missile has a range of in October 2012, with an increased range of 350 km approximately 1,000 km. It can travel at a speed of 0.7 and an improved Aided Inertial Navigation System. mach and can be launched from any platform.• Prithvi III (Dhanush) — Dhanush is a naval version Current position: It is ready for tests of Prithvi, which can be launched from ships with a strike range of up to 350 km. It can carry 500 kg of conventional or nuclear warhead. Its accuracy has increased significantly, as compared to the older versions. The last successful test was conducted in October 2012. It has not been inducted as of now.Eye on defence | 22
  23. 23. Request for Information (RFIs)December 2012–March 2013 Date of issue RFI details Response date Issued by Service 6 Feb 2013 Automatic Carrier Landing 20 Feb 2013 Directorate of Staff Indian Navy System (ACLS) Requirements, Integrated Headquarters of MoD (Navy) 17 Jan 2013 Surface target fitted with 20 Feb 2013 Directorate of Staff Indian Navy dynamic positioning system Requirements, Integrated Headquarter of MoD (Navy) 9 Jan 2013 UAV simulator 25 Feb 2013 Directorate General of Indian Army Artillery Artillery-11 (UAV) 2 Jan 2013 Diver Interdiction System 20 Feb 2013 Directorate Of Staff Indian Navy Requirements, Integrated Headquarters of MoD(Navy) 28 Dec 2012 Medium-range, anti-ship 20 Feb 2013 Directorate of Indian Navy missile for naval surface Information platforms TechnologyEye on defence | 23
  24. 24. Request for Proposal (RFPs)December 2012–March 2013 Date of issue RFI details Response date Issued by Remarks 2 Mar 2013 Long Range Thermal 4 Apr 2013 Army Commander’s For Indian Army Imaginary Camera special financial Qty: 08 powers 4 Feb 2013 Through Wall Radars 8 Mar 2013 The Chairman TPC For Indian Army HQ, Northern Qty: 08 Command (EME) 1 Feb 2013 Ballistic Helmet 26 Feb 2013 GOC-in-C, HQ Northern For Indian Army Command Qty: 6000 17 Jan 2013 Border Surveillance 26 Feb 2013 GOC-in-C, HQ Northern For Indian Army Management Systems Command Qty: 06 27 Dec 2012 FUSE 0.63A 5X20T Modal 18 Jan 2013 Comdt COD Agra For Indian Army 6694 Qty: 326 27 Dec 2012 FUSE Electrical Cartridges 18 Jan 2013 Comdt COD Agra For Indian Army Timely 315M AMPS 20X5 Qty: 172 mm 27 Dec 2012 Electrical FUSE Link 5X20 18 Jan 2013 Comdt COD Agra For Indian Army mm Quick Acting 250V 5A Qty: 367 22 Dec 2012 Free Fall Equipments 4 Feb 2013 GOC-in-C, Northern For Indian Army Command Rucksack Air Borne Qty: 200 Free Fall Overall Jump Suits Qty: 48 Airborne PJI Helmets – Qty: 200 Free Fall Camera Qty: 04 6 Feb 2013 Aeroengines SU 30 MKI 21 Mar 2013 Air Headquarters, For Indian Air Force Government of India, Qty: 25 MODEye on defence | 24
  25. 25. Date of issue RFI details Response date Issued by Remarks 1 Feb 2013 NATO Ammunition 19 Mar 2013 Directorate of For Indian Air Force Armament and 5.56 mm NATO for Safety Equipment, Air TRAVOR Assault Headquarters Rifle-2131000, Ammunition 5.56 mm LMG Negev Belted - 1419000, Ammunition 7.62 mm NATO for Galil Sniper Rifle, 178000 18 Jan 2013 Fiber Glass Outer Shell of 4 Feb 2013 Air Force Station, For Indian Air Force Avro Aircraft for Simulator Begumpet, Qty: 01 Bowenpally, Secunderabad 15 Jan 2013 Aircrew Survival Jacket 14 Feb 2013 Directorate of For Indian Air Force Procurement, Qty: 2700 Indigenous Purchase Wing 24 Jan 2013 Providing and Fixing of Early 5 Feb 2012 Frontier Head For Border Security Warning Device Quarters, BSF Force (BSF) Jallandhar Cantonment 18 Feb 2013 Fuse DA 5A (Empty) For 51 26 Mar 2013 Ordnance Factory, Issued by Ordnance mm Mortar Bomb Badmal, MoD Factory Board (OFB) Qty: 338180 15 Feb 2013 Expression of Interest for 31 Mar 2013 Ordnance Factory, Issued by OFB plants of Bi-Modular Charge Nalanda System 30 Jan 2013 Propellant for A-7 22 Mar 2013 Ordnance Factory, Issued by OFB Ammunition Varangaon 23 Jan 2013 Component and Assembly 8 Mar 2013 OFAJ, Nagpur Issued by OFB of Fuse 24a for 68 mm Rocket. 22 Jan 2013 Supply of FUSE T & P 213 1 Mar 2013 Ammunition Factory, Issued by OFB MK 5 (M-R) ARDE 2020 etc. Khadki — Pune Qty: 848 16 Jan 2013 Shell Forging Plant with 21 Mar 2013 Indian Ordnance Issued by OFB Cabbaging and Piercing Factories, Ordnance Qty: 01 Press of 12500 kN and Factory, Kanpur Drawing Press of 4000 kNEye on defence | 25
  26. 26. Date of issue RFI details Response date Issued by Remarks 14 Jan 2013 3G Cap Complete 19 Feb 2013 Ordnance Factory Issued by OFB Badmal Qty: 370396 15 Feb 2013 S Band WR 284 waveguide 5 Apr 2013 Defence Materials For DRDO calibration kit and WR 137 Research & Qty: 01 C-Band waveguid calibration Development kit Establishment (DMSRDE) 6 Feb 2013 G Band Wave Guide 6 Mar 2013 Microwave Tube Issued by the DRDO Components Research and Development Centre (MTRDC) 18 Feb 2013 Inflatable Boat with Motor 12 Mar 2013 Directorate General For Indo-Tibetan & Fiber Reinforced Plastic ITBP, Procurement Cell Border Police (ITBP) Boat with OBM ITBP Qty: 04 each 4 Feb 2013 Communication Intelligence 3 Apr 2013 The Director, ADE, Issued by ADE (COMINT) New Thippasandra, Aeronautical Bangalore Development EstablishmentEye on defence | 26