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Elder Moonga: Climate change adaptive capacities in the traditional livestock system of southern Africa based on indigenous knowledge


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Elder Moonga: Climate change adaptive capacities in the traditional livestock system of southern Africa based on indigenous knowledge

  1. 1. Climate Change Adaptive Capacities in the Traditional Livestock System of Southern Africa based on Indigenous Knowledge <br />AfricaAdapt Climate Change Symposium, <br />Addis Ababa, 9th to 11th March 2011<br />Dr. Elder Moonga<br />NISIR/SANBio Livestock Node, PB 49, Chilanga-Lusaka, Zambia<br />Email:;<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Sub-Saharan Africa:<br /><ul><li>Livestock contributes about 30% of agricultural GDP
  3. 3. Over 4 decades growth in the livestock sector has been only 2%
  4. 4. About 68% of human population is wholly or partially dependent on livestock
  5. 5. More than 70% of livestock population is under the rural traditional farming sector
  6. 6. About 80% of the rural populations suffer from cultivated food insecurity and poverty </li></li></ul><li>Constraints to increased livestock productivity in Southern Africa<br /><ul><li>Agro-ecological factors (Climate Change related)
  7. 7. Poor marketing facilities
  8. 8. Inadequate national and regional policies
  9. 9. Inadequate extension services
  10. 10. Livestock diseases and respective vectors
  11. 11. Inadequate diagnostic facilities
  12. 12. Un-affordable drugs, vaccines and vector control chemicals</li></li></ul><li>Building capacity for increased livestock productivity in selected areas of a rural district in Zambia<br />The study specific objective:<br /><ul><li>To determine the prevalence of livestock diseases/vectors and the relationship to climate change
  13. 13. To determine the local adaptive capacities</li></ul>The study methodology:<br /><ul><li>Participatory Rural Appraisal - Key Informant Interviews (KII) and Focus Group Discussions (FGD)</li></ul>The study area:<br /><ul><li>Central Zambia lying between latitude 14º00’ - 15 º45’ South and longitude 25º15’ - 28º00’ East</li></li></ul><li>Focus Group Discussion (PA)<br />
  14. 14. Study findings <br />Vectors:<br /><ul><li>presence of all the major tick species : Amblyomma species, Boophilus species and Rhipicephalus species
  15. 15. increasing tick abundance during the last decade</li></ul>Tick Borne Diseases: Theilerioses, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis and Heart Water<br /><ul><li>the seasonality patterns bears a direct relation to that of vectors</li></ul>Gastro-intestinal parasites : nematodes, liver flukes and protozoa (Eimeria species)<br />
  16. 16. Study findings - increasing tick abundance<br /><ul><li>Tick resistance to chemicals (acaricides)
  17. 17. dip mismanagement by sub-optimal concentrations and reduced dipping frequency
  18. 18. lack of product quality control
  19. 19. Reduced animal resistance to ticks and pathogens due to cross-breeds
  20. 20. Much rapid break down of chemical compounds (active ingredients)?
  21. 21. Altered tick life cycles and behaviour (Short generations, large populations and high reproductive rates) ?</li></li></ul><li>Meteorological data - rainfall<br />
  22. 22. Meteorological data - rainfall<br />
  23. 23. Meteorological data - rainfall<br />The mean difference in seasonal rainfall for the study district, Mumbwa between the periods 1940 to 1970 and 1971 to 2005 is 104 mm<br />The rainfall has been reducing to a present (2000 to 2010), mean seasonal rainfall of 714.0 mm.<br />
  24. 24. Meteorological data - temperature<br /> Duncan's Multiple Range Test for the annual increase in mean temperature (oC/year) for the three Agro-Ecological Zones of Zambia<br />Means with the same letter are not significantly different at Alpha = 0.05, df= 17, MSE = 0.000098<br />
  25. 25. Meteorological data – temperature & relative humidity<br /><ul><li>The average rate of increase in mean annual temperature for Zambia is:
  26. 26. 0.032oC per year or 0.32oC per decade (± 1.0˚C)
  27. 27. The mean Relative Humidity over the period is 62.7 %. </li></li></ul><li>The local adaptive capacities using Indigenous Knowledge<br /><ul><li>Communities appreciate the value of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) as a response to the present crisis – diseases
  28. 28. Communities utilize traditional plant remedies for various veterinary problems</li></ul>examples : tick control; expelling retained placenta/dystocia management/abortion management; New Castle disease treatment; Corridor disease treatment; Anthrax treatment; biting flies repellent ; Pink Eye treatmentwounds healing; blood diarrhoea treatment; Snake bite management; helminths control; fructure repairs<br />Harmonization of IK & SK by scientific validation<br />
  29. 29. Building on community adaptive capacities<br />Previous studies in Zambia<br /><ul><li>IK inventory of various plants medicinal, agricultural and veterinary values
  30. 30. Tephrosiavogeliicrude leaf extract at 10% w/v protects cattle from tick infestation up to 10 days</li></ul>Present study(Zambia, Zimbabwe & Malawi)<br /><ul><li>Popularisation of T. vogeliifor ticks control</li></li></ul><li>Tephrosiaplants<br />
  31. 31. Tephrosia plant<br /><ul><li>Tephrosia is a legume
  32. 32. is very usefulinsoil enrichment through nitrogen fixation.
  33. 33. It’s also effective against a number of crop pests</li></li></ul><li>Key Messages<br /><ul><li>IKS is very useful in adapting to climate change in the farming traditional sector BUT requires modern scientific validation
  34. 34. The promotion and utilization of T. vogelli, will generate additional interests into more applications of IKS </li></li></ul><li>Thank you<br />