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  1. 1. Alveolar bone
  2. 2. Structure of bone • Bone is a specialized form of connective tissue. • It consists of : Bone matrix Cells Periosteum Endosteum
  3. 3. 1. Bone matrix Inorganic Organic Water 60% by weight In the form of apatite crystals Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Potasium Sodium 25% by weight 90% Type I collagen. Ground substance of glycoproteins and proteoglycans with small amount of proteins and lipids. 15% by weight
  4. 4. Bones Cells a) Ostoprogenator cells. b) Osteoblasts . c) Osteocytes . d) Osteoclasts . e) Bone lining cells.
  5. 5. Osteoblast • Bone forming cells • Extensive endoplasmic reticulum • Numerous mitochondria and vesicle • Active in collagen and ground substance formation • Produce intercellular substance called osteoid tissue
  6. 6. Osteoclasts • Large multinucleated cells • Responsible for resorbtion of bone • Found in depressions in the bone called Howship’s lacunae
  7. 7. Osteocytes • An osteocyte, a star shaped cells is the most commonly found cell in mature bone • Osteocytes have an average half life of 25 years, they do not divide • Occupy a space called lacuna • Few organelles • Play role in calcium homeostasis
  8. 8. Osteoprogenitor cells • Mesenchymal fibroblast like cells • Form stem cell population to generate Osteoblast.
  9. 9. Bone lining cells • Undifferentiated flattened cells • Line the surface of bone when there is no deposition or resorbtion
  10. 10. Periosteum and endosteum • Layers of bone forming cells and connective tissue cover the external and internal surface • Provide nutrition to bone tissue • supply new osteoblasts
  11. 11. Types of bone 1. Mature (Lamellar) bone: Collagen fibers within each lamella are parallel Osteocytes are evenly distributed a) compact bone b) Spongy (Cancellous) bone 2. Immature (woven) bone 3. Bundle bone
  12. 12. Compact bone • Denser than cancellous bone. • Thick and solid • Lamellae are organized in the form of concentric cylinder surrounding a narrow canal • 5-20 lamellae surround each canal (circumferential lamellae). • The central vascular canal called Haversian canal • Haversian canals are connected by transversely running Volkmann’s canals
  13. 13. Haversian system
  14. 14. Spongy bone • Sponge-like found in the head of a long bone • Has large marrow spaces • Surrounded by thin trabeculae.
  15. 15. Bone Trabeculae Bone Marrow Spaces
  16. 16. Woven bone • Bony tissue characteristic of the embryonic skeleton in which the collagen fibers of the matrix are arranged irregularly in the form of interlacing networks. • Less ground substance and less calcified • Healing sockets after teeth extraction
  17. 17. Bundle Bone • Collagen fibers of PDL (Sharpey’s fibers) are embedded in it • More calcified • Restricted to alveolar bone proper
  18. 18. Alveolar bone The alveolar bone ( process ) • The part of maxilla or mandible which supports and protect teeth. • Dependent on the presence of teeth .
  19. 19. Functions • Forms the bony socket to hold the root of tooth and attach it through the PDL • It gives attachment to muscle • Framework for bone marrow • Reservoir for calcium
  20. 20. Jaw bones Basal bone Alveolar process Alveolar bone proper Supporting alveolar bone Cortical plates buccal ,lingual Spongy bone
  21. 21. Alveolar process
  22. 22. Alveolar process
  23. 23. Alveolar bone proper • Forms the socket inner wall • Gives attachment to periodontal ligament • Perforated by many openings that carry branches of interalveolar nerves and blood vessels into PDL • Consists of lamellated and bundle bone
  24. 24. Supporting alveolar bone • Compact bone • Thinner in the maxilla • Thickest in molar and premolar region Consist of  cortical plate  lingual plate (inner plate)  labial plate (outer plate)  supporting spongy bone (Cancellous bone between cortical plates and alveolar bone proper)