Exploring opportunities for enhancing capacities of individuals, institutions and organizations to adapt to climate change...
1.0 Background  <ul><li>Smallholder agriculture underpins most rural livelihoods and national economy in Tanzania and Mala...
Continue…………. <ul><li>The project builds on Tanzania’s and Malawi’s National Adaptation Programmes of Action </li></ul><ul...
Continue….…………... <ul><li>KEY CHALLENGE : Understand the context and strategies of farmers  and  other stakeholders in agr...
An Innovation System (IS) is a ‘network of organizations, enterprises and individuals focused on bringing new products, ne...
1.2 OVERALL OBJECTIVE <ul><li>To  strengthen  the capacity of  individuals, organizations and systems  within the agricult...
Specific objectives…. <ul><li>Strengthen farmers’ capacity to access and use quality information, training and products in...
2.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY   <ul><li>Project areas </li></ul><ul><li>In Tanzania and Malawi, the project was implemented in ...
 
Table 2. A summary of different key methods used in executing this project Methods Why When Project inception workshop in ...
4. MAJOR FINDINGS-Selected <ul><li>Climate change perceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of change and indicators...
Country Tanzania Malawi Perceptions and changes Low potential area High potential area Low potential area High potential a...
<ul><li>Lema and Majule  (2009).  </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect shift in on set of rains and shrinking of rain season </li></u...
3.2 Crop performance base on tillage and fertilizer management Tillage methods Farmyard (Tons/ha) MPR Mean 0 2.5 5 Slash a...
 
Farmers: Outcome challenges:  an example <ul><li>The key outcome challenge for farmers is that “the project intends to see...
Project Boundary Partners Tanzania Malawi Farming communities -Increased knowledge on climate -Planting well adaptable cro...
NGO’s -Packing seeds and fertilizers according to farmers demand -Supplying inputs and tools suitable to farmers -Training...
5. CONCLUSIONS  <ul><li>Climate change is a reality; communities have wide knowledge on changes and associated impacts  </...
6.POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS  <ul><li>Mainstream climate change issues into research and development agenda in agricultural se...
THANK YOU 4 YOUR ATTENTION AHSANTE  SANA
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Majule: Exploring opportunities for enhancing capacities of individuals, institutions and political domains to adapt to climate change in agricultural sector: A case of Tanzania and Malawi

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Majule: Exploring opportunities for enhancing capacities of individuals, institutions and political domains to adapt to climate change in agricultural sector: A case of Tanzania and Malawi

  1. 1. Exploring opportunities for enhancing capacities of individuals, institutions and organizations to adapt to climate change in agricultural sector: A case of Tanzania and Malawi Majule, A.E Ph.D a [email_address] +255 754 365644 Presented to the Climate Change Symposium in Addis Ababa, 9-11 th 2011
  2. 2. 1.0 Background <ul><li>Smallholder agriculture underpins most rural livelihoods and national economy in Tanzania and Malawi. </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural production is frustrated by several factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies changes and strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biophysical factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change and variability impacts (CC&VI) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The rural livelihoods context, including climate-related trends and shocks, together with people’s capital asset base varies over time and space resulting in a wide range of coping and adapting strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need to identify successful adaptation across countries and zones and upscale using innovation approach </li></ul><ul><li>IDRC/DFID funded project under CCAA program in Tanzania and Malawi 2007-2011 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Continue…………. <ul><li>The project builds on Tanzania’s and Malawi’s National Adaptation Programmes of Action </li></ul><ul><li>The NAPAs are linked to external funds, and prioritize agriculture in both countries being one of the most vulnerable sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>including incremental changes in cropping systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coping/livelihood strategies in relation to CC and V. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Continue….…………... <ul><li>KEY CHALLENGE : Understand the context and strategies of farmers and other stakeholders in agriculture for coping and adapting to variable climatic conditions, in order to engender innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>Action research project aims to facilitate a process of interaction and learning whereby information/knowledge from different sources is shared and used in effective ways by stakeholders in AIS to better adapt to CC&V </li></ul>
  5. 5. An Innovation System (IS) is a ‘network of organizations, enterprises and individuals focused on bringing new products, new processes and new forms of organization into economic use, together with the institutions and policies that affect their behavior and performance’ Agricultural innovation system from farmer’s perspective Training Processing / Post-harvest Business services e.g. credit Marketing Input supply Advice Livelihoods of farming households Public research (conventional) & link to extension Private research e.g. cellphone banking Private research e.g. seeds Access to productive resources Infrastructure Technology Mediating institutional arrangements & policies Facilitation by local organisations (NGOs, farmers groups, local government) Registration & regulation of agricultural inputs
  6. 6. 1.2 OVERALL OBJECTIVE <ul><li>To strengthen the capacity of individuals, organizations and systems within the agricultural innovation systems in less favoured areas and more favoured areas of Tanzania and Malawi to adapt to the challenges and opportunities arising from CC & V. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Specific objectives…. <ul><li>Strengthen farmers’ capacity to access and use quality information, training and products in order to adapt to climate change and climate variability </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen the capacity of private and public sector stakeholders to make agricultural innovation systems work more efficiently, equitably and responsively to climate change and climate variability </li></ul><ul><li>To learn and share lessons for scaling up successful strategies for capacity strengthening (individuals, organizations and systems) within agricultural innovations systems to adapt to climate change and climate variability </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Project areas </li></ul><ul><li>In Tanzania and Malawi, the project was implemented in low and high potential areas </li></ul><ul><li>HA-Rainfall more than 1000mm, fertile soils, more NGO’s, more social networks and services </li></ul><ul><li>LA-less than 1000 mm (lower than 500mm annually), poor soils, less social networks etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Specific study villages selected by district authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Used as learning sites </li></ul>
  9. 10. Table 2. A summary of different key methods used in executing this project Methods Why When Project inception workshop in Tanzania Team mobilization, planning research activities Before research actions in mid 2007 Situational analysis (SA) in Tanzania and Malawi Explored understanding of climate change issues at community level After inception workshop in 2007 National Stakeholders Consultations Share findings generated from SA, proposed action research themes After SA in 2008 National Consultation workshops Explored roles of stakeholders on climate change (Policy, NGO’s, Private sectors, Media, Local Governments etc) Followed after situational analysis and stakeholders consultations in 2008 Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation trainings To develop project monitoring and evaluation framework using outcome mapping approach Conducted after national workshops in 2008 Planning and implementation of action research Take forwards agreed action research topics from workshops In 2007/2008 Learning visits (Monitoring and evaluation) Learn findings from BP involved in implementing action research for sharing among researchers In 2009, 2010 seasons Learning Workshops Share findings across zones within countries In 2010 seasons National Consultation Group meetings Deliberate of policy issues and advice the project team In 2009 and 2010 4 Master dissertations at UDSM (3) and Malawi (1) Addressed special studies in the form of dissertations 2008, 2009 and 2010
  10. 11. 4. MAJOR FINDINGS-Selected <ul><li>Climate change perceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of change and indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impacts on crops and livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerabilities and factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copping and adaptation & future strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Response from action research </li></ul><ul><li>Changes observed due to the project </li></ul>
