1) Focus needs to be on teachingspelling strategies not lists ofwords. “The emphasis of a spelling program should be ondeveloping independent spellers who have the necessary skills to use resources to locate the correct spelling of words they are not familiar with .” Shepherd, J. (1994). Spell it out: Success with spelling. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
2) Spelling needs to be taught incontext. “Learning to spell involves being able to recognise non-standard forms in text. It is important that teachingalways focuses on words in text, not words in isolation.”Bean, W & Bouffler, C. (1997). Spelling: An Integrated Approach. Armadale, Vic. : Eleanor Curtain Publishing.
3)There are problems withconventional phonicsteaching. If we begin to teach children how to spell by starting with one sound per letter, we then have to reteach the exceptions to those rules e.g. for words such as rice, swan, happy etc. This can be very hard for children to grasp as patterns relating to letters and sounds seem to always change. “The letter ‘a’ is given the sound [a], as in ant and so on. The problem is when we come to read a word like baby theletter ‘a’ isn’t making [a] as in ant, but is representing the phoneme[A], heard in words such as tape, snail and tray.Similarly with words such as what and was, the letter ‘a’ represents the phoneme [A], as heard in words such as frog andswan.” This is both inconsistent and unsustainable. http://www.thrass.com.au/infobrouch/Thrass%20InfomationBrochure%20.pdf
3)Spelling is developmental“ Spelling develops in clearly deﬁned stages... Children revert to previous stages and strategies when attempting unknown spellings.” Wing Jan, L. (1991). Spelling and grammar in a whole language classroom. Sydney: Ashton Scholastic.
Spelling developmental stages1) Precommunicative spelling:- child uses symbols to represent writing2) Semiphonetic spelling:- child attempts to apply letter sound correspondence3) Phonetic spelling- child has a knowledge of sounds that allows writing to be understood but spelling conventions not applied4) Transitional spelling:- child uses other spelling strategies, displays correct letters but not always in correct order5) Correct spelling :- child uses all strategies to spell words, can recognise incorrect spelling and uses generalisations to help withnew spelling problemsGentry, B (1982, cited in Wing Jan, L. (1991). Spelling and grammar in a whole language classroom. Sydney: Ashton Scholastic.
1) Through teaching spelling strategies Sound Visual Meaning Strategies Strategies Strategies- Sounding out words - visualising letter - spelling choices based- exploring the sounds patterns e.g. blends, on what the wordof different letter letter clusters, means ( eg. two/too/topatterns compound words, - preﬁxes/ sufﬁxes - word origin / original meaning of word(or part of word) Fountas, Irene and Pinnell, G.S. Guiding readers and Wr.iters, Grades 3-6. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2001
Sounds Strategies✤Some of the ways we address sound strategies include:★Start from an oral language & sounds basis★Utilising sounds charts★Rhyme games/ activities/ nursery rhymes/ songs/ rhyming cloze/ rhyming tag/ rhymingwords that are spelt the same and not spelt the same★Forming generalisations about sounds★Focusing on sounds in shared reading/ writing/ Literacy activities & sessions★Cued articulation★Online sounds based games/ blending games★alliteration games★Puppetry★Word wheels★Alliteration and tongue twisters★Beats / claps and syllables★Word sorts according to sounds★homophones★silent letters
Visual strategies ✤Some of the ways we address visual strategies include:★Utilising sounds charts ★CH.I.M.P or Look Say Cover Write Check★Magnetic letters ★Create the word shape on grid paper★Forming generalisations about letter ★Cloze exercises with patterns included e.g. - --patterns ough- he was ---ough for I though he was through /Cloze exercises using big books (masking★Bingo games letters)★Onset and rime ★Crosswords★Online visual/ letter pattern based games ★Word searches★word walls/ generalisation walls ★Write a sentence with vowels missing & ﬁll in vowel★Dictation develops visual memory incontext – seen dictation / unseen dictation ★Hangman★M100W words and related games ★Wordlinks – ﬁnd the hidden words – mnksladyjuskluneighbourmjuiopsd★Flashcards ★Using cards with individual words – take one★Compound word snap away – what is missing?★Silent letters ★Speed copying★Break word into syllables / highlight ★Proofreadingdifﬁcult part (larger font, colour)★ Illustrate particular words or word parts ★mnemonicsthat cause difﬁculty
