Participatory Research and Extension Approaches (PREA)


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Presented by Jim Ellis-Jones at the Africa RISING Training Workshop on Innovation Platforms, Addis Ababa, 23-24 January 2014

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Participatory Research and Extension Approaches (PREA)

  1. 1. Participatory Research and Extension Approaches (PREA) Jim Ellis-Jones Africa RISING Training Workshop on Innovation Platforms Addis Ababa, 23-24 January 2014
  2. 2. Some requirements for success • Positive engagement with partners and • communities Identification and addressing of communityidentified priority challenges and opportunities - Use of value chain approaches • Work with and strengthen existing CBOs and • private sector Jointly plan, implement and learn Development of strong R&D partnerships (IPs)
  3. 3. A traditional (linear) approach 3 Research Extension Farmer
  4. 4. An innovation systems approach 4 Knowledge generation Supply / Push Information market Stakeholders and partners Demand / Pull Increasing farmer capacity to source and use knowledge Putting knowledge into use
  5. 5. TRADITIONAL VS PARTICIPATORY APPROACHES Methods Participatory (Innov Sytems) Building farmer capacity to use knowledge Outsiders Farmers, facilitated by outsiders Messages, fixed packages Options considered Farmer behavior Adopt, adapt or reject Intended outcomes Widespread adoption of package Main extension mode Extension worker to farmer Teacher, trainer Main objective Opportunities analysis Role of R&E Traditional (linear) Technology transfer Choose from basket and experiment/ innovate Wider choices, enhanced adaptabilities Farmer to farmer Facilitator
  6. 6. Facilitation Referenc e No.6 • Playing a neutral, guiding and encouraging role • Gaining the respect and trust of partners and the community • Not dominating or allowing others to do so • Encouraging all to express opinions • Ensuring objectives and deadlines are met
  7. 7. PREA in practice Stage 1: Social engagement, and community analysis (PCA) Social mobilisation Stage 2: Action planning Searching for solutions Stage 3: Implementation Encouraging local interest groups to try out new ideas Stage 4: Sharing experiences Learning (monitoring and evaluation) and scaling out
  8. 8. Participatory Research and Extension Approach Technical backstopping Training midSeason evaluation Trying out new ideas PREA Learning Cycle Training PREA Training End of season review and process monitoring Training Prioritising needs and problems Entering community build trust Raising awareness Identifying local organisations Feedback To community Identifying needs & problems Action planning Exchange visits Searching for solutions Mandating local institutions Consider options Planning for next learning cycle Ethiopia Africa Rising
  9. 9. PREA process Africa Rising Y1 Y2 Y3 Years 9 Y4 Y5
  10. 10. Stage 1: Engagement and mobilisation Engaging with stakeholders   Research Centres, Universities, Bureau of Agriculture, (private sector)  Establishing common interests and approaches (MoU) Selecting areas – woreda, kebele   Engaging with the community Meeting with local leaders and community representatives  Understanding the community (livelihoods, institutions, types of farmer, farming systems, crops – livestock and which are the most important), early identification of challenges and possible solutions  Views of men, women, young people (PCA) 
  11. 11. PCAs (June-July 2013)  Meetings in eight kebele (4 regions, 4 woredas)  Participants  Kebele and community leadership  Representatives of CBOs  Men and women (more men)  Probably better resourced farmers  Facilitators  Universities, Research Centres  Kebele and Woreda agricultural staff
  12. 12. Stage 2: Action planning…….  Agree “options” to be tested (as prioritised by farmers) Consider input supplies  Production methods including NRM  Storage and marketing arrangements    Mandate local organisations Selection of model/lead/research/host farmers  Agree selection criteria with group  Such as - respect, reliability, honesty, communication ability, full time farmer  Group selection of host farmer
  13. 13. Stage 2: Action Planning…… Facilitation and backstopping  Provide guidance for implementation  Agree site, trial plot design & inputs required  Agree what activities, by whom and when  Develop criteria for lesson learning (pM&E)  Mid season evaluations  End of season evaluations  Ensure all partners know, agree and play their role in implementing the plan
  14. 14. Phase 3: Implementation - experimentation  Encouraging learning by doing Land prep, fertilising, planting, weeding, pest control, harvest  Farmer field school  Farmer-to-farