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Gabon
Gabon – Central Africa
Gabon – Central Africa
Hi! My name is Annie
Flore Batchiellilys and I am
a world renowned singer
from Gabon. Let me take
you on a tour of my
country!
Gabon – Central Africa
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Gabon – Central Africa
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Gabon – Central Africa
An elephant located in Loango
National Park.
One of the modern buildings
located in Libreville, the
country’s capital.
Flag of Gabon
Priority Areas Historical Issues
Current Politics &
Culture
Gabon – Central Africa
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GabonPriority Areas
Gabon – Central Africa
Geography
Gabon – Central Africa
Environment Health
Trade &
Economics
Science &
Technology
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GabonGeography
Gabon – Central Africa
Gabon
Gabon – Central Africa
GEOGRAPHY
Demographics
Natural Resources
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Gabon
Nationality: Gabonese
Population: 1,545,255
Ethnic groups: Fang (largest), Myene, Bapounou, Eshira, Bakota, Nzebi,
Bateke, Bandjabi
Location: Surrounded by the Republic of the Congo and Equatorial
Guinea
Gross Domestic Product: $22.5 Billion US
Gross Domestic Product per capita: $14,500 US
Population growth rate: 2.025% each year
Capital: Libreville
Work Force: 50% agriculture, 16% services, 33% government
Natural wonders: Tourists say the country is beautiful, however tourism
is underdeveloped. Gabon’s 13 national parks attract many tourists every
year. The beaches, inland fishing facilities, the falls on the Ogooue River
and the Crystal Mountains are also tourist destinations.
Demographics
Gabon – Central Africa
GEOGRAPHY
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GabonNatural Resources: petroleum, natural gas,
diamonds, niobium, manganese, uranium, gold,
timber, iron ore, hydropower
Natural Resources
Gabon – Central Africa
GEOGRAPHY
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GabonEnvironment
Gabon – Central Africa
Gabon
Gabon – Central Africa
ENVIRONMENT
Agriculture
Climate
Water
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Gabon
Agriculture
 Due to the fact that the
country is mostly rainforest,
only a small portion of the
country is suitable for
agricultural activity.
 The country imports around
50% of all of its consumed
goods.
 Coffee, palm oil, cocoa, and
rubber are all exported.
 Principle crops: plantains,
cassava, and maize
Gabon – Central Africa
ENVIRONMENT
Plantains
Maize (Corn)
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Gabon
Climate
Tropical climate
Typically always hot, and humid
Equatorial climate: Country
experiences a whale season from
July to September.
Rainforests cover 85% of the
country.
Climate Change
Mean annual temperature has
increased by 0.6° C since 1960.
Mean rainfall has decreased by
2.6% since 1960.
The country is said to be
warming faster in the central and
eastern region than on the coast
(west).
Gabon – Central Africa
ENVIRONMENT
A portion of the Gabonese
forest
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Gabon
Climate
Desertification has been an
issue in the Congo River Basin
where Gabon is located. This
basin alone represents 30% of
Africa’s vegetation coverage.
Between 1990 and 2000, the
basin shrunk by 8.3 million
hectares in size.
Degradation still has not
reached its peak yet. Officials
still do not know the potential
effect of this degradation and
when it reaches its peak.
Gabon – Central Africa
ENVIRONMENT
Examples of the deforestation in
Gabon
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Gabon
Water
Access to clean water still
remains a problem in rural and
poorer suburbs.
80% of Gabon’s urban
population and 30% of rural
population have access to clean
water.
The prevalence of diarrheal
and waterborne diseases
remains a threat in the country.
Local officials are working to
protect both water sources and
beaches from pollution.
Gabon – Central Africa
ENVIRONMENT
Body of water located in Libreville
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GabonHealth
Gabon – Central Africa
Gabon
Life expectancy: 52 years
Percent with access to improved water sources: 41.0%
Child mortality rate: 68.9 per 1,000 children
Percent living below the poverty line: 32.7%
HIV prevalence: 5%
Infant mortality rate: 52 per 1,000 live births
Incidence of tuberculosis per 100,000 people: 501 (has
increased drastically since 2006)
Health expenditure (% of GDP): 3.5%
Health
Gabon – Central Africa
HEALTH
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GabonTrade & Economics
Gabon – Central Africa
Gabon
Gabon – Central Africa
TRADE & ECONOMICS
Mining and Drilling
Natural Resources and
Investment
Manufacturing
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Gabon
Mining & Drilling
Gabon is a major petroleum producer.
Gabon is the world’s second largest manganese dioxide
producer.
Gabon also produces minor gold, uranium, and diamonds.
Gabon – Central Africa
TRADE & ECONOMICS
A petroleum gas refinery in Arzew, Gabon
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Gabon
Natural Resources: petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, niobium,
manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore, hydropower
Foreign Investment: Foreign firms currently control Gabon’s
major industries (petroleum, manganese, and timber). The country
is open to foreign investment. The Central African Economic and
Monetary Community (CEMAC) passed in 1998 provides the same
rights to foreign companies operating in Gabon as domestic firms
do. Foreign investors have the option of opening bank accounts in
Communaute Financiere Africaine (CFA) Franc or Euros. Foreign
firms operate on an equal basis with national firms.
Natural Resources & Investment
Gabon – Central Africa
TRADE & ECONOMICS
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Gabon
Manufacturing
In 1967, a petroleum
refinery factory opened in
Port-Gentil.
This refinery overshadows
other manufacturing
enterprises, such as lumber
processing companies,
cement and cigarette
factories, and breweries.
Gabon – Central Africa
TRADE & ECONOMICS
Lumber, one of the many goods that is
manufactured in Gabon.
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GabonScience & Technology
Gabon – Central Africa
Gabon
Gabon – Central Africa
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Biotechnology
Information and Communications
Technologies
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Gabon
There are currently two institutions carrying out
plant breeding in Gabon.
Le Centre d’Introduction, d’Adaptation, et de
Multiplication du Materiel Vegetal (CIAM) and the
Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Vegetale (LBV).
CIAM focuses more on line creation and evaluation
while LBV focuses more on plant biotechnology and
germplasm.
Biotechnology
Gabon – Central Africa
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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Gabon
Gabon has a shortage of trained scientists and technicians. They
mostly rely on scientists from France.
The University that Omar Bongo founded in 1970 has a faculty of
scientists as well as a school of engineering.
Gabon is one of the few African countries to have a connection to
the South Atlantic 3/West African Submarine Cable (SAT3/WASC)
through sea cable, which links Europe to Asia by going through the
African continent.
Gabon has more than 45,000 people subscribed to fixed
telephone lines. Gabon’s internet is supplied by Gabon Telecom,
SOLSI, and INTERNET GABON.
Information & Communication Technologies
Gabon – Central Africa
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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GabonHistorical Issues
Gabon – Central Africa
Gabon – Central Africa
Paleolithic
Era
13-15th
Century
16th Century
Early 18th
Century
Late 18th
Century-Late
19th Century
Late 19th
Century-
Present Day
400,000-
350,000 years
ago: Evidence
of human
activity.
13th Century: First
migrations of Bantu
tribes from West Africa.
1470-1480 :Portuguese
explorers are the first
Europeans to arrive in
the area, they establish
commercial trade
centers.
16th Century:
Dutch, British and
French traders
arrive, they begin
trading with local
chiefs in tobacco,
and weapons for
raw materials, and
eventually, slaves.
1839: France signs treaties
with Gabonese coastal chiefs,
paving the way for what
would become the era of
French colonialism.
1849: Slaves freed along the
banks of the Komo River
name their settlement
Libreville “free town”, what is
today Gabon’s capital city.
1862: French explorers penetrate the
interior of Gabon.
1885: France occupies Gabon and the era
of French Colonialism begins.
1910: Gabon becomes one of the four
territories of French Equatorial Africa.
Aug 17, 1960: Gabon declares
Independence from France.
12 Feb, 1960: Léon M'ba becomes first
president of Gabon and serves till his death
in 1967.
Nov 1967: Omar Bongo
Ondimba succeeds M’ba
as president and serves
until his death in 2009.
30 Aug 2009: Ali Bongo
Ondimba was elected
President in a free and
democratic election,
assuming office on 16
Oct, 2009.
Click on a date to learn
more about a specific event
or click here to continue.
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Pre-Colonial/
Ancient
Civilizations
Gabon – Central Africa
Colonial Africa
Post-Colonial/ Post
Cold War
African Historic
Figures
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Gabon
Pre-Colonial/ Ancient
Civilizations
Gabon – Central Africa
Gabon
Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations
Gabon – Central Africa
PRE-COLONIAL/ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
It is thought that the original
and earliest inhabitants of
Gabon were Pygmy people,
however, there is not much
evidence to document these
findings as they left little
archeological record.
What evidence does exist of
the earliest inhabitants is
preserved today at the Lopé
National Park in Gabon, and at
sites such as Njole (200km east
of the country’s capital city).
Lopé National Park, Central Gabon
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Gabon
Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations
Gabon – Central Africa
PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
The ecological and archaeological
evidence preserved in this park
shows that the area was inhabited
almost continuously from late
Paleolithic times, 350-400,000
years ago, to the present day.
