Nature of science_final (2003.)(2.)


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Nature of science_final (2003.)(2.)

  1. 1. Nature of ScienceRunning Head: NATURE OF SCIENCE Describing the Nature of Science [Author’s name] [Instructor’s name] [Name of Institution] [Course]
  2. 2. Nature of Science Describing the Nature of Science Knowing about structure of man kind and Nature is the basic purpose of science. Sciencemeans those ways that are utilized by the humans to safeguard the information about the natureas well as structuring the information of such systems. Science has a lengthy and influencing pastwhich consist of innovative and energetic events. Information and progress of science has beensupported by many firms. Theories and laws about Nature have elaborated by the scientificresearchers in utilizing the major resources. Theories of science help us understand the processesand characteristics of nature’s events and the laws of science are the result of these processes orin other words the laws and theories are interconnected. The characteristics that must exert by thelaws and theories of science are they must be forecast errorless about the natural process and interms of provable data of nature it should compatible, correct and valid. The laws are made fromtheories because it has to describe the logic. Different models are used by the science researcherto verify and design their explanations like: surveillance, experiments, and mathematical andtheoretical models. The majority of science concepts are provable by the experiments andobservations but the rest of other concepts have flexibility in improvement, changing andunreliability. These concepts do not anticipate change a lot in up coming time. Whenever thescientific researchers conduct any experiment that is not supporting the previous explanation,they become deformed in the concept. Scientific knowledge has been enhanced by the knowing of the importance of itsobjectives and suppositions, which also help in describing and progressing it (Buxton, 2001-389) — by the past 100 years it has been demonstrated by the scientific learning. It is an existing
  3. 3. Nature of Sciencedocument that it is the unchangeable fact of science and protection from the complete acceptingof pseudoscience and research papers analyzed. The information of Science will help tounderstand there responsibility of everyone to make up their minds to solve the primaryproblems of science, encouraging the learners to know the gravity of science field, traditionalobjectives, and making distinct educational researches on other hand. It has been proven by theresearch that many teachers and learners do not suitably understand the science nature. Forexample those teachers and learners are considered undeveloped or not mature who thinks thatscientific researches are cleave to the same pattern of quantities like theories and laws of science.(Lawson, 2005,726) the teachers not every time in their class introduce the nature of scienceeven they know the requirement and importance of it. Apart of this they depend on the mistakensuppositions that researches will help the student know about the importance and knowledge ofscience. To make both learns and teachers understand the natures of science formulatedtechniques are required to teach both parties.Nature of science Strength and limitations of different modelsIt is different and not included in the day to day routine of students that is why it can be seen asconfidential at its new expression. A long time of investigation on they ways teach and learnedon the science gathers the facts of few particular theories that makes the scientific studies moreattractive and powerful.There is the flexibility in every field of science to transform in fresh facts and mind approach,same as with science laws. If an idea is generated against the developed idea of science it have tosuffer the disbelieves. It is also seen that once a scientific knowledge is acceptable by all itbecome stronger and lasts long. For many centuries these concepts have suffered the problems
  4. 4. Nature of Scienceand result mostly untransformed. Even to know that these concepts and information havepossibility to transform in coming time, it is important and valid to belief these scientificknowledge.Everything has its strengths and weaknesses. But in science, the deficiency of absolute shouldnot be taken as its weakness, somewhat the unsure nature of science is one of the greateststrengths — without uncertainty and examination of new and existing claims the developmenttoward genuine claims and away from incorrect ones would by no means is possible. Along withthe possibility of emending or rejecting those that fall short (Sagan, 1996). In the assorted fieldslike medicine, agriculture, engineering and transportation (all fields that make extensive use ofthe body of knowledge produced by science) it is important to consider only the advances forconfirmation that the science works. No other means of investigation to be more successful orreliable is revealed by the history. One of the key characteristics that differentiate it from otherways of experiencing and knowing the universe is the Change which is at the heart of science.Science changes with the passage of timeScientific knowledge is uncertain, sturdy and self-correcting.Anti-science response is extensively common, regardless of our heavy confidence on science.For example, the theory which is among our greatest supported scientific theories and isacknowledged almost across the world within the scientific community and is named asEvolutionary theory is discarded by a significant section of Americans, Canadians and British.Quite the opposite, our identification of deficiencies in Darwin’s views reveal development in
