1. PITCH-highness or lowness of asound.a. FREQUENCY-number of sound wavesthat passes through a pointin a certain amount of time,such as one second.-the greater the frequency,the higher the pitch.Hertz (Hz)- unit to measurefrequency and pitch
Audio frequency range-Frequency ranging 20 Hz to 20 000 Hz-Sounds that human ear can hear is anexample.INFRASONICS-Frequency below 20 Hz.
2. LOUDNESS or intensity-description of how high or low the sound seems to a person-determined mainly by the amplitude of the sound wavea. Decibel (dB)- unit used tomeasure sound intensity orloudness.
LOUDNESS OF SOUND IN DECIBELSSound Loudness (dbs) Hearing DamageAverage Home 40-50Loud Music 90-100 After long exposureRock Concert 115-120 ProgressiveJet Engine 120-170 Pain
Threshold ofhearing-sound of thequietest soundthat can beheard underideal conditionsis 0 dB.Threshold ofPain- Sound level of120 dB whichcan pain anddamage to theears.
The human ear relates amplitude to loudness and frequency to pitch.
3. TIMBRE-tone color or tone quality-used to distinguished between two different sounds that have the same pitch and loudness- It helps to identify what produced the sound2 Different waveforms1. Pure tone- simplest wave form, it has a soft, pleasant tone quality and sinusoidal2. Complex tone- nearly sinusoidal
A. Speed of Sound Depends on: 1. Type of medium -travels better through liquids and solids and gas can’t travel through a vacuum. 2. Temperature of medium -travels faster at higher temperature. 3. Density -sound moves well through dense materials. 4. Elasticity -sound waves move fast through elastic materials
B. DOPPLER EFFECT Doppler Effect change in wave frequency caused by a moving wave sourcemoving toward you - pitch sounds highermoving away from you - pitch sounds lower
A. Refraction of sound-change in direction, as the wave moves from one medium to another- It bends or refracts as they move through air.
B. Reflection of soundEcho- reflected sound - it is what you heard shortly after the original
C. Diffraction of Sound- Sound waves bend or diffract around corners or barriers like doors and walls.
D. INTERFERENCEthe result of two or more sound waves overlapping
2 typesConstructive interference-the sound waves arrive atthe same time and phaseDestructive interference-waves arrive at intervaland are out of phase
* Fact * D. Resonance - the inducingof vibrations of a naturalrate by a vibrating sourcehaving the same frequency
A. Characteristics of musical sounds Note- basic element of music 1. Pitch- highness or lowness of the note 2. Intensity- loudness of the note 3. Rhythm- repeating pattern of beats and it keeps the time to the music 4. Melody- series of pitches 5. Harmony- three or more notes played together.
* Fact *Noise- unwanted soundand a subtle pollutantwhich can threaten theHealth or well being ofan individual.
CLASSIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTS A. Stringed instruments - Produce a tone when their strings vibrated. B. Wind instruments -contain a column of air that vibrates when air is blown to the instrument C. Percussion instruments -produce sound when they are struck