 Archeologists have unearthed
carvings approximately 400,000
years old, dating back to the
beginning of the Stone Age, as
well the remains of Paleolithic
tools, and Neolithic villages dated
circa 4,000 B.C.
Lopé National Park, Central Gabon
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Gabon
These findings are attributed to early migrations of the Bantu tribes
from West Africa, who migrated across the region in search of new land
or to escape conflict, following the fall of the Mali and Songhai Empires,
to which they belonged.
During this time, the original inhabitants of present day Gabon,
including the Pygmies, were absorbed by the Bantu tribes.
Some displaced Pygmies still live in the jungle in the east of the country
today.
In the 13th century, the migrating Bantu tribes of The Mpongwe people
arrived and settled in the area; the people of the Fang tribe arrived much
later, at the end of the 18th century.
Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations
Gabon – Central Africa
PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
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Gabon
Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations
Gabon – Central Africa
PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
In the 13th century, the migrating Bantu
tribes of The Mpongwe people arrived in the
area; the people of the Fang tribe arrived
much later, at the end of the 18th century.
Fang mask, c.a. 18th Century
Musée des Arts et Traditions du Gabon
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Gabon
Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations
Gabon – Central Africa
PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
In the 15th Century (1470), the
Portuguese became the first explorers to
land on the coast of Gabon, and the first
Europeans to make contact with the
inhabitants of Gabon.
As such, the region derives it’s name,
Gabon, from the Portuguese word,
“Gabão,” for cloak, due to the resemblance
of the Komo River estuary to a coat with a
hood and sleeves.
It is here, in the 1480s, that the
Portuguese established commercial
trading posts, trading with local
communities all along the coast of West
and Central Africa.
15th Century Portuguese Explorers, West and Central
African coast
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Gabon
At the beginning of the 16th century, an influx of Dutch, British and
French traders followed the Portuguese and started a lucrative trade with
local chiefs that began with the trade of tobacco, cloth, iron, alcoholic
beverages and weapons, in exchange for ivory and, eventually, slaves.
 Between the 1760s and the 1840s, the settlements on the Gabonese
estuary, as well as those on the coast and in the south, became hubs to
hold slaves.
Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations
Gabon – Central Africa
PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
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Gabon
Slaves were transported down the river from the interior of Gabon by
African slavers. They were temporarily held in these hubs along the coast
to await Dutch, British and French slave ships.
The majority of slaves from Gabon were shipped to the “New World,” to
work on plantations in Brazil and North America.
The majority of African tribes in the region at this time were involved in
the slave trade. The Fang, although not part of the trade, displaced
settlers when they invaded Gabon from the north (present day
Cameroon) causing them to move into areas where slave trading was
popular.
Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations
Gabon – Central Africa
PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
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Gabon
Although the slave trade was abolished in France in 1794, and in the
United States in 1865, it continued illegally in Africa for some time.
By 1815, France joined forces with Britain to officially halt the illegal
smuggling and trade of slaves in the area.
However, Europeans continued to trade in manufactured goods for raw
materials.
With the slave trade ending, European powers became focused on
establishing their dominance over the lucrative natural resources of
Africa. Between 1839 and 1941, France signed a series of treaties with
Gabonese coastal chiefs to solidify their status in the region.
Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations
Gabon – Central Africa
PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
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Gabon
In 1839, France established the first permanent European settlement, in
agreement with the Mpongwe ruler. This settlement laid the ground-
work for what was later to become the period of French colonialism in
the area.
The first American settlement in the area was established in 1842 by
American missionaries from New England.
In 1849, the local population along the Komo River estuary grew when
the French captured an illegal slave ship; they released the captives along
the mouth of the Komo River and these freed slaves named their
settlement Libreville -"free town.”
This settlement would later become the capital of Gabon.
Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations
Gabon – Central Africa
PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
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Gabon
The interior of Gabon remained, for the most part, unexplored by foreigners
until the mid-19th century.
In the 1850s, an American, Paul du Chaillu, became one of the first foreigners to
explore the interior of the region.
Between 1862 and 1887, the French began exploring Gabon’s dense jungles.
Capitalizing on treaties signed with indigenous chiefs earlier in the century,
France occupied Gabon in 1885 during the European scramble for Africa,
ushering in the era of French colonialism.
In 1903, France began administering the area and in 1910, Gabon became one
of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa, a federation that survived until
1959.
The territories remained as such until the time of their independence in 1960--
forming the independent nations of the Central African Republic, Chad, Congo
(Brazzaville), and Gabon.
Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations
Gabon – Central Africa
PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
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Gabon
Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations
Gabon – Central Africa
PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
In 1903, France began
administering the area and
in 1910, Gabon became
one of the four territories
of French Equatorial Africa,
a federation that survived
until 1959.
The territories remained
as such until the time of
their independence in
1960--forming the
independent nations of the
Central African Republic,
Chad, Congo (Brazzaville),
and Gabon.
French Missionary school, Central Africa, c.a. 1906
http://histclo.com/country/fran/reg/fr-col.html
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GabonColonial Africa
Gabon – Central Africa
Gabon
Upon succeeding in conquering the region of Gabon, France
concentrated its efforts on maximizing the exploitation of natural
resources for trade and profit.
As a result of the exploitation of the local population, a series of
widespread revolts occurred throughout the country by people who
refused to work for French companies.
These revolts led the colonial administration to put in place structures
that would allow them to assert full control over the region.
The Code de l'indigénat was instituted; it required locals to pay a head
tax to the colonial administration that could be paid off by working for
French concessionary companies, and also allowed colonial
administrators to jail locals without trial for fifteen days and forced them
to pay a fine for any offense.
Colonial Africa
Gabon – Central Africa
COLONIAL AFRICA
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Gabon
As a result of the Code de l'indigénat, forced labor was instated
throughout all French African colonies.
In 1910, the French appointed a Governor and divided Gabon into 38
subdivisions, which allowed the French colonial administration to
exercise control over the population.
During this time, France also established Gabon’s southern border
(present day Republic of Congo) with King Leopold II of Belgium in 1918,
and its northern border (present day Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea)
with Spain and Germany in 1919.
Colonial Africa
Gabon – Central Africa
COLONIAL AFRICA
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Gabon
The timber industry – along the coast and lagoons of Gabon, as well as
the upper Komo and Rembwe regions, and the lakes near the town of
Lambaréné, came to dominate the export industry.
Thousands of wood cutters from other regions of the country flocked to
these regions to transport logs of trees down creeks and rivers to the
coastal areas of Port-Gentil and Cape Lopez which had established ports
for timber export.
Labor conditions during this time were extremely difficult as the timber
industry was not mechanized and the cutting down of trees and sawing
of logs had to be done by hand.
Colonial Africa
Gabon – Central Africa
COLONIAL AFRICA
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Gabon
Colonial Africa
Gabon – Central Africa
COLONIAL AFRICA
African labor unions formed to demand better
working conditions for Gabonese people. Leaders
such as Léon M'ba fought to obtain the end of
forced labor and end the worst abuses of
colonialism.
Following World War 2, the French Government
instituted a series of economic and social reforms
in all its African colonies.
Changes in the timber industry also occurred; a
tractor trailer now did all the cutting and carrying
of logs and a large timber factory was built.
In the 1950s, exploitation of oil wells began as
well as exploitation of manganese, uranium, and
iron.
Léon M'ba
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Gabon
These natural resources boosted the Gabonese economy and provided
support for infrastructure development such as roads and ports.
The first Gabonese government council was formed in 1957, and Léon
M’Ba became president of the council in 1958.
In 1958, Gabon voted to become a autonomous republic in the French
Community with Léon M'ba elected Prime Minister.
The country declared its independence on 17 August 1960, and in 1961
M’Ba was elected president.
Colonial Africa
Gabon – Central Africa
COLONIAL AFRICA
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Gabon
Post-Colonial/ Post
Cold War
Gabon – Central Africa
Gabon
At the time of independence in 1960, only two principal political parties
existed in Gabon: the Bloc Democratique Gabonais (BDG), led by Gabriel
Léon M'ba, and the Union Democratique et Sociale Gabonaise (UDSG),
led by J.H. Aubame.
 In the first post-independence election, neither party was able to win a
majority. The BDG, however, obtained support from three of the four
independent legislative deputies, and M'Ba was named Prime Minister.
Soon after this, the two parties agreed that Gabon did not have enough
people to support a two-party system, and the two party leaders agreed
on a single list of candidates to take part in the 1961 presidential
election. In that election, held under the new presidential system, M'Ba
became President and Aubame became Foreign Minister.
Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War
Gabon – Central Africa
POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR
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Gabon
Gabriel Léon M'ba served as the first president of Gabon from 1961-
1967.
M’ba intended to establish the kind of democratic regime that was
necessary to develop the country and attract foreign investment,
however, in practice this was not the case.
On the 21st February 1961, a new constitution was unanimously
adopted that allowed for a “hyper-presidential regime,” in which M’ba
had full executive powers; he could appoint ministers and decide their
responsibilities himself, dissolve the National Assembly at will, and
declare a state of emergency when he felt necessary.
Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War
Gabon – Central Africa
POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR
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Gabon
M’ba’s one-party system appeared to work until February 1963; at this
time M’ba broke ties with Aubame and all UDSG party members were
dismissed.
M‘ba called an election for February 1964 . When the BDG appeared
likely to win the election by default, the Gabonese military toppled M‘ba
in a bloodless coup on 18 February 1964.
Gabonese Military personnel arrested the President of the National
Assembly and announced to the Gabonese people, via radio, that a coup
had taken place.
They instructed the French not to interfere and that no French citizens
would be harmed. A provisional government of both UDSG and BDG
members was formed, and the presidency was offered to Aubame.
Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War
Gabon – Central Africa
POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR
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Gabon
•The new head of government contacted the French Ambassador, Paul
Cousseran, to assure the protection of French nationals and to ask him to
prevent any French military intervention.
•However, as M’ba was one of the most loyal allies to France in Africa,
the French Government decided to restore what they considered the
legitimate Government and French troops re-instated M’ba to power the
next day.
•Aubame was charged for his alleged involvement in the coup and
sentenced to 10 years of hard labor and 10 years in exile.
•In 1965, the French began looking for a successor for M’ba, who was
aging and sick. Omar Bongo Ondimba, a young leader in the President’s
cabinet, was favored to be his successor.
Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War
Gabon – Central Africa
POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR
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Gabon
In 1966, the constitution was revised to provide for automatic succession of the
Vice President should the President die in office.
In March 1967, Omar Bongo Ondimba was elected Vice President; M'Ba died
later that year, and Omar Bongo became President.
In March 1968, Bongo declared Gabon a one-party state; he dissolved the BDG
and established a new party--the Parti Democratique Gabonais (PDG). Bongo
invited all Gabonese politicians, regardless of previous political affiliation, to join
the party.
In April 1975, the position of Vice President was abolished and replaced by the
position of Prime Minister, who had no right to automatic succession.
Bongo was re-elected President in both December 1979 and November 1986 to
7-year terms.
Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War
Gabon – Central Africa
POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR
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Gabon
In 1990, economic discontent and a desire for greater democracy
prompted violent demonstrations and strikes by students and civil
servants.
In response, Omar Bongo Ondimba made significant wage concessions;
he promised to allow greater political diversity in the PDG and to
organize a national political conference in April 1990 to discuss Gabon's
future political system.
The April 1990 conference approved sweeping political reforms,
including the creation of a National Senate, decentralization of the
budgetary process, and freedom of assembly and Press.
A new constitution that provided an independent judiciary but retained
strong executive powers for the President came into force in March 1991.
Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War
Gabon – Central Africa
POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR
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Gabon
Despite these concessions, opposition to the PDG continued after the
April 1990 conference, and in September 1990, two coup d’état attempts
were uncovered and aborted.
Following President Omar Bongo Ondimba's re-election in December
1993, opposition candidates refused to validate the election results.
Serious civil disturbances led to an agreement between the government
and opposition factions to work toward a political settlement.
These talks led to the Paris Accords in November 1994, under which
several opposition figures were included in a government of national
unity, however, this arrangement soon broke down.
Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War
Gabon – Central Africa
POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR
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Gabon
As opposition was still divided, President Omar Bongo Onbimba was re-
elected in December 1998.
While Bongo's major opponents rejected the outcome as fraudulent,
some international observers characterized the results as representative,
despite some irregularities.
In November 2005, President Omar Bongo Ondimba was elected for his
sixth term. There were some instances of violence following the
announcement of Omar Bongo Ondimba's win, but Gabon generally
remained peaceful.
Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War
Gabon – Central Africa
POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR
Click here to continuePrevious Slide
Gabon
On 8 June 2009, President Omar Bongo Ondimba died of cardiac arrest
while undergoing treatment in Barcelona.
In accordance with the amended constitution, Rose Francine Rogombe,
the President of the Senate, became Interim President on 10 June 2009.
Presidential elections were held on 30 August 2009 with 18 candidates
vying for President.
Omar Bongo’s son, ruling party leader Ali Bongo Ondimba, was declared
the winner in elections that were deemed to be democratically free and
fair, and after a 3-week review by the Constitutional Court he was
officially declared President; his inauguration took place on 16 October
2009.
Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War
Gabon – Central Africa
POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR
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Gabon
African Historic
Figures
Gabon – Central Africa
Gabon
African Historic Figures
Gabon – Central Africa
AFRICAN HISTORIC FIGURES
Gabriel Léon M'ba
El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba
Back to Historical Issues
Gabon
Gabriel Léon M'ba
Gabon – Central Africa
AFRICAN HISTORIC FIGURES
Gabriel Léon M'ba became the first president of
Gabon, serving from 1961-1967.
M'ba was born on 9 February 1902 in Libreville,
Gabon.
In 1909, M’ba joined a seminary, where he received
his primary education.
From 1920, M’ba gained employment as a store manager and
lumberjack before entering the French Colonial administration as a
customs agent.
Despite good job performance, M’ba’s political activism worried the
Colonial Administration and in December 1922 he was sentenced to
prison for providing a colleague with falsified documents; a minor crime
that would normally have resulted in a small fine.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%A9on_M%27ba
Click here to continue
Gabon
Gabriel Léon M'ba
Gabon – Central Africa
AFRICAN HISTORIC FIGURES
Around 1924, M’ba reconciled with colonial
authorities and was named the chef de canton
(village chief) of Libreville’s Fang neighborhood.
In 1931, M’ba was implicated in the murder of a
woman near Libreville, he was sentenced in 1931 to
three years in prison and 10 years in exile.
In 1946, the French colonial administration
permitted M’ba to return to Gabon.
He began his rise to political power in 1946; he was appointed Prime
Minister on 21 May 1957, and served in this position until 21 February
1961.
He became President of Gabon upon independence from France, and
was officially sworn in on 12 February 1961. M'ba was reelected in March
1967, but died of cancer in November 1967. He was succeeded by his
vice president, Albert-Bernard Bongo.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%A9on_M%27ba
Back to African Historic Figures
Gabon
El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba
Gabon – Central Africa
AFRICAN HISTORIC FIGURES
Born as Albert-Bernard Bongo, Omar Bongo was a
Gabonese politician who was President of Gabon for
42 years, from 1967 until his death in office in 2009.
Omar Bongo was promoted to key positions as a
young official under Gabon's first President Leon
M'ba in the 1960s, before becoming Vice-President
from 1966 to 1967. He eventually succeeded M'ba,
becoming Gabon's second President upon M’ba’s
death in 1967.
Bongo headed the single-party regime of the Gabonese Democratic Party
(PDG) until 1990, when he introduced multi-party politics in Gabon.
He was re-elected in the 1993 presidential election, and again in the
subsequent elections of 1998 and 2005.
http://ujpdg-france.vefblog.net/519.html
Back to African Historic Figures
Gabon
Current Politics &
Culture
Gabon – Central Africa
Gabon – Central Africa
Current Politics Culture
Back to Home
GabonCurrent Politics
Gabon – Central Africa
Foreign
Relations
Gabon – Central Africa
US Relations Media Governance
Current
Administration
Back to Current Politics and Culture
Gabon
Gabon follows a policy of nonalignment, meaning it does not have
political alliances with other nations.
Gabon promotes dialogue in international affairs, and has taken a
leadership role in mediation between central African countries. The
President also recently completed a “Tour of Friendship” to neighboring
countries.
It recognizes both sides in countries divided by disputes.
It is a member of the UN and related organizations, and is currently on
the Security Council.
Gabon is also a member of the African Union and regional economic
and development organizations.
It currently has some sovereignty disputes with Equatorial Guinea over
Mbane Island and other maritime boundaries.
Foreign Relations
Gabon – Central Africa
FOREIGN RELATIONS
Back to Current Politics
Gabon
US Relations
Gabon – Central Africa
US RELATIONS
Gabon maintains excellent relation with the US.
Multiple visits have been made by heads of state from both the US and
Gabon, including a recent visit in June 2011 by the President of Gabon
and his wife.
The US maintains strong trade relations
with Gabon.
The US provides some development
assistance to Gabon.
Gabon hosted a US AFRICOM military
communications event in 2009.
President Bongo Ondimba meeting with President Obama.
Back to Current Politics
Gabon
Media
Gabon – Central Africa
MEDIA
There are two government-owned TV stations and two government-owned radio
stations.
There are several privately owned radio stations and TV stations.
Africa No. 1, one of Africa’s most famous and most powerful radio stations, is
located in Libreville. It is a major commercial station, supported by the French and
Gabonese governments, as well as the private European media. It was started in
1981, although the station in Libreville is currently undergoing renovations.
The national press service is the Gabonese Press Agency, which publishes Gabon
Matin. L’Union is a government-controlled daily newspaper, and Gabon
Aujourd’hui is published by the Ministry of Communications.
There are nine privately-owned periodicals, which may be independent or
associated with a political party. Some major newspapers include: Le Temps, Le
Temoin, La Lowe, Le Journal, and La Relance.
The government supports the rights to free speech and press; the government
may be openly criticized.
Back to Current Politics
Gabon
Governance
•Gabon is a republic.