  5. 5. Nature of Scienceour perceptive of advancement since his time. But the media seems to love pointing out ways inwhich ‘Darwin was wrong’ as if it disproves all of evolutionary biology.Science is given an edge over the other knowledge systems because of the self-correcting nature.The Catholic Church did not receive the discovery well that the Earth is not at the centre of theuniverse. Faithfulness to factual interpretations of the bible in the face of irresistible ambiguousconfirmation is not yet behind us. But despite of the religious ideology most people now acceptthat the earth orbits the sun.Improvement is furnished by the practice of questioning and significantly examining our viewsand practices, testing them and rejecting or revising them consequently. It won’t be called a signof weakness or cause for embarrassment -- if we change our views by taking into account thenew information. This is the reason of the advancement increasing every year now we see moretechnologies then what we used to see in the past. The diseases which were once incurable arenow curable, the women can vote not and we no longer burn heretics. The process ofsignificantly examining and varying our views and positions should be celebrated. It lies at theheart of the human progress.It should be unmistakably noted that by definition, any scientific hypothesis must be refutable –that is it can be contradicted in future testing. Anything other than this is either a superstition,tautology, or a con job. This is the central part which separates the science from the religion.Evidence is the main elements on which science relies completely and is subject to revision.Religion relies on a leap of faith in the deficiency of evidence, and is normally too stiff in itsdoctrine for reasonable revision to take place.
  6. 6. Nature of ScienceHypothesis Fragile, easily continents could float or be pushed through the dense oceanic crust is saidby the Geophysics. The continents were once together was the idea of Wegener which wasfurther proved that it was probably right (but not as separate entities, but as part of a larger disk).Nevertheless, these plates do not have a tendency to sink in the oceanic crust. As the plates carrythe continents were distributed on each side, the molten rock arose between them and formed anew oceanic crust in its place. (Schwartz, 2008, 739) The necessity of testability supposition clear is the one important thing and that is wemust eliminate supernatural explanations. If the supernatural as events or phenomena areexplained not by the physical senses and experimental can be perceived, this will clearly showsthat they are not following the rules of natural patterns and cannot be tested scientifically. Itwould be difficult to test the speed of the mass of the angels or spirits, if they do not test in thenatural world for scientific tests. Although of course a lot of people have tried to find outwhether these companies are real and demonstrable, and cannot be disqualified that one day thetechnology exist to test some “supernatural” phenomenon.ExperimentAccording to the hypothesis was found, it is time to test.. The thing which sets science apart fromother disciplines is the process of experimentation and it leads to discoveries each and every day.The reason of designing and experiment is to confirm or disprove the hypothesis. If yourprediction is accurate, it will not be able to reject the hypothesis. (Sadler, 2004, 407) Commonpeople may believe so on the picture when you think of scientific experiments. This may be truein some disciplines but not the entire. Einstein depended on the mathematics, "project" their
  7. 7. Nature of Scienceassumptions about the nature of space and time in the universe. The physical space-time, exact,sometimes years later are what this hypothesis had accurately forecasted about, made with thedevelopment of technology to the test. The test results must be reproducible and to measure thecheck. For determining whether the analysis is impartial and just, the data is available.EvaluationTo examine all the evidences and conclusions and to confirm that it does not led to be wrongconclusions due to unsatisfactory efforts. Qualitative and quantitative analysis can also beapplied mathematics. Scientific explanations must always be made publicly available in printedor offered at scientific meetings. Hear Read phonetically it should also claim that scientificexplanations are uncertain and subject to change. The importance of gaze review in science andthe force with which it is made cannot be extended enough. At full academic battles werestimulated in scientific journals, many scientific journals articles submitted will be rejected intruth. (Erkenntnis, 1981, 69) To be particular, inventive and complete is what the scientistsshould really be for the evaluation of science. To better understand the nature of scientifictheories or laws, to comprehend that students have the following definitions.Conclusion Based on new evidence, scientific theories are falsifiable and may be revised or extended.The concepts of past events that cannot be tested are particularly important. Let’s take anexample, explain the Big Bang Theory or the theory of biological evolution in relation to thepast. Both are theories, which collected all the information in the past but cannot bedemonstrated as absolute truth because we cannot return to the Go to trial. Additional and betterdata will be collected on anyone either confirm or disprove their own. Scientific method is the