  11. 12. Country Tanzania Malawi Perceptions and changes Low potential area High potential area Low potential area High potential area -Climate (temperature, rainfall, wind, whirl wind) -Temperature increasing -Rainfall decreasing more unpredictable -Rainfall coming late and ends soon -Climate (temperature, rainfall, dew, wind, lightning) -High temperature starts early, cool period increased -Rainfall came late and unpredictable -Dew decreasing Climate (temperature, rainfall, wind, whirl wind) -Temperature increasing -Rainfall decreasing more unpredictable -Rainfall coming late and ends soon -Unpredictable floods -Climate (sunshine, rainfall, dew, coldness) -High temperature starts early -Rainfall came late, unpredictable -Dew decreasing Impacts -Declining crop yield -Traditional crops abandoned -Poor livestock production -Increasing livestock diseases such (ECF) -Decline soil fertility -Stuntent crop growth -Destruction of mature crops in the field and stored ones due to shift of rainfall -increasing hunger periods -increasing dependency on natural resources -loss of human property due to floods -Landslides and soil erosion -Crops damaged -Animal loss due to floods -Increasing malaria Vulnerability -The poor in the community -Women, children, and elders are the most vulnerable -People with less education -Disabled and sick people -Crop growers and livestock keepers -The poor are most vulnerable -Women, children, elders are the most vulnerable -The poor vulnerable -Women, children, elders, sick people -Communities living in flood plains -areas with less social network -Coomunities living in flood plains The poor are most vulnerable -Women, children, elders are the most vulnerable Adaptations -Use drought resistant crops (eg sunflower) -Small scale irrigation of crops -Increasing non farm income generating activities -Uuse of appropriate crop varieties (early maturing) -Introduction of new crops -Increasing wetland farming -Improved social networks -Use of improved seed varieties -Use of artificial fertilizers -Networking -Increased sunflower, cassava cultivation -Traditional irrigation of crops in dimba -Improve agronomic practices -Increasing non farm income generating activities -increasing dimba farming -Strong social networks -Well established institutions -communication well established
  12. 13. <ul><li>Lema and Majule (2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect shift in on set of rains and shrinking of rain season </li></ul><ul><li>Shrinking or disappearing of one rainfall peak </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive rains for a shorter period </li></ul><ul><li>Implications on cropping patterns </li></ul>Challenges: Temperature increased dry spell, early onset of summer while increased Rainfall variability and patterns. Evidence are supported by local communities observations Training Processing / Post-harvest Business services e.g. credit Marketing Input supply Advice Livelihoods of farming households Public research (conventional) & link to extension Private research e.g. cellphone banking Private research e.g. seeds Access to productive resources Infrastructure Technology Mediating institutional arrangements & policies Facilitation by local organisations (NGOs, farmers groups, local government) Registration & regulation of agricultural inputs
  13. 14. 3.2 Crop performance base on tillage and fertilizer management Tillage methods Farmyard (Tons/ha) MPR Mean 0 2.5 5 Slash and burn (Traditional tillage) 1000 1000 1650 1660 1328 Ripping (Magoye ripper) 2085 3750 4580 2500 3229 Deep ploughing (Spring hoe-jembe) 1660 2080 3750 3750 2810 Shallow plough (Ox-plough) 1250 833 1500 1000 1146 Tie Ridging (Ox- ridger) 2080 2917 2080 2000 2269 Mean 1615 2116 2712 2182
  14. 16. Farmers: Outcome challenges: an example <ul><li>The key outcome challenge for farmers is that “the project intends to see farmers are diversifying crops to increase yields and income, using appropriate soil and water conservation techniques. They are accessing and experiment appropriate innovations such as small pack of improved seeds and appropriate fertilizers. Farmers are accessing, sharing and using meteorological, adaptation and marketing information. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Project Boundary Partners Tanzania Malawi Farming communities -Increased knowledge on climate -Planting well adaptable crops (sunflower, sorghum, banana, wheat and beans) -Planting new tree crops eg avocardo -Using deep tillage equipments -Establishing more adaptation groups -Capacitated to produce quality declared seeds -Using irrigation pumps to grow vegetables -Increased knowledge on climate -Planting well adaptable crops (maize, rice, pineapples, cassava, -Planting new tree crops eg avocardo, oranges and citrus -Increased participation of local communities in research -Established more farms with box ridges to harvest water -Getting supplement water for irrigation from sugar can plantation diverted from Shire river -Accessing irrigation equipment – such as pumps (Mphampha) Extension staff -Transferring knowledge to other villages -Documenting and disseminating successfully strategies using flip cameras -Increased their responsibility to work with farmers -Transferring knowledge to other villagers and nearby villages -Documenting and disseminating successfully strategies using flip cameras -Increased knowledge in laying out adaptation plots through country partnership
  16. 18. NGO’s -Packing seeds and fertilizers according to farmers demand -Supplying inputs and tools suitable to farmers -Training farmers on agronomic practices -Packing seeds and fertilizers according to farmers demand -Supplying inputs and tools suitable to farmers -Participating in training farmers Political domain NCG-National Consultation Groups (Tanzania and Malawi) -Increased knowledge on CC -Supporting farmer groups in terms of tillage tools such as power tillers -Mainstreaming climate change issues in planning process (DADPs) -Support tree planting initiatives by groups -Promoting climate change issues at local and national levels -Raising awareness on climate change impacts -Visiting project activities on site Media group -Publishing climate change adaptation news -Broadcasting climate change news -visiting project sites and associated activities -Publishing climate change adaptation news -Broadcasting climate change news -visiting project sites and associated activities
  17. 19. 5. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Climate change is a reality; communities have wide knowledge on changes and associated impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation strategies varies according to both biophysical and social factors </li></ul><ul><li>There is strong evidence that behavior of farmers, institutions and organizations can be changed if PAR process is well implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of policy makers at various level is crucial in adaptation research </li></ul>
  18. 20. 6.POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Mainstream climate change issues into research and development agenda in agricultural sector </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen AIS by maximizing interactions among institutions involved </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of different knowledge, agricultural development programs/projects at community level is crucial: This will avoid confusions to the farming communities </li></ul>
  19. 21. THANK YOU 4 YOUR ATTENTION AHSANTE SANA

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