Role of plant health clinics in enhancing adaptive capacity to climate induced plant health problems:   Experiences from K...
  Introduction  <ul><li>Changing climate & weather variability have impacts on trends & distribution of pests/diseases,  <...
Introduction ... <ul><li>Different actors are poorly linked:  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting flow of information, coo...
What are plant health clinics and how do they operate?    <ul><li>PHCs are community based public service delivering deman...
<ul><li>Clinic staff diagnosis and respond rapidly to a demand </li></ul><ul><li>The farmer brings her problems to the cli...
The need to move towards creating a plant health system <ul><ul><li>The initiative is based on the understanding that capa...
Initiation of the Kenyan plant health clinics <ul><li>Over 80 plant clinics became operational in different </li></ul><ul>...
 
Processes in rolling out PHC in Kenya and achievements <ul><li>20 plant clinics were established in 10 districts of Kenya ...
Clinic sessions held, queries received & outreach  <ul><li>Plant clinics are run by one or more organizations.  </li></ul>...
Table 1. No. of clinics established, sessions held and queries received (June 2010 - January 2011)  Clinic district  No. o...
Table 2. Crops received in three clinic clusters in the first six months Crop Number of queries presented to the clinics E...
Role of plant clinics in identifying new pests and diseases <ul><li>Clinic records provide invaluable information about th...
Table 3: Crop pests/diseases brought to some of the clinics in the first six months Crop health problems diagnosed Frequen...
 
Role of plant clinics in adapting to effects of climate change  <ul><li>Build capacity at community and national levels th...
Role  contd... <ul><ul><ul><li>Information generated by clinics play vital role in driving demand-led innovation and adapt...
<ul><ul><li>limited technical capacity among some local staff running plant clinics;  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trained e...
Lessons learnt and conclusions  <ul><li>Community based  PHCs have proved to be invaluable source of advice, </li></ul><ul...
Thank you for your attention! Email:  [email_address]
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Negussie: Role of plant health clinics in enhancing adaptive capacity to climate induced plant health problems: Experiences from Kenya

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Negussie: Role of plant health clinics in enhancing adaptive capacity to climate induced plant health problems: Experiences from Kenya