•It gained its independence on August 17, 1960, and adopted its
constitution on February 21, 1961. The constitution was revised in 1975,
rewritten in 1991, and revised in 2003.
•The head of state is the President, who is elected for a 7 year term, with
no limit to the number of terms he or she can serve. The President can
appoint and dismiss the Prime Minister, the cabinet, and the Supreme
Court judges, can dissolve the National Assembly, can declare a state of
siege, can delay legislation, and can conduct referenda.
•The head of the government is the Prime Minister, who is served by a
Council of Ministers.
•The Main legislative body is composed of the National Assembly, which
has 120 members, and the Senate, which has 102 members.
•The judiciary is composed of a Supreme Court and a Constitutional Court.
•The main political parties include: the Parti Democratique Gabonais (PDG)
which holds the largest number of seats in the National Assembly; the
l’Union Nationale (UN); the Union du Peuple Gabonais (UPG); and the
Rassemblement du Peuple Gabonais (RPG).
Gabon – Central Africa
GOVERNANCE
Back to Current Politics
Gabon
Current Administration
Gabon – Central Africa
CURRENT ADMINISTRATION
•Democratic elections have been held since the independence of the country, and have moved back
and forth between a single party and multi party government.
•The government and country were unified under President Omar Bongo, during his consecutive terms
as President from 1967-1990.
•Workers made numerous grievances in 1990 which led to extreme government reforms, including the
creation of the Senate, the decentralization of the budget, more freedom of assembly and the press, a
new constitution with a Bill of Rights and an independent judiciary, and open multiparty elections.
•Omar Bongo was reelected in 1998 and 2005, but died in 2009.
•Bongo’s son, Ali Bongo Ondimba, was elected following his death.
On the Horizon:
The current administration has attempted to reduce corruption by eliminating
government positions, has attempted to diversify the economy to become less dependent
on petroleum, by increasing manganese and timber production, and has attempted to
modernize the workforce.
The President has supported the slogan “Emerging Gabon,” under which he has
established three major programs, “Green Gabon,” which focuses on the environment,
“Industrial Gabon,” which focuses on raw materials, and “Grey Gabon,” which focuses on
high-tech service industries.
The President has put a strong emphasis on the development of strategic partnerships,
and is committed to sustainable economic and environmental growth, through means such
as the preservation of national parks, which protects the environment while supporting a
growing tourism industry, and the creation of a space agency to monitor deforestation.
President Bongo Ondimba
Biyokulule.com
Back to Current Politics
GabonCulture
Gabon – Central Africa
Ethnic Groups
& Religion
Gabon – Central Africa
Food
Values &
Customs
Music
Art &
Literature
Back to Current Politics and Culture
Gabon
Ethnic Groups & Religion
Gabon – Central Africa
ETHNIC GROUPS & RELIGION
The major ethnic groups include: the Fang which is the largest group, the
Myene, the Bapounou, the Eshira, the Bandjabi, the Bakota, the Nzebi, and
the Bateke/Obamba.
There are at least 40 ethnic groups, but almost all of them are of Bantu
origin.
Ethnic clashes are less severe than in many other countries, because the
groups are more spread out and have more contact and more intermarriage.
Gabon is one of the least densely populated countries in Africa.
More than 10,000 native French live there, and French is the main
language used in commerce.
Major religions include Christianity, which makes up 55-75% of the
population, Islam, which makes up 5-10% of the population, and traditional
Animism, which makes up less than 1% of the population.
Back to Culture
Gabon
Food
Gabon – Central Africa
FOOD & CLOTHING
Gabonese produce includes: bananas, papayas, pineapples, mangoes,
guavas, avocado, coconuts, eggplants, feed corn, sugarcane, peanuts,
plantains, and tomatoes.
The Gabonese staple food is the starch cassava.
Main sources of protein come
from seafood and game.
Wine used for ceremonies is
made from palm trees and
sugarcane.
Gabon Cultura
Back to Culture
Gabon
Values & Customs
Gabon – Central Africa
VALUES & CUSTOMS
•Regarding property, villages own three mile of land in every direction, which they
split evenly among the families of the village. The best locations are given to the
elders.
•The Gabonese may marry within the same ethnic group, but villagers will often
marry outside of their communities, in order to avoid marrying relatives.
•Regarding children, if they are born in marriage, they belong to the father, so
women are expected to have children before they marry, so they will have
something if they separate from their husbands. Having children before marriage is
also used to prove a woman’s fertility.
Worldflags101.com
•The Gabonese flag is green, gold, and blue, and the colors
represent forests and natural resources, the equator and the
sun, and the sea, respectively.
Back to Culture
Gabon
Music
Gabon – Central Africa
MUSIC
Gabonese music is less well-known than that of the surrounding regional powers.
The Gabonese have many different folk styles of music, and use varying instruments
including the obala, the ngombi, which is a type of harp, the balafon, which is similar to a
xylophone, and traditional drums.
Popular styles of music include rock and hip hop from the US and UK, as well as Rumba,
which is a percussive style based on a 5-stroke rhythmic pattern, Soukous, which evolved
from Rumba, and Makossa, which is similar to Soukous, but has a stronger bass and horn
section.
Ngombi harp, katalog.van-ham.com
The National Anthem is “La Concorde,” which was
adopted in 1960.
The mother of the current President of Gabon is the
famous singer Patience Dabany.
One of the most well-known musicians, a composer,
singer, and producer, is Pierre Akendengue.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DZCmHanNhG8&fe
ature=related
Back to Culture
Gabon
Art & Literature
Gabon – Central Africa
ART & LITERATURE
•Gabonese literature follows an oral tradition, and
folklore and mythology are very important.
•“Raconteurs” keep traditions alive by telling stories.
•Spoken-word poetry is very popular. A modern-day
form of this is the vibrant art called “Slam.”
•Literature is strongly influenced by France, because
many Gabonese are educated there.
•The Gabonese make beautiful masks, from wood and
precious metals, which are generally painted white with
black features.
•The Gabonese make decorative boxes to hold the
remains of their ancestors, which are called Bieri.
•The International Center for Bantu Civilizations is
located in Gabon.
Bieri reliquary head, metmuseum.org
Back to Culture
Gabon – Central Africa
Women, Youth,
and Community
Gabon – Central Africa
Women Youth Community
Back to Home
Gabon – Central Africa
Women
WOMEN
The First Lady has created a program called the Akassi
Microcredit Project, which is designed to enable women to
start small business projects of their own.
Akassi means “women” in the Bateke language.
The goal of the project is
to improve the social and
economic status of these
women.
The project encourages
women to work in
partnership and share
good working practices.
Washingtonpost.com
Back to Women, Youth, and
Community
Gabon – Central Africa
Youth
YOUTH
The First Lady has supported the development of a center for
orphaned and abandoned children, as well as the development of
after-school centers, that encourage youth involvement in the
community.
The First Lady has placed a special focus on the career
frustrations of rural children, and on increasing their
opportunities and potential.
Gabon participated in a UN awareness
project , which allowed children to travel
to France and act as ambassadors on
behalf of endangered gorillas in their
region. This program emphasized the
importance of youth involvement.
The First Lady on her tour of the interior of Gabon,
facebook.com
Back to Women, Youth, and
Community
Gabon – Central Africa
Community
COMMUNITY
The First Lady created her own special cabinet of advisors to
support a social program for communities and families.
She has her own foundation, called “Pour la Famille,” meaning,
“For the Family.”
She has focused on social programs, including the development of
community associations, support for the disabled, and the
reduction of maternal mortality rates.
She has also been focused on
supporting health programs that
deal with serious diseases such
as HIV and malaria.
World Aids Day,
Wikipedia
Back to Women, Youth, and
Community
(Fin)
Gabon – Central Africa
Thanks for
visiting. Feel free
to come back any
time!
Willconroy.eu
Gabon – Central Africa
www.eva.mpg.de
Loango National Park
Click here to continue
This is the only place in Africa where you can see whales, chimps,
gorillas, and elephants in one park. It covers the beach, savannah,
forest, and swamp.
Gabon – Central Africa
Reserve de la Lope
Trip Advisor
Click here to continue
It has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2002.
Previous Slide
Gabon – Central Africa
Ivindo National Park
Amozonair.com
Click here to continue
It contains the famous Kongou Falls.
Previous Slide
Gabon – Central Africa
Arboretum de Sibang
Libreville.com
Click here to continue
This is a preserved rainforest park that holds many of Gabon’s diverse tree species.
Previous Slide
Gabon – Central Africa
Pointe-Denis Beach
Click here to continue
Gomag.co.za
Located off of a nearby island, this beach allows for a great view of
Libreville’s skyline. It also allows for many water activities, and is home to
many giant leatherback turtles.
Previous Slide
Gabon – Central Africa
L’Eglise St. Michel de Nkembo
Afrikimages.blogspot.com
Click here to continue
This church is known for its huge, intricate columns carved from wood, said to
have been created by a blind man.
Previous Slide
Gabon – Central Africa
Musee des Arts et Traditions du Gabon
Ratsdeville
Click here to continue
This is a great museum that showcases Gabon’s culture, and has an impressive collection of
masks.
