Sess08 4 gheysen a durable cisgenic resistance to phytophthora infestans in potato and perspectives for applications in africa
A durable cisgenic resistance to
Phytophthora infestans in potato
and perspectives for applications
Field trial with GM late blight resistant potatoes
Partners in the potato field trial in Belgium 2011‐2012
• Wageningen University & Plant
• Ghent University
• Institute for Agriculture and Fisheries
• Flanders Institute for Biotechnology
• University College of Ghent
Late blight (Phytophthora) is a major problem on potato
– titel (wit) op witte lijn; 2e regel mag, beter vermijden
– lettertype: News Gothic, niet vet; groottes zijn getest
• kleuren uit palet (1e regel)
– hoofdkleuren (verplicht)
• blauw: R0‐G76‐B120 (achtergrond)
• groen: R128‐G186‐B100)
– steunkleuren (voorkeur):
• oranjegeel: R234‐G178‐B0
• geeloranje: R231‐G82‐B0
Food security issue
21 million ha globally, losses about 10 billion €…
Phytophthora is a world wide problem on potato
Phytophthora costs in Belgium:
• 10 to >15 times spraying / season
• ≈ 1000 US dollars / ha
• ≈ € 55 million / year
Resistant cultivars are the best solution
Introduction of resistance (R) genes into potato
– Conventional breeding
– Genetic modification
‘Durable Resistance against Phytophthora’
Classical resistance breeding
Often only one
Genetic modification GMO
a b c
a b c
remain the same
Goal of the Belgian field trial
1. Testing the resistance of GM late blight
resistant potatoes under real Belgian field
conditions, compared with relevant
conventional clones, including resistant clones
such as Bionica and Sarpo Mira.
2. Contribute to the development of sustainable
late blight resistant potato clones for the
3. Contribute to nuanced opinion formation on
GM late blight potatoes.
The potato clones in the Belgian trial in 2012
From Wageningen UR (DuRPh project): GMO
– 7 lines with sto1 resistance gene
– 8 lines with vnt1.1 resistance gene
– 10 lines with sto1, vnt1.1. and blb3 resistance genes
All introduced in Désirée by genetic modification.
Susceptible reference clones: parent Désirée, Bintje,
Nicola, Agria, Royal.
Resistant reference clones: Bionica, Toluca, Sarpo Mira.
The results 2012 August 7
Foto: 3 augustus 2011
Results of the field trial
Not a single
to control late blight
Possibilities for African potato culture?
– Resistant potato clones are the most practical solution
to the late blight problem.
– It is important to have several resistance genes stacked
to ensure durable resistance.
– Optimal resistance management: different varieties
with different combinations of resistance genes
alternated in time and space, combined with a little bit
of fungicide spraying.
– GMO‐regulation? Transgenesis versus cisgenesis?
Cisgenesis = GMO with DNA from a crossable species
Classical breeding Cisgenesis
• EFSA Scientific Opinion, 2012:
The Panel concludes that similar hazards can be
associated with cisgenic and conventionally bred plants.
• EU Working Group New Breeding Techniques, 2012:
Cisgenesis …. could be considered to be excluded from
the EU Directive on GMO’s.
European survey: % of people saying GMO‐
development and use should be encouraged!