  1. 1. Role of plant health clinics in enhancing adaptive capacity to climate induced plant health problems: Experiences from Kenya Negussie E, P. Karanja, D. Romney, C. Muriithi, R. Kamau, E. Boa, N. Zombe, R. Wanjiku, N. Murage, M. Mulaa, R. Day and J. Mutisya   CABI Africa
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Changing climate & weather variability have impacts on trends & distribution of pests/diseases, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>creating new threats to farmers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptive capacity is needed to detect & quickly respond to new pest problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Most African countries however lack early detection and rapid response systems for new or changing pest problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Interventions by public extension are often inflexible and do not enable smallholders to cope with unpredictable changes & emerging challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of small-scale farmers do not have access to adequate and timely advice on how to handle existing or emerging plant health problems (Bentley, 2009). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction ... <ul><li>Different actors are poorly linked: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting flow of information, coordination and effectiveness of service delivery. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant health clinics, an initiative by the Global Plant Clinic (GPC) alliance led by CABI, emerged (from 2002) as a response to these gaps/limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 2003, plant health clinics have been established in several developing countries </li></ul>
  4. 4. What are plant health clinics and how do they operate? <ul><li>PHCs are community based public service delivering demand-driven advice to farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are run by trained agronomists or extension workers at public places </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>have basic facilities – table, chairs, shade, reference books, photos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can be integrated to existing structures and activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Farmers bring samples of their ailing crops for diagnosis, and often leave with recommendation/advice. </li></ul><ul><li>The recommendations incorporate scientific and indigenous knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are adapted to specific local conditions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Clinic data also provide information on changing status of pests/diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>providing early warning of emerging threats. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Clinic staff diagnosis and respond rapidly to a demand </li></ul><ul><li>The farmer brings her problems to the clinic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Samples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And receives advice/ recommendations, immediately </li></ul>
  6. 6. The need to move towards creating a plant health system <ul><ul><li>The initiative is based on the understanding that capacity to adapt is not just a function of individuals or organisations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>but of the whole system and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>how its parts interact and perform sustainably. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus the clinics need to be connected as part of a more integrated plant health system. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has to be linked to other actors and services. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This would help to provide effective services more sustainably </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Initiation of the Kenyan plant health clinics <ul><li>Over 80 plant clinics became operational in different </li></ul><ul><li>African, Asian and Latin American countries </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging results from the previous plant clinics led to </li></ul><ul><li>the initiation of the current Kenyan scheme </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– towards mid 2010. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The aim is to establish PHCs and provide farmers with </li></ul><ul><li>regular and reliable access to locally relevant advice on </li></ul><ul><li>management of plant health problems caused by climate </li></ul><ul><li>change & other drivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Also aims to support establishment of a more effective </li></ul><ul><li>national plant health system that can provide farmers </li></ul><ul><li>with quality advice more effectively and sustainably. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Processes in rolling out PHC in Kenya and achievements <ul><li>20 plant clinics were established in 10 districts of Kenya in 6 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Various governmental, CBOs and private organizations have been involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Key processes and stages in rolling out the plant clinics were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of partners/clinic organizations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>briefing and consultative meetings with partners; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nomination of staff to be trained and operate plant clinics; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>training of plant doctors; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>joint planning (where, how many, by whom, when to run plant clinics, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>running plant clinics; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>publicity through various local channels; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monitoring and backstopping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facilitating information and experience sharing. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Clinic sessions held, queries received & outreach <ul><li>Plant clinics are run by one or more organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority were operating weekly or fortnightly at fixed places </li></ul><ul><li>Some sessions were held during field days, exhibitions, agri shows, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 248 sessions were held in about six months (table 1). </li></ul><ul><li>Had wide outreach: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Close to 5000 queries received on various plant health problems. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers from over 240 villages visited 4 of the clinics in 6 month. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early studies indicate that each clinic serves around 2000 people. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant health problems brought to clinics vary from clinic to clinic based on: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>locations, agro-ecology and the value farmers attach to the crops. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Table 1. No. of clinics established, sessions held and queries received (June 2010 - January 2011) Clinic district No. of clinics started No. of clinic sessions held No. of queries received Clinics running organization Nakuru North 4 38 >189 MoA Machakos 3 50 382 MoA + CBO Kikuyu 3 13 94 MoA Kirinyaga 2 14 104 MoA Embu 2 24 249 MoA (+KARI+KEPHIS) Mukurwe-ini 1 14 >80 MoA Transnzoia, Kwanza and Bungoma 4 92 2972 2 CBOs (+KARI) Meru 1 3 22 Private company Total 20 248 >4092
  11. 12. Table 2. Crops received in three clinic clusters in the first six months Crop Number of queries presented to the clinics Embu Kitale 1 (Dajopen) Kitale 2 ( Killi SH) Maize 45 286 24 Kales 22 197 15 Beans 15 192 8 Tomatoes 13 217 19 Bananas 29 74 9 Fruits (Avocado, orange, passion, mango, pawpaw) 1 20 Irish potato 11 51 3 Cabbage 68 4 Night shade 40 14 Coffee 35 7 Spinach 38 2 Cow peas 34 14 Watermelon and pumpkin 8 29 Cassava 12 14 Sweet potato 16 6 Onion 12 4 Finger millet 10 1 Ground nut 8 5 Capsicum 10 Sugar cane 8 2 Others 23 >105 >15
  12. 13. Role of plant clinics in identifying new pests and diseases <ul><li>Clinic records provide invaluable information about the status of existing and emerging pests and diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are instrumental in maintaining vigilance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Maize rough dwarf virus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Previous experience shows that 40 new diseases had been discovered and confirmed by the GPC from 22 countries (Boa and Reeder, 2009), </li></ul><ul><li>Information on emerging plant health issues can be used to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inform research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>facilitate rapid responses from regulatory bodies and extension agencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thus help to effectively manage new pests/diseases as well as to curb the spread of existing ones. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Table 3: Crop pests/diseases brought to some of the clinics in the first six months Crop health problems diagnosed Frequency of query Embu Kitale 1 (Dajopen) Kitale 2 (Killi SH) Insects + bird damage (on various crops) 3 228 42 Maize head smut 47 14 Banana Fusarium wilt 8 10 5 MSV & stalkborer 11 17 Blights (on various crops) 12 10 Bacterial infection (on various crops) 3 18 12 Mildews (various crops) 9 4 Leaf spot 19 1 CBD 5 Black rot (Cabbage and kale) 2 5 Bean anthracnose 2 Abiotic factors (various) 51 4 Viral infection (on various crops) 27 Rust 14 Cassava mosaic 11 Nematodes 5
  14. 16. Role of plant clinics in adapting to effects of climate change <ul><li>Build capacity at community and national levels through: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>training, provision of relevant advice, technical support, and creation of networks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Experience shows that plant clinics and plant healthcare system: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can provide community level adaptation mechanism to cope with the changes in pest risks caused by the changing climate and other drivers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>builds adaptive capacity through provision of timely, and location specific information and effective advices, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to enable the community take relevant adaptation actions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are also useful in maintaining effective vigilance among the community, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>serving as early warning mechanism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contributing to national surveillance initiatives. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Role contd... <ul><ul><ul><li>Information generated by clinics play vital role in driving demand-led innovation and adaptation interventions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enabling research, extension, regulatory bodies and others to respond to farmers’ priority problems/threats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>both scientific & indigenous knowledge are recognised in providing advices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Help farmers to use environment friendly inputs & avoid excessive and indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals. </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><ul><li>limited technical capacity among some local staff running plant clinics; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trained extension staff transfer, and overwhelming assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to view the activity as a project; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some organizations struggled to effectively integrate plant clinics to their existing activities/budget; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limited publicity for the clinics; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations in effectively linking clinics to other services – eg. diagnostic labs. </li></ul></ul>Challenges and constraints in implementing PHCs in Kenya
  17. 19. Lessons learnt and conclusions <ul><li>Community based PHCs have proved to be invaluable source of advice, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>helping farmers to manage plant health problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>help national agencies to monitor and timely respond to emerging changes & risks of crop pests as a result of CC & other factors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>PHCs can provide early warning system of the effects of CC on plant health </li></ul><ul><li>Help to tap and build on local potential and IK in addressing impacts of climate change and other emerging problems. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can serve as an interface between community’s emerging responses and national responses, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Play vital role in promoting locally relevant, affordable and environmentally friendly practices and technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective integration of plant clinics into existing institutional structures and establishment of strong plant healthcare system are crucial </li></ul>
  18. 20. Thank you for your attention! Email: [email_address]

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