Previous Slide
Gabon – Central Africa
Albert Schweitzer Hospital
Ressurectionhope.blogspot.com
It has been a primary source of healthcare for the region, and has been considered as a
tentative World Heritage Site.
Back to Home

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Gabon

  • 2. Gabon – Central Africa Hi! My name is Annie Flore Batchiellilys and I am a world renowned singer from Gabon. Let me take you on a tour of my country!
  • 3. Gabon – Central Africa http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Africa_(orthographic_projection).svg
  • 4. Gabon – Central Africa http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/223148/Gabon
  • 5. Gabon – Central Africa An elephant located in Loango National Park. One of the modern buildings located in Libreville, the country’s capital. Flag of Gabon
  • 6. Priority Areas Historical Issues Current Politics & Culture Gabon – Central Africa Feel free to explore! You can choose any subject that interests you, and come back to this page to navigate through the others. Just click on one of the buttons below to get started! Exit Click Here to see some of the most beautiful sights in Gabon! Women, Youth, and Community
  • 8. Geography Gabon – Central Africa Environment Health Trade & Economics Science & Technology Back to Home
  • 10. Gabon Gabon – Central Africa GEOGRAPHY Demographics Natural Resources Back to Priority Areas
  • 11. Gabon Nationality: Gabonese Population: 1,545,255 Ethnic groups: Fang (largest), Myene, Bapounou, Eshira, Bakota, Nzebi, Bateke, Bandjabi Location: Surrounded by the Republic of the Congo and Equatorial Guinea Gross Domestic Product: $22.5 Billion US Gross Domestic Product per capita: $14,500 US Population growth rate: 2.025% each year Capital: Libreville Work Force: 50% agriculture, 16% services, 33% government Natural wonders: Tourists say the country is beautiful, however tourism is underdeveloped. Gabon’s 13 national parks attract many tourists every year. The beaches, inland fishing facilities, the falls on the Ogooue River and the Crystal Mountains are also tourist destinations. Demographics Gabon – Central Africa GEOGRAPHY Back to Geography
  • 12. GabonNatural Resources: petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, niobium, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore, hydropower Natural Resources Gabon – Central Africa GEOGRAPHY Back to Geography
  • 14. Gabon Gabon – Central Africa ENVIRONMENT Agriculture Climate Water Back to Priority Areas
  • 15. Gabon Agriculture  Due to the fact that the country is mostly rainforest, only a small portion of the country is suitable for agricultural activity.  The country imports around 50% of all of its consumed goods.  Coffee, palm oil, cocoa, and rubber are all exported.  Principle crops: plantains, cassava, and maize Gabon – Central Africa ENVIRONMENT Plantains Maize (Corn) Back to Environment
  • 16. Gabon Climate Tropical climate Typically always hot, and humid Equatorial climate: Country experiences a whale season from July to September. Rainforests cover 85% of the country. Climate Change Mean annual temperature has increased by 0.6° C since 1960. Mean rainfall has decreased by 2.6% since 1960. The country is said to be warming faster in the central and eastern region than on the coast (west). Gabon – Central Africa ENVIRONMENT A portion of the Gabonese forest Click to continue
  • 17. Gabon Climate Desertification has been an issue in the Congo River Basin where Gabon is located. This basin alone represents 30% of Africa’s vegetation coverage. Between 1990 and 2000, the basin shrunk by 8.3 million hectares in size. Degradation still has not reached its peak yet. Officials still do not know the potential effect of this degradation and when it reaches its peak. Gabon – Central Africa ENVIRONMENT Examples of the deforestation in Gabon Back to Environment
  • 18. Gabon Water Access to clean water still remains a problem in rural and poorer suburbs. 80% of Gabon’s urban population and 30% of rural population have access to clean water. The prevalence of diarrheal and waterborne diseases remains a threat in the country. Local officials are working to protect both water sources and beaches from pollution. Gabon – Central Africa ENVIRONMENT Body of water located in Libreville Back to Environment
  • 20. Gabon Life expectancy: 52 years Percent with access to improved water sources: 41.0% Child mortality rate: 68.9 per 1,000 children Percent living below the poverty line: 32.7% HIV prevalence: 5% Infant mortality rate: 52 per 1,000 live births Incidence of tuberculosis per 100,000 people: 501 (has increased drastically since 2006) Health expenditure (% of GDP): 3.5% Health Gabon – Central Africa HEALTH Back to Priority Areas
  • 21. GabonTrade & Economics Gabon – Central Africa
  • 22. Gabon Gabon – Central Africa TRADE & ECONOMICS Mining and Drilling Natural Resources and Investment Manufacturing Back to Priority Areas
  • 23. Gabon Mining & Drilling Gabon is a major petroleum producer. Gabon is the world’s second largest manganese dioxide producer. Gabon also produces minor gold, uranium, and diamonds. Gabon – Central Africa TRADE & ECONOMICS A petroleum gas refinery in Arzew, Gabon Back to Trade and Economics
  • 24. Gabon Natural Resources: petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, niobium, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore, hydropower Foreign Investment: Foreign firms currently control Gabon’s major industries (petroleum, manganese, and timber). The country is open to foreign investment. The Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) passed in 1998 provides the same rights to foreign companies operating in Gabon as domestic firms do. Foreign investors have the option of opening bank accounts in Communaute Financiere Africaine (CFA) Franc or Euros. Foreign firms operate on an equal basis with national firms. Natural Resources & Investment Gabon – Central Africa TRADE & ECONOMICS Back to Trade and Economics
  • 25. Gabon Manufacturing In 1967, a petroleum refinery factory opened in Port-Gentil. This refinery overshadows other manufacturing enterprises, such as lumber processing companies, cement and cigarette factories, and breweries. Gabon – Central Africa TRADE & ECONOMICS Lumber, one of the many goods that is manufactured in Gabon. Back to Trade and Economics
  • 26. GabonScience & Technology Gabon – Central Africa
  • 27. Gabon Gabon – Central Africa SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Biotechnology Information and Communications Technologies Back to Priority Areas
  • 28. Gabon There are currently two institutions carrying out plant breeding in Gabon. Le Centre d’Introduction, d’Adaptation, et de Multiplication du Materiel Vegetal (CIAM) and the Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Vegetale (LBV). CIAM focuses more on line creation and evaluation while LBV focuses more on plant biotechnology and germplasm. Biotechnology Gabon – Central Africa SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Back to Science and Technology
  • 29. Gabon Gabon has a shortage of trained scientists and technicians. They mostly rely on scientists from France. The University that Omar Bongo founded in 1970 has a faculty of scientists as well as a school of engineering. Gabon is one of the few African countries to have a connection to the South Atlantic 3/West African Submarine Cable (SAT3/WASC) through sea cable, which links Europe to Asia by going through the African continent. Gabon has more than 45,000 people subscribed to fixed telephone lines. Gabon’s internet is supplied by Gabon Telecom, SOLSI, and INTERNET GABON. Information & Communication Technologies Gabon – Central Africa SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Back to Science and Technology
  • 31. Gabon – Central Africa Paleolithic Era 13-15th Century 16th Century Early 18th Century Late 18th Century-Late 19th Century Late 19th Century- Present Day 400,000- 350,000 years ago: Evidence of human activity. 13th Century: First migrations of Bantu tribes from West Africa. 1470-1480 :Portuguese explorers are the first Europeans to arrive in the area, they establish commercial trade centers. 16th Century: Dutch, British and French traders arrive, they begin trading with local chiefs in tobacco, and weapons for raw materials, and eventually, slaves. 1839: France signs treaties with Gabonese coastal chiefs, paving the way for what would become the era of French colonialism. 1849: Slaves freed along the banks of the Komo River name their settlement Libreville “free town”, what is today Gabon’s capital city. 1862: French explorers penetrate the interior of Gabon. 1885: France occupies Gabon and the era of French Colonialism begins. 1910: Gabon becomes one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa. Aug 17, 1960: Gabon declares Independence from France. 12 Feb, 1960: Léon M'ba becomes first president of Gabon and serves till his death in 1967. Nov 1967: Omar Bongo Ondimba succeeds M’ba as president and serves until his death in 2009. 30 Aug 2009: Ali Bongo Ondimba was elected President in a free and democratic election, assuming office on 16 Oct, 2009. Click on a date to learn more about a specific event or click here to continue. Back to Home
  • 32. Pre-Colonial/ Ancient Civilizations Gabon – Central Africa Colonial Africa Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War African Historic Figures Back to Home
  • 34. Gabon Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations Gabon – Central Africa PRE-COLONIAL/ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS It is thought that the original and earliest inhabitants of Gabon were Pygmy people, however, there is not much evidence to document these findings as they left little archeological record. What evidence does exist of the earliest inhabitants is preserved today at the Lopé National Park in Gabon, and at sites such as Njole (200km east of the country’s capital city). Lopé National Park, Central Gabon Click here to continue
  • 35. Gabon Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations Gabon – Central Africa PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS The ecological and archaeological evidence preserved in this park shows that the area was inhabited almost continuously from late Paleolithic times, 350-400,000 years ago, to the present day.  Archeologists have unearthed carvings approximately 400,000 years old, dating back to the beginning of the Stone Age, as well the remains of Paleolithic tools, and Neolithic villages dated circa 4,000 B.C. Lopé National Park, Central Gabon Click here to continue Back to timeline Previous Slide
  • 36. Gabon These findings are attributed to early migrations of the Bantu tribes from West Africa, who migrated across the region in search of new land or to escape conflict, following the fall of the Mali and Songhai Empires, to which they belonged. During this time, the original inhabitants of present day Gabon, including the Pygmies, were absorbed by the Bantu tribes. Some displaced Pygmies still live in the jungle in the east of the country today. In the 13th century, the migrating Bantu tribes of The Mpongwe people arrived and settled in the area; the people of the Fang tribe arrived much later, at the end of the 18th century. Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations Gabon – Central Africa PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS Click here to continue Back to timeline Previous Slide