  8. 8. Nature of Sciencemain force for change in a theory. Karl Popper said that the philosopher’s famous 20 th Century isone that can be wrong like “the sun always rises in the east.” According to Popper, law ofscience are never proved, it can be used to disagree with a prediction that can be tested, with thepossibility. (MartinusNijhoff, 1985, 74) For example, as the renowned biologist J.B.S. Haldanereplied when asked what might disprove evolution, “Fossil rabbits in the pre-Cambrian.” Up tonow this does not happen, and without a doubt a testament to the "theory" of evolution ismassive, consisting of hundreds of thousands of synchronized observations these are comingfrom areas such as geology, paleontology, comparative biochemistry, physiology, anthropology,anthropology, anatomy embryology and molecular genetics. Like the Evolution, the mostextensively acknowledged scientific theories that have stood the test of time and falsifiability tobe the backbone of the new scientific studies. Scientific methods are the methods about whichthe scientists or others cannot say about it. No scientific work when she sees a laboratoryexperiment, wondered if not appropriately mechanical, nor is he interested in any technique canbe used as a method. If companies the work of a researchers scientific social group who criticizeare not rare, it is not base his criticism on these remarkable generalities as opposing to the“scientific method" to follow, but his criticism is specific, based on definite characteristics of thefunction of the particular situation. The scientific work is always too busy to serious things to beready to spend his time on generalities. But to the working scientist himself all this appearsobvious and corny. What he perceives as the real meaning is the situation that he was notconscious of after a approved course of action, but feels free to use any method or device at all,which in the particular situation before him seems probable to give the right answer. In his attacktogether with his precise problem he suffers no inhibitions pattern or authority, but is completelyfree to any courses that adopt his genius in a position to proffer it. In conclusion, there is the
  9. 9. Nature of Sciencehuman element of science. It is possibly the most basic yet most often abandoned the nature ofscience. Human creativity and human subjectivity is involved in the development of scientificknowledge. The observations like the creativity and subjectivity are on which scientists continueto make observations and conclusions. Scientists to appraise and assess the reliability of theclaims of scientific knowledge through testing laws and theories, change in the light of newconfirmation or compelling a rethinking of the existing confirmation. Even though somescientific developments happen quickly and are considered revolutionary, most developments inthe scientific results from the continuous advances in scientific knowledge. On the whole,scientists and technicians on the principle that laws and scientific theories are concrete anddurable.
  10. 10. Nature of Science ReferencesBuxton. C. A. (2001) Modeling science teaching on science practice? Painting a more accurate picture through an ethnographic lab study. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Volume 38, Issue 4. Pages 387-407.Kang, N. H., & Wallace, C. S. (2005). Secondary science teachers’ use of laboratory activities: Linking epistemological beliefs, goals, and practices. Science Education, 89(1), 140–165.Sadler, T. D., Chambers, F. W., & Zeidler, D. (2004). Student conceptualizations of the nature of science in response to a socioscientific issue. International Journal of Science Education, 26(4), 387–409.Sandoval, W. A. (2005). Understanding students’ practical epistemologies and their influence on learning through inquiry. Science Education, 89(5), 634–656.Schwartz, R. S. & Lederman, N. (2008). What scientists say: Scientists’ views of nature of science and relation to science context. International Journal of Science Education, 30(6), 721-771. G. Currie and A. Musgrave, Martinus Nijhoff, (1985). ‘Methodological Individualism: An Incongruity in Popper’s Philosophy’ in Popper and the Human Sciences, 73-87.Erkenntnis, (1981).‘Rationality is Wonderful: Lakatos’s Half-Theory of the History of Science’, 167-76
  11. 11. Nature of ScienceLawson, A.E. (2005). What is the role of induction and deduction in reasoning and scientific inquiry? Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 716-740.Reid, A. D. and Scott, W.A.H., 2006. Researching Education and the Environment: Environmental Education Research, 571-588.Reid, A. and Nikel, J., 2003. Reading a Critical Review of Evidence: Environmental Education Research, 149--165.