Meaning Strategies Etymological Where the word comes from ✤Some of the ways we address etymological strategies include: ★Word webs e.g. from the Greek★Word meaning investigations “aer” meaning air★Word origin investigations ★Word sorts according to etymology★Word walls ★topic words e.g. food words and locate origin of words eg sushi★ Forming generalisations about word meaning ★Word derivation charts★ Explicit identiﬁcation of word meaning/ origin inshared reading/ writing/ inquiry/ literacy tasks ★Root words are written on cards and task is to write as many words as★Breaking words apart and looking at the meaning possible that come from this rootof sections of the word ★Create an animal using Greek or★ Identifying word meaning when reading texts Latin roots e.g. punctata quadrocornisbiped (dotted four-horned★Activities two footed animal)★Word origins – matching cards ★Cartoons for word origins (eg Word for Word – Atchison)★Acronym and abbreviation hunt ★Explore different forms of etymology★Words with “ch” from English (hard ch), Greek (k) e.g.and French (sh) origins – what pronunciation? ★Words that sound like their meaning
Meaning Strategies Morphemic Parts of words that have meaning✤Some of the ways we address Morphemic strategies include: afﬁxes – preﬁxes and sufﬁxes / afﬁx snap base word families homophone concentration compound words / Compound word race (base word e.g.water – form as many compound words as possible antonyms / synonyms contractions / abbreviations changing tense – “ed”, “ing” “s”/ Headlight vs. head light / changing f to v and adding es plurals – adding “s” “es” / plurals – changing y to i and addinges or ed nouns that change vowels eg foot to feet word webs word sorts according to common morpheme using letter tiles to make new words Palindromes
We contextualise spelling by: Assessing your child’s individual writing pieces/ spelling assessments ( e.g. Peters Dictation) Working one on one or in small groups with yourchildren to identify spelling errors in their writing and deliver explicit point of need teaching Identifying spelling / letter patterns/ sounds/ wordmeaning etc. in shared texts during reading/ writing/ inquiry etcEncouraging students to identify words from their own texts/ writing Using analogy to teach words with similar letter/sound patterns when a word in their work is identiﬁed as a spelling error
3) Throughintegratingspelling into othercurriculum areasand providingvaried ways oflearning to spell
We integrate spelling into the curriculum by: Identifying spelling choices, sounds, terminology across all subjectslinking spelling and vocabulary to our Inquiry units Maintaining word walls which: - house words in sound categories - support matching explanations - display word deﬁnitions - highlight letter patterns Provide a range of hands on, written and online spelling activities
So where dolists come in?•At STM, we don’t start our spelling teaching with lists•Once a student’s writing piece or assessment has beenanalysed, one or two words/ letter patterns will be identiﬁed•Once a focus point has been identiﬁed then other wordscontaining that letter combination/ sound will be selected•lists will not exceed 5 or so words•children will engage in activities or tasks at school (andpossibly as part of their homework)which help them to makeconnections with and memorise the spelling strategy/ letterchoice•assessment of spelling will be done in a variety of waysincluding analysis of children’s writing, small tests or throughteacher observation/ note taking when in one on one orsmall group learning situations
Things you can do at home : Play spelling games Play rhyming games/ sing rhyming songs Spell out words when asking your children to do thingsPoint out the spelling of different words when children ask what they meanPoint out new or interesting words you see the media or on signs etc and break them up as you read themencourage children to think of different words that mean thesame thing and prompt them to have a go at attempting the spelling of those words Identify other words which have the same sound/ letter pattern as words they use discuss the meaning of new wordsLook up where words originated in the dictionary/ thesaurus or online Play online spelling gamesPlay games like scrabble ( always with a dictionary handy)