  • 37. Gabon Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations Gabon – Central Africa PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS In the 13th century, the migrating Bantu tribes of The Mpongwe people arrived in the area; the people of the Fang tribe arrived much later, at the end of the 18th century. Fang mask, c.a. 18th Century Musée des Arts et Traditions du Gabon Click here to continue Previous Slide
  • 38. Gabon Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations Gabon – Central Africa PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS In the 15th Century (1470), the Portuguese became the first explorers to land on the coast of Gabon, and the first Europeans to make contact with the inhabitants of Gabon. As such, the region derives it’s name, Gabon, from the Portuguese word, “Gabão,” for cloak, due to the resemblance of the Komo River estuary to a coat with a hood and sleeves. It is here, in the 1480s, that the Portuguese established commercial trading posts, trading with local communities all along the coast of West and Central Africa. 15th Century Portuguese Explorers, West and Central African coast Click here to continueBack to timeline Previous Slide
  • 39. Gabon At the beginning of the 16th century, an influx of Dutch, British and French traders followed the Portuguese and started a lucrative trade with local chiefs that began with the trade of tobacco, cloth, iron, alcoholic beverages and weapons, in exchange for ivory and, eventually, slaves.  Between the 1760s and the 1840s, the settlements on the Gabonese estuary, as well as those on the coast and in the south, became hubs to hold slaves. Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations Gabon – Central Africa PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS Click here to continueBack to timeline Previous Slide
  • 40. Gabon Slaves were transported down the river from the interior of Gabon by African slavers. They were temporarily held in these hubs along the coast to await Dutch, British and French slave ships. The majority of slaves from Gabon were shipped to the “New World,” to work on plantations in Brazil and North America. The majority of African tribes in the region at this time were involved in the slave trade. The Fang, although not part of the trade, displaced settlers when they invaded Gabon from the north (present day Cameroon) causing them to move into areas where slave trading was popular. Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations Gabon – Central Africa PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS Click here to continuePrevious Slide
  • 41. Gabon Although the slave trade was abolished in France in 1794, and in the United States in 1865, it continued illegally in Africa for some time. By 1815, France joined forces with Britain to officially halt the illegal smuggling and trade of slaves in the area. However, Europeans continued to trade in manufactured goods for raw materials. With the slave trade ending, European powers became focused on establishing their dominance over the lucrative natural resources of Africa. Between 1839 and 1941, France signed a series of treaties with Gabonese coastal chiefs to solidify their status in the region. Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations Gabon – Central Africa PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS Click here to continue Back to timeline Previous Slide
  • 42. Gabon In 1839, France established the first permanent European settlement, in agreement with the Mpongwe ruler. This settlement laid the ground- work for what was later to become the period of French colonialism in the area. The first American settlement in the area was established in 1842 by American missionaries from New England. In 1849, the local population along the Komo River estuary grew when the French captured an illegal slave ship; they released the captives along the mouth of the Komo River and these freed slaves named their settlement Libreville -"free town.” This settlement would later become the capital of Gabon. Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations Gabon – Central Africa PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS Click here to continueBack to timeline Previous Slide
  • 43. Gabon The interior of Gabon remained, for the most part, unexplored by foreigners until the mid-19th century. In the 1850s, an American, Paul du Chaillu, became one of the first foreigners to explore the interior of the region. Between 1862 and 1887, the French began exploring Gabon’s dense jungles. Capitalizing on treaties signed with indigenous chiefs earlier in the century, France occupied Gabon in 1885 during the European scramble for Africa, ushering in the era of French colonialism. In 1903, France began administering the area and in 1910, Gabon became one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa, a federation that survived until 1959. The territories remained as such until the time of their independence in 1960-- forming the independent nations of the Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), and Gabon. Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations Gabon – Central Africa PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS Click here to continueBack to timeline Previous Slide
  • 44. Gabon Pre-Colonial/Ancient Civilizations Gabon – Central Africa PRE-COLONIAL/ ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS In 1903, France began administering the area and in 1910, Gabon became one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa, a federation that survived until 1959. The territories remained as such until the time of their independence in 1960--forming the independent nations of the Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), and Gabon. French Missionary school, Central Africa, c.a. 1906 http://histclo.com/country/fran/reg/fr-col.html Back to timeline Previous Slide Back to Historical Issues
  • 46. Gabon Upon succeeding in conquering the region of Gabon, France concentrated its efforts on maximizing the exploitation of natural resources for trade and profit. As a result of the exploitation of the local population, a series of widespread revolts occurred throughout the country by people who refused to work for French companies. These revolts led the colonial administration to put in place structures that would allow them to assert full control over the region. The Code de l'indigénat was instituted; it required locals to pay a head tax to the colonial administration that could be paid off by working for French concessionary companies, and also allowed colonial administrators to jail locals without trial for fifteen days and forced them to pay a fine for any offense. Colonial Africa Gabon – Central Africa COLONIAL AFRICA Click here to continue
  • 47. Gabon As a result of the Code de l'indigénat, forced labor was instated throughout all French African colonies. In 1910, the French appointed a Governor and divided Gabon into 38 subdivisions, which allowed the French colonial administration to exercise control over the population. During this time, France also established Gabon’s southern border (present day Republic of Congo) with King Leopold II of Belgium in 1918, and its northern border (present day Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea) with Spain and Germany in 1919. Colonial Africa Gabon – Central Africa COLONIAL AFRICA Click here to conitnuePrevious Slide
  • 48. Gabon The timber industry – along the coast and lagoons of Gabon, as well as the upper Komo and Rembwe regions, and the lakes near the town of Lambaréné, came to dominate the export industry. Thousands of wood cutters from other regions of the country flocked to these regions to transport logs of trees down creeks and rivers to the coastal areas of Port-Gentil and Cape Lopez which had established ports for timber export. Labor conditions during this time were extremely difficult as the timber industry was not mechanized and the cutting down of trees and sawing of logs had to be done by hand. Colonial Africa Gabon – Central Africa COLONIAL AFRICA Click here to continue Previous Slide
  • 49. Gabon Colonial Africa Gabon – Central Africa COLONIAL AFRICA African labor unions formed to demand better working conditions for Gabonese people. Leaders such as Léon M'ba fought to obtain the end of forced labor and end the worst abuses of colonialism. Following World War 2, the French Government instituted a series of economic and social reforms in all its African colonies. Changes in the timber industry also occurred; a tractor trailer now did all the cutting and carrying of logs and a large timber factory was built. In the 1950s, exploitation of oil wells began as well as exploitation of manganese, uranium, and iron. Léon M'ba Click here to continue Previous Slide
  • 50. Gabon These natural resources boosted the Gabonese economy and provided support for infrastructure development such as roads and ports. The first Gabonese government council was formed in 1957, and Léon M’Ba became president of the council in 1958. In 1958, Gabon voted to become a autonomous republic in the French Community with Léon M'ba elected Prime Minister. The country declared its independence on 17 August 1960, and in 1961 M’Ba was elected president. Colonial Africa Gabon – Central Africa COLONIAL AFRICA Back to timeline Previous Slide Back to Historical Issues
  • 52. Gabon At the time of independence in 1960, only two principal political parties existed in Gabon: the Bloc Democratique Gabonais (BDG), led by Gabriel Léon M'ba, and the Union Democratique et Sociale Gabonaise (UDSG), led by J.H. Aubame.  In the first post-independence election, neither party was able to win a majority. The BDG, however, obtained support from three of the four independent legislative deputies, and M'Ba was named Prime Minister. Soon after this, the two parties agreed that Gabon did not have enough people to support a two-party system, and the two party leaders agreed on a single list of candidates to take part in the 1961 presidential election. In that election, held under the new presidential system, M'Ba became President and Aubame became Foreign Minister. Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War Gabon – Central Africa POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR Click here to continue
  • 53. Gabon Gabriel Léon M'ba served as the first president of Gabon from 1961- 1967. M’ba intended to establish the kind of democratic regime that was necessary to develop the country and attract foreign investment, however, in practice this was not the case. On the 21st February 1961, a new constitution was unanimously adopted that allowed for a “hyper-presidential regime,” in which M’ba had full executive powers; he could appoint ministers and decide their responsibilities himself, dissolve the National Assembly at will, and declare a state of emergency when he felt necessary. Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War Gabon – Central Africa POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR Click here to continueBack to timeline Previous Slide
