Sess3 3 whitworth_th2_abs099

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Sess3 3 whitworth_th2_abs099

  1. 1. WORK OF MULTIPLE ORGANIZATIONS TO IMPROVE SEED  POTATO HEALTH IN U.S.A.  And an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed lots. Jonathan Whitworth, USDA‐Agricultural Research Service Phil Nolte, University of Idaho 9th Triennial African Potato Association Conference, Naivasha, Kenya June 30 – July 3, 2013
  2. 2. Background • Managed seed potato certification programs in Colorado  and Idaho (10 yrs) • USDA‐ARS Research Plant Pathologist (10 yrs) – Research focus, Potato virus Y – Located in Southeast Idaho, USA Jonathan Whitworth
  3. 3. • Idaho grows 30% of USA potatoes (2012 crop) – Idaho total =  56242 ha (138,976 a) – USA total   = 184,874 ha (457,610 a)
  4. 4. Seed AreasCommercial  Areas
  5. 5. USA Fall Potato Production Areas 50 % 28% 5% NPC, Statistical Yearbook 2009 5% all  other  areas
  6. 6. Foundation of Certification • Grower enters eligible seed into  program • Field Inspections • Storage/Harvest Inspection  • Post‐harvest inspection • Shipping point inspection
  7. 7. Tissue culture Greenhouse minitubers Field production of seed
  8. 8. Inspections
  9. 9. Vine desiccation by sulfuric acid (H2SO4) or herbicide (Reglone®, diquat) Harvest
  10. 10. California Post‐Harvest Test
  11. 11. Shipping Point Inspection
  12. 12. Plant Health Certificate NORTH AMERICAN CERTIFIED SEED POTATO HEALTH CERTIFICATE - CROP YEAR 2002 Grower Importer Name Idaho Sunny Seed Inc. City, State/Prov. Seed Town, Idaho Variety Russet Norkotah Quantity Shipped Size Lot Certification Certification # 52323551 Lot origination from tissue culture No Yes X Seed Class/Gen G3 Year micropropagated for planting 1998 Certifying State Idaho by Production environment pedigree: Fill 1 column per production year; use different intitials in Greenhouse or Field boxes for different farms (e.g. JSF for John Smith Farms); indicate a tuber-united lot with a '+' after the farm initials; describe other footnotes in 'Notes' below. 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year of production Greenhouse (insect excluding) & sterile soil Field (note special measures[e.g. row covers] belo 59448990 50441890 51442390 52323551 Certification Number Number of years produced in ID ID ID ID Certifying State field soil: 4 Summer Field Readings Field Inspection Post Harvest Readings 1st 2nd 3rd Final Visual Location California 0 0 0 % Leafroll 0 0.04 0 0 % Mosaic Sample No 400 0 0 0 % Varietal 0 Plant Count 380 Mixture ELISA test results for latent viruses Less than 0 % Wilts % PVY 1 Less than 0 % Witches Broom % PVX Other diseases Not known to No. of years since last found on this This year occur in grower's farm, or NONE ON RECORD apparently free Status grower's area if free > 5 years by inspection Unknown Bacterial Ring Rot Late blight N o tes T he abo ve info rmatio n is accurate to the best o f o ur kno wledge. Jonathan Whitworth / Area Manager Program Official / Title Agency Approved for use by the Cert if ication Section of the Potato Association of America - December 2001 Superior Greenhouses, Inc. NOR X (208) 529-4358 Idaho Crop Improvement Association Fax 11/12/02 Date (208) 522-9198 Telephone Lot info Inspection results Non‐quarantine  pests Pedigree
  13. 13. Regulatory • USDA‐APHIS, Federal “umbrella organization” – Authority to regulate trade • Between states in the USA • Between countries – Memorandum of understanding with states • State seed certification authority – Each state has own seed regulations but they must meet a  minimum standard  – Seed certification principles result in similar seed regulations – Must produce quality manual listing procedures, audited by  APHIS
  14. 14. • USDA‐APHIS  – Animal Plant Health  Inspection Service • USDA‐APHIS‐PPQ – Plant Protection and  Quarantine Federal Plant Protection Organization
  15. 15. Seed certification programs • Exist in 13 states in USA • Operate under authority of  – State Government • State Dept. of Agriculture – Organizations that may operate as “agents of the state” » University (land‐grant or agricultural college) » Grower associations
  16. 16. State seed potato regulations • Developed by Certification Agency • Approved by state authority (state government) • Proposed changes to regulations in Idaho 1. Proposed by growers or scientists 2. Approved by grower advisory board 3. Approved by scientists (for validity) 4. Approved by state government
  17. 17. Political – Grower organization • National Potato Council – Lobby: influence legislation • U.S. Potato Board – Trade: promotion to USA and other countries
  18. 18. PVYNTN/N-Wi can cause tobacco necrosis PVYO strain causes vein burning and leaf drop PVYNTN&PVYN-Wi strains can cause internal and external necrosis Known as: Potato Tuber Necrotic Ringspot Disease (PTNRD)
  19. 19. Yellow spotting Stem necrosis Veinal necrosis Internal necrosis Leaf drop Ring spots External necrosis
  20. 20. PVY progression in North America Prior 1990’s no N strains 1990’s PVYN reported N.  America 2000 PVYN reported  Pacific Northwest 2000‐2001 PVYN/NTN in  US & Canada seed  sources 2004‐2006  USA/Canada   survey O (66%) N (34%)  2009 USA monitoring  survey O (44%) N (56%) 2011 USA  monitoring  survey O (22%) N (78%) 2012 USA monitoring  survey O (30%) N (70%) FUTURE ?? Predict problems with  PTNRD
  21. 21. Problem • PVY N strains were a quarantine pathogen • Canada destroyed many acres in early 1990’s  in order to eradicate • No surveys were considered because of  regulatory action • Difficult to research due to quarantine
  22. 22. Bi‐lateral trade talks USA: USDA‐APHIS • Involved – Seed Certification officials – National Potato Council • Grower organization – USA Potato Board • Grower organization – Scientists Canada: CFIA (Canada Food  Inspection Agency) • Involved – Held talks with “stake  holders” • Grower groups • Trade groups – Scientists Developed Potato Virus Management Plan Official title: Canada/US-Management Plan for Potato Viruses that Cause Tuber Necrosis
  23. 23. Virus Management Plan • Included an annex that listed research needs – Survey: 3 years all late generation seed lots – PVY: determine symptoms in N. American cultivars – Provide training needs • Inspection manuals with photos of symptoms – Periodically review research findings and revise  management plan accordingly
  24. 24. For virus management • Continued interaction between scientists,  growers, and seed certification officials – Potato Virus Control meeting held every spring • Mostly USA researchers and seed certification officials – Seed Potato Certification Section meeting held  every winter • Canada and USA officials and researchers
  25. 25. • Previous to 2007, 95% of winter test plots  visually inspected • Outbreak of PVY: one “problem” seed source  sold to many ware potato growers – Karasev et al. 2008. Identification of Potato virus Y  strains associated with tuber damage during a  recent virus outbreak in potato in Idaho. Plant  Disease. 92:1371. • CHANGE – ALL SEED LOTS ELISA TESTED  STARTING 2008 Change in Idaho to address PVY 
  26. 26. ELISA Lab Testing
  27. 27. 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 % lots with PVY 27 61 60 61 51 40 50 38 % lots >2% PVY 15 30 27 20 16 8 19 14 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % PVY in post‐harvest test 100% ELISA tested

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