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Centre of African Studies
University of Edinburgh

Gianluca Iazzolino

Mobile money and Somali social networks
Cultivating...
Fast Money

Medium Money

Slow Money

November 20 2013 iHub
Nairobi

Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money
Trends & Innov...
Eastleigh – Mogadishu Kidogo
Cheap stuff

remittances
Somali diaspora

trade

investments

Kenyan Somalis
transnational ne...
Somali Presidential
Elections

Volatile Times

10 Sep

Attack on the
Anglican
Church of
Kenya,
Juja road
30 Sep

IED deton...
Terrorism financing

Hawala
Lifeline

November 20 2013 iHub
Nairobi

Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money
Trends & Innov...
A Network of Providers of
Banking Services

Terrorism financing

Hawala
Lifeline
A Network of
Providers of
Investment Serv...
A Network of Providers of
Banking Services

Terrorism financing

under scrutiny

cheap

multicurrency

Hawala
Lifeline

A ...
Safe
Private
Flexible

Technical/cultural
barriers for seniors

KSh

Small money

vulnerable to monitoring
ID required

No...
Hawala/M-Pesa relations

Replacement
Informal Inter-Operability

December 4-5 2013
UC Irvine

IMTFI's Fifth Annual Confere...
Eastleigh’s Exchange Market

Hawala
agents

KSh
USD

KSH
USD
USD

Customers
KSh

November 20 2013 iHub
Nairobi

Afrikoin E...
Eastleigh’s Exchange Market

Hawala
agents

KSH

KSh

USD

USD

USD

Customers
KSh

KSH

KSh

Gold sellers

November 20 20...
Eastleigh’s Exchange Market
investors

Wholesalers

USD

KSh

USD
Hawala
agents

Various businesses
USD

KSh

KSH

KSh

US...
“Gendered” values and temporal axis
Men
Livestock

Long
Term

Big Businesses
(oil, transport...)

Medium Businesses
(Whole...
Cultivation of multiplicity
or
“You never know what may happen tomorrow”

Mobility as a self-perpetuating strategy, revolv...
What Next?

?
November 20 2013 iHub
Nairobi

Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money
Trends & Innovation
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Mobile money and Somali social networks Cultivating monetary alternatives in a volatile world

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Mobile money and Somali social networks
Cultivating monetary alternatives in a volatile world

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Mobile money and Somali social networks Cultivating monetary alternatives in a volatile world

  1. 1. Centre of African Studies University of Edinburgh Gianluca Iazzolino Mobile money and Somali social networks Cultivating monetary alternatives in a volatile world November 20 2013 iHub Nairobi Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money Trends & Innovation
  2. 2. Fast Money Medium Money Slow Money November 20 2013 iHub Nairobi Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money Trends & Innovation
  3. 3. Eastleigh – Mogadishu Kidogo Cheap stuff remittances Somali diaspora trade investments Kenyan Somalis transnational networks refugees Money laundering Low-end globalization Terrorist hideout November 20 2013 iHub Nairobi Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money Trends & Innovation
  4. 4. Somali Presidential Elections Volatile Times 10 Sep Attack on the Anglican Church of Kenya, Juja road 30 Sep IED detonated on a passenger bus, ten dead 12 Nov GoK Directive ordering refugees encampment 13 Dec Explosion outside the Hidaya mosque: five dead Kenyan General Elections 4 Mar Kenya Supreme Court rules against GoK directive Westgate Mall Attack 12 Aug 21 Sep 7 Dec 2012 Sep Nov Jan 2013 Mar May Jul Sep Flight of Somali refugees and capital from Eastleigh Hawala company Dahabshiil granted reprieve 21 Jan 5 Nov Barclay UK announces it will be closing MTO accounts in Britain, including Dahabshiil, by August 31 2013 Barclay's decision postponed 30 Aug 15 May SS CB announces restrictions on the allocation of hard currency November 20 2013 iHub Nairobi 2013 Nov Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money Trends & Innovation 15 Jun
  5. 5. Terrorism financing Hawala Lifeline November 20 2013 iHub Nairobi Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money Trends & Innovation
  6. 6. A Network of Providers of Banking Services Terrorism financing Hawala Lifeline A Network of Providers of Investment Services November 20 2013 iHub Nairobi A Credit/Debt Transfer System Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money Trends & Innovation
  7. 7. A Network of Providers of Banking Services Terrorism financing under scrutiny cheap multicurrency Hawala Lifeline A Network of Providers of Investment Services international A Credit/Debt Transfer System large amount of money November 20 2013 iHub Nairobi no ID required Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money Trends & Innovation
  8. 8. Safe Private Flexible Technical/cultural barriers for seniors KSh Small money vulnerable to monitoring ID required November 20 2013 iHub Nairobi Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money Trends & Innovation
  9. 9. Hawala/M-Pesa relations Replacement Informal Inter-Operability December 4-5 2013 UC Irvine IMTFI's Fifth Annual Conference for Funded Researchers
  10. 10. Eastleigh’s Exchange Market Hawala agents KSh USD KSH USD USD Customers KSh November 20 2013 iHub Nairobi Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money Trends & Innovation Money vendors
  11. 11. Eastleigh’s Exchange Market Hawala agents KSH KSh USD USD USD Customers KSh KSH KSh Gold sellers November 20 2013 iHub Nairobi Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money Trends & Innovation Money vendors
  12. 12. Eastleigh’s Exchange Market investors Wholesalers USD KSh USD Hawala agents Various businesses USD KSh KSH KSh USD USD M-Pesa agents KSH USD Customers KSh KSH KSH KSh Gold sellers November 20 2013 iHub Nairobi Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money Trends & Innovation Money vendors
  13. 13. “Gendered” values and temporal axis Men Livestock Long Term Big Businesses (oil, transport...) Medium Businesses (Wholesalers) Short Term Hard Currencies Mobile Money Small Businesses (Retailers) Local Currencies Camel Milk Trade Gold Women November 20 2013 iHub Nairobi Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money Trends & Innovation
  14. 14. Cultivation of multiplicity or “You never know what may happen tomorrow” Mobility as a self-perpetuating strategy, revolving around the pursuit of resources that allow crossing borders, boundaries and thresholds (documents - ID, passports, UNHCR mandates, degrees – and hard currencies) December 4-5 2013 UC Irvine IMTFI's Fifth Annual Conference for Funded Researchers
  15. 15. What Next? ? November 20 2013 iHub Nairobi Afrikoin Emerging Africa Digital Money Trends & Innovation

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