  • 54. Gabon M’ba’s one-party system appeared to work until February 1963; at this time M’ba broke ties with Aubame and all UDSG party members were dismissed. M‘ba called an election for February 1964 . When the BDG appeared likely to win the election by default, the Gabonese military toppled M‘ba in a bloodless coup on 18 February 1964. Gabonese Military personnel arrested the President of the National Assembly and announced to the Gabonese people, via radio, that a coup had taken place. They instructed the French not to interfere and that no French citizens would be harmed. A provisional government of both UDSG and BDG members was formed, and the presidency was offered to Aubame. Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War Gabon – Central Africa POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR Click here to continue Previous Slide
  • 55. Gabon •The new head of government contacted the French Ambassador, Paul Cousseran, to assure the protection of French nationals and to ask him to prevent any French military intervention. •However, as M’ba was one of the most loyal allies to France in Africa, the French Government decided to restore what they considered the legitimate Government and French troops re-instated M’ba to power the next day. •Aubame was charged for his alleged involvement in the coup and sentenced to 10 years of hard labor and 10 years in exile. •In 1965, the French began looking for a successor for M’ba, who was aging and sick. Omar Bongo Ondimba, a young leader in the President’s cabinet, was favored to be his successor. Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War Gabon – Central Africa POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR Click here to continuePrevious Slide
  • 56. Gabon In 1966, the constitution was revised to provide for automatic succession of the Vice President should the President die in office. In March 1967, Omar Bongo Ondimba was elected Vice President; M'Ba died later that year, and Omar Bongo became President. In March 1968, Bongo declared Gabon a one-party state; he dissolved the BDG and established a new party--the Parti Democratique Gabonais (PDG). Bongo invited all Gabonese politicians, regardless of previous political affiliation, to join the party. In April 1975, the position of Vice President was abolished and replaced by the position of Prime Minister, who had no right to automatic succession. Bongo was re-elected President in both December 1979 and November 1986 to 7-year terms. Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War Gabon – Central Africa POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR Click here to continueBack to timeline Previous Slide
  • 57. Gabon In 1990, economic discontent and a desire for greater democracy prompted violent demonstrations and strikes by students and civil servants. In response, Omar Bongo Ondimba made significant wage concessions; he promised to allow greater political diversity in the PDG and to organize a national political conference in April 1990 to discuss Gabon's future political system. The April 1990 conference approved sweeping political reforms, including the creation of a National Senate, decentralization of the budgetary process, and freedom of assembly and Press. A new constitution that provided an independent judiciary but retained strong executive powers for the President came into force in March 1991. Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War Gabon – Central Africa POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR Click here to continuePrevious Slide
  • 58. Gabon Despite these concessions, opposition to the PDG continued after the April 1990 conference, and in September 1990, two coup d’état attempts were uncovered and aborted. Following President Omar Bongo Ondimba's re-election in December 1993, opposition candidates refused to validate the election results. Serious civil disturbances led to an agreement between the government and opposition factions to work toward a political settlement. These talks led to the Paris Accords in November 1994, under which several opposition figures were included in a government of national unity, however, this arrangement soon broke down. Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War Gabon – Central Africa POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR Click here to continuePrevious Slide
  • 59. Gabon As opposition was still divided, President Omar Bongo Onbimba was re- elected in December 1998. While Bongo's major opponents rejected the outcome as fraudulent, some international observers characterized the results as representative, despite some irregularities. In November 2005, President Omar Bongo Ondimba was elected for his sixth term. There were some instances of violence following the announcement of Omar Bongo Ondimba's win, but Gabon generally remained peaceful. Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War Gabon – Central Africa POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR Click here to continuePrevious Slide
  • 60. Gabon On 8 June 2009, President Omar Bongo Ondimba died of cardiac arrest while undergoing treatment in Barcelona. In accordance with the amended constitution, Rose Francine Rogombe, the President of the Senate, became Interim President on 10 June 2009. Presidential elections were held on 30 August 2009 with 18 candidates vying for President. Omar Bongo’s son, ruling party leader Ali Bongo Ondimba, was declared the winner in elections that were deemed to be democratically free and fair, and after a 3-week review by the Constitutional Court he was officially declared President; his inauguration took place on 16 October 2009. Post-Colonial/ Post Cold War Gabon – Central Africa POST-COLONIAL/ POST COLD WAR Back to timeline Previous Slide Back to Historical Issues
  • 62. Gabon African Historic Figures Gabon – Central Africa AFRICAN HISTORIC FIGURES Gabriel Léon M'ba El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba Back to Historical Issues
  • 63. Gabon Gabriel Léon M'ba Gabon – Central Africa AFRICAN HISTORIC FIGURES Gabriel Léon M'ba became the first president of Gabon, serving from 1961-1967. M'ba was born on 9 February 1902 in Libreville, Gabon. In 1909, M’ba joined a seminary, where he received his primary education. From 1920, M’ba gained employment as a store manager and lumberjack before entering the French Colonial administration as a customs agent. Despite good job performance, M’ba’s political activism worried the Colonial Administration and in December 1922 he was sentenced to prison for providing a colleague with falsified documents; a minor crime that would normally have resulted in a small fine. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%A9on_M%27ba Click here to continue
  • 64. Gabon Gabriel Léon M'ba Gabon – Central Africa AFRICAN HISTORIC FIGURES Around 1924, M’ba reconciled with colonial authorities and was named the chef de canton (village chief) of Libreville’s Fang neighborhood. In 1931, M’ba was implicated in the murder of a woman near Libreville, he was sentenced in 1931 to three years in prison and 10 years in exile. In 1946, the French colonial administration permitted M’ba to return to Gabon. He began his rise to political power in 1946; he was appointed Prime Minister on 21 May 1957, and served in this position until 21 February 1961. He became President of Gabon upon independence from France, and was officially sworn in on 12 February 1961. M'ba was reelected in March 1967, but died of cancer in November 1967. He was succeeded by his vice president, Albert-Bernard Bongo. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%A9on_M%27ba Back to African Historic Figures
  • 65. Gabon El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba Gabon – Central Africa AFRICAN HISTORIC FIGURES Born as Albert-Bernard Bongo, Omar Bongo was a Gabonese politician who was President of Gabon for 42 years, from 1967 until his death in office in 2009. Omar Bongo was promoted to key positions as a young official under Gabon's first President Leon M'ba in the 1960s, before becoming Vice-President from 1966 to 1967. He eventually succeeded M'ba, becoming Gabon's second President upon M’ba’s death in 1967. Bongo headed the single-party regime of the Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) until 1990, when he introduced multi-party politics in Gabon. He was re-elected in the 1993 presidential election, and again in the subsequent elections of 1998 and 2005. http://ujpdg-france.vefblog.net/519.html Back to African Historic Figures
  • 67. Gabon – Central Africa Current Politics Culture Back to Home
  • 69. Foreign Relations Gabon – Central Africa US Relations Media Governance Current Administration Back to Current Politics and Culture
  • 70. Gabon Gabon follows a policy of nonalignment, meaning it does not have political alliances with other nations. Gabon promotes dialogue in international affairs, and has taken a leadership role in mediation between central African countries. The President also recently completed a “Tour of Friendship” to neighboring countries. It recognizes both sides in countries divided by disputes. It is a member of the UN and related organizations, and is currently on the Security Council. Gabon is also a member of the African Union and regional economic and development organizations. It currently has some sovereignty disputes with Equatorial Guinea over Mbane Island and other maritime boundaries. Foreign Relations Gabon – Central Africa FOREIGN RELATIONS Back to Current Politics
  • 71. Gabon US Relations Gabon – Central Africa US RELATIONS Gabon maintains excellent relation with the US. Multiple visits have been made by heads of state from both the US and Gabon, including a recent visit in June 2011 by the President of Gabon and his wife. The US maintains strong trade relations with Gabon. The US provides some development assistance to Gabon. Gabon hosted a US AFRICOM military communications event in 2009. President Bongo Ondimba meeting with President Obama. Back to Current Politics
  • 72. Gabon Media Gabon – Central Africa MEDIA There are two government-owned TV stations and two government-owned radio stations. There are several privately owned radio stations and TV stations. Africa No. 1, one of Africa’s most famous and most powerful radio stations, is located in Libreville. It is a major commercial station, supported by the French and Gabonese governments, as well as the private European media. It was started in 1981, although the station in Libreville is currently undergoing renovations. The national press service is the Gabonese Press Agency, which publishes Gabon Matin. L’Union is a government-controlled daily newspaper, and Gabon Aujourd’hui is published by the Ministry of Communications. There are nine privately-owned periodicals, which may be independent or associated with a political party. Some major newspapers include: Le Temps, Le Temoin, La Lowe, Le Journal, and La Relance. The government supports the rights to free speech and press; the government may be openly criticized. Back to Current Politics
