Basics Of VLSI

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Very Large Scale Integration is the technology used now a day everywhere. Diploma as well as degree students can refer this
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agarwal.avanish@yahoo.com)

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Basics Of VLSI

  1. 2. Think about it.. <ul><li>On previous slide you saw some picture, that was the processor of a computer and the image was from Intel Lab. The zooming size was of scale of a rabies virus, that's the technology we are dealing today! </li></ul>
  2. 3. Basics of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Compiled By- Agarwal Avanish Iyer Makesh Desai Tejas Lokhande Sanket
  3. 4. Includes.. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What is VLSI? </li></ul><ul><li>Moore’s Law </li></ul><ul><li>VLSI Design- Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul>
  4. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Microprocessors are essential to many of the products we use every day such as TVs, cars, radios, home appliances and of course, computers. Transistors are the main components of microprocessors. At their most basic level, transistors may seem simple. But their development actually required many years of painstaking research. Before transistors, computers relied on slow, inefficient vacuum tubes and mechanical switches to process information. In 1958, engineers managed to put two transistors onto a Silicon crystal and create the first integrated circuit, which subsequently led to the first microprocessor.  </li></ul>
  5. 6. Major Challenge <ul><li>Microscopic issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ultra-high speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>power dissipation and supply rail drop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>growing importance of interconnect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>noise, crosstalk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reliability, manufacturability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clock distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macroscopic issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>time-to-market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design complexity (millions of gates) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high levels of abstractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design for test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reuse and IP, portability </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. What is VLSI? <ul><li>What is VLSI? </li></ul><ul><li>– “ Very Large Scale Integration” </li></ul><ul><li>– Defines integration level </li></ul><ul><li>– 1980s hold-over from outdated taxonomy for integration levels </li></ul><ul><li>• Obviously influenced from frequency bands, i.e. HF, VHF, UHF </li></ul><ul><li>– Sources disagree on what is measured (gates or transistors?) </li></ul><ul><li>• SSI – Small-Scale Integration (0-102) </li></ul><ul><li>• MSI – Medium-Scale Integration (102 -103) </li></ul><ul><li>• LSI – Large-Scale Integration (103 -105) </li></ul><ul><li>• VLSI – Very Large-Scale Integration (105 - 107) </li></ul><ul><li>• ULSI – Ultra Large-Scale Integration (>= 107) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Moore’s Law <ul><li>In 1965, Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors that can be integrated on a die would double every 18 to 14 months </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e., grow exponentially with time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amazing visionary – million transistor/chip barrier was crossed in the 1980’s. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2300 transistors, 1 MHz clock (Intel 4004) – 1971 ( Slide 19 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>42 Million, 2 GHz clock (Intel P4) – 2001 ( Slide 20 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>140 Million transistor (HP PA-8500) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Limitation for Moore’s Law <ul><li>Growth expected until 30 nm gate length (currently: 45 nm) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what then? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 D shift design needed in fabrication process 3 D Shift design in VLSI </li></ul>
  9. 10. Synthesis flow- Latest 45 nm by Intel
  10. 11. Actual Process of Designing a VLSI Product
  11. 12. Advantages <ul><li>Compactness </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Less power consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Effective use of space </li></ul><ul><li>Easily available productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Large market background </li></ul>
  12. 13. Disadvantages <ul><li>Previously the cost was high </li></ul><ul><li>Still the basic things like mobile phones and other related things are cheaper but high end products are pocket eater </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement in Indian market is required </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of training institute so affects on production in India </li></ul>
  13. 14. India's Contribution to VLSI <ul><li>Indian Institute of Technology and Intel together are working for bringing advancement in VLSI to India </li></ul><ul><li>Lot of conferences on VLSI are going in India every month and the organization named VLSI Society of India working with industry and upcoming engineer providing finance for their projects in VLSI </li></ul><ul><li>The Indian government has launched a VLSI education program across 32 institutes to increase the availability of chip design talent. The $10 million, five-year program is meant to supplement a similar program launched in the late 1990s. </li></ul><ul><li>VLSI news.shtml </li></ul>
  14. 15. Applications- Daily life prospective <ul><li>There are so many applications in our daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>From a simple mobile phone to the server used in large companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent example is Intel's new upcoming 45 nm integration processor </li></ul><ul><li>The low power design in VLSI is upcoming trend in this industry </li></ul>
  15. 16. References <ul><li>VLSI Society of India Chapters and news releases </li></ul><ul><li>www.cnet.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.wikipedia.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.googleimages.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.intel.in/sponcersoftomorrow.in </li></ul><ul><li>www.youtube.in </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Please give us your valuable feedback … </li></ul><ul><li>Thank You! </li></ul>
  17. 19. Intel 4004 Processor
  18. 20. Intel Pentium 4 Processor
  19. 21. 3 D Shift design in VLSI
  20. 22. Advantages of 3D VLSI <ul><li>Printed circuit board size/weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>planar size of PCB reduced with negligible IC height increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weight reduction due to more circuitry per package/smaller PCBs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>estimated 40-50 times reduction in size/weight </li></ul></ul>

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