  • 73. Gabon Governance •Gabon is a republic. •It gained its independence on August 17, 1960, and adopted its constitution on February 21, 1961. The constitution was revised in 1975, rewritten in 1991, and revised in 2003. •The head of state is the President, who is elected for a 7 year term, with no limit to the number of terms he or she can serve. The President can appoint and dismiss the Prime Minister, the cabinet, and the Supreme Court judges, can dissolve the National Assembly, can declare a state of siege, can delay legislation, and can conduct referenda. •The head of the government is the Prime Minister, who is served by a Council of Ministers. •The Main legislative body is composed of the National Assembly, which has 120 members, and the Senate, which has 102 members. •The judiciary is composed of a Supreme Court and a Constitutional Court. •The main political parties include: the Parti Democratique Gabonais (PDG) which holds the largest number of seats in the National Assembly; the l’Union Nationale (UN); the Union du Peuple Gabonais (UPG); and the Rassemblement du Peuple Gabonais (RPG). Gabon – Central Africa GOVERNANCE Back to Current Politics
  • 74. Gabon Current Administration Gabon – Central Africa CURRENT ADMINISTRATION •Democratic elections have been held since the independence of the country, and have moved back and forth between a single party and multi party government. •The government and country were unified under President Omar Bongo, during his consecutive terms as President from 1967-1990. •Workers made numerous grievances in 1990 which led to extreme government reforms, including the creation of the Senate, the decentralization of the budget, more freedom of assembly and the press, a new constitution with a Bill of Rights and an independent judiciary, and open multiparty elections. •Omar Bongo was reelected in 1998 and 2005, but died in 2009. •Bongo’s son, Ali Bongo Ondimba, was elected following his death. On the Horizon: The current administration has attempted to reduce corruption by eliminating government positions, has attempted to diversify the economy to become less dependent on petroleum, by increasing manganese and timber production, and has attempted to modernize the workforce. The President has supported the slogan “Emerging Gabon,” under which he has established three major programs, “Green Gabon,” which focuses on the environment, “Industrial Gabon,” which focuses on raw materials, and “Grey Gabon,” which focuses on high-tech service industries. The President has put a strong emphasis on the development of strategic partnerships, and is committed to sustainable economic and environmental growth, through means such as the preservation of national parks, which protects the environment while supporting a growing tourism industry, and the creation of a space agency to monitor deforestation. President Bongo Ondimba Biyokulule.com Back to Current Politics
  • 76. Ethnic Groups & Religion Gabon – Central Africa Food Values & Customs Music Art & Literature Back to Current Politics and Culture
  • 77. Gabon Ethnic Groups & Religion Gabon – Central Africa ETHNIC GROUPS & RELIGION The major ethnic groups include: the Fang which is the largest group, the Myene, the Bapounou, the Eshira, the Bandjabi, the Bakota, the Nzebi, and the Bateke/Obamba. There are at least 40 ethnic groups, but almost all of them are of Bantu origin. Ethnic clashes are less severe than in many other countries, because the groups are more spread out and have more contact and more intermarriage. Gabon is one of the least densely populated countries in Africa. More than 10,000 native French live there, and French is the main language used in commerce. Major religions include Christianity, which makes up 55-75% of the population, Islam, which makes up 5-10% of the population, and traditional Animism, which makes up less than 1% of the population. Back to Culture
  • 78. Gabon Food Gabon – Central Africa FOOD & CLOTHING Gabonese produce includes: bananas, papayas, pineapples, mangoes, guavas, avocado, coconuts, eggplants, feed corn, sugarcane, peanuts, plantains, and tomatoes. The Gabonese staple food is the starch cassava. Main sources of protein come from seafood and game. Wine used for ceremonies is made from palm trees and sugarcane. Gabon Cultura Back to Culture
  • 79. Gabon Values & Customs Gabon – Central Africa VALUES & CUSTOMS •Regarding property, villages own three mile of land in every direction, which they split evenly among the families of the village. The best locations are given to the elders. •The Gabonese may marry within the same ethnic group, but villagers will often marry outside of their communities, in order to avoid marrying relatives. •Regarding children, if they are born in marriage, they belong to the father, so women are expected to have children before they marry, so they will have something if they separate from their husbands. Having children before marriage is also used to prove a woman’s fertility. Worldflags101.com •The Gabonese flag is green, gold, and blue, and the colors represent forests and natural resources, the equator and the sun, and the sea, respectively. Back to Culture
  • 80. Gabon Music Gabon – Central Africa MUSIC Gabonese music is less well-known than that of the surrounding regional powers. The Gabonese have many different folk styles of music, and use varying instruments including the obala, the ngombi, which is a type of harp, the balafon, which is similar to a xylophone, and traditional drums. Popular styles of music include rock and hip hop from the US and UK, as well as Rumba, which is a percussive style based on a 5-stroke rhythmic pattern, Soukous, which evolved from Rumba, and Makossa, which is similar to Soukous, but has a stronger bass and horn section. Ngombi harp, katalog.van-ham.com The National Anthem is “La Concorde,” which was adopted in 1960. The mother of the current President of Gabon is the famous singer Patience Dabany. One of the most well-known musicians, a composer, singer, and producer, is Pierre Akendengue. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DZCmHanNhG8&fe ature=related Back to Culture
  • 81. Gabon Art & Literature Gabon – Central Africa ART & LITERATURE •Gabonese literature follows an oral tradition, and folklore and mythology are very important. •“Raconteurs” keep traditions alive by telling stories. •Spoken-word poetry is very popular. A modern-day form of this is the vibrant art called “Slam.” •Literature is strongly influenced by France, because many Gabonese are educated there. •The Gabonese make beautiful masks, from wood and precious metals, which are generally painted white with black features. •The Gabonese make decorative boxes to hold the remains of their ancestors, which are called Bieri. •The International Center for Bantu Civilizations is located in Gabon. Bieri reliquary head, metmuseum.org Back to Culture
  • 82. Gabon – Central Africa Women, Youth, and Community
  • 83. Gabon – Central Africa Women Youth Community Back to Home
  • 84. Gabon – Central Africa Women WOMEN The First Lady has created a program called the Akassi Microcredit Project, which is designed to enable women to start small business projects of their own. Akassi means “women” in the Bateke language. The goal of the project is to improve the social and economic status of these women. The project encourages women to work in partnership and share good working practices. Washingtonpost.com Back to Women, Youth, and Community
  • 85. Gabon – Central Africa Youth YOUTH The First Lady has supported the development of a center for orphaned and abandoned children, as well as the development of after-school centers, that encourage youth involvement in the community. The First Lady has placed a special focus on the career frustrations of rural children, and on increasing their opportunities and potential. Gabon participated in a UN awareness project , which allowed children to travel to France and act as ambassadors on behalf of endangered gorillas in their region. This program emphasized the importance of youth involvement. The First Lady on her tour of the interior of Gabon, facebook.com Back to Women, Youth, and Community
  • 86. Gabon – Central Africa Community COMMUNITY The First Lady created her own special cabinet of advisors to support a social program for communities and families. She has her own foundation, called “Pour la Famille,” meaning, “For the Family.” She has focused on social programs, including the development of community associations, support for the disabled, and the reduction of maternal mortality rates. She has also been focused on supporting health programs that deal with serious diseases such as HIV and malaria. World Aids Day, Wikipedia Back to Women, Youth, and Community
  • 87. (Fin) Gabon – Central Africa Thanks for visiting. Feel free to come back any time! Willconroy.eu
  • 88. Gabon – Central Africa www.eva.mpg.de Loango National Park Click here to continue This is the only place in Africa where you can see whales, chimps, gorillas, and elephants in one park. It covers the beach, savannah, forest, and swamp.
  • 89. Gabon – Central Africa Reserve de la Lope Trip Advisor Click here to continue It has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2002. Previous Slide
  • 90. Gabon – Central Africa Ivindo National Park Amozonair.com Click here to continue It contains the famous Kongou Falls. Previous Slide
  • 91. Gabon – Central Africa Arboretum de Sibang Libreville.com Click here to continue This is a preserved rainforest park that holds many of Gabon’s diverse tree species. Previous Slide
  • 92. Gabon – Central Africa Pointe-Denis Beach Click here to continue Gomag.co.za Located off of a nearby island, this beach allows for a great view of Libreville’s skyline. It also allows for many water activities, and is home to many giant leatherback turtles. Previous Slide
  • 93. Gabon – Central Africa L’Eglise St. Michel de Nkembo Afrikimages.blogspot.com Click here to continue This church is known for its huge, intricate columns carved from wood, said to have been created by a blind man. Previous Slide
  • 94. Gabon – Central Africa Musee des Arts et Traditions du Gabon Ratsdeville Click here to continue This is a great museum that showcases Gabon’s culture, and has an impressive collection of masks. Previous Slide
  • 95. Gabon – Central Africa Albert Schweitzer Hospital Ressurectionhope.blogspot.com It has been a primary source of healthcare for the region, and has been considered as a tentative World Heritage Site. Back to Home

Editor's Notes

  1. famous
  2. Is this an acceptable expression ‘minor gold’ or was it supposed to mean less amounts of
  3. currently control
  4. Name the university that Omar Bongo founded
  5. Gabon upholds excellent relation with the US bymaintaining strong trade relations and also theUS provides some development assistance to Gabon.
  6. Gabon participated in a UN awareness project called “Great Apes,” which allowed children to travel to France and act as ambassadors on behalf of endangered gorillas in their region. This program emphasized the importance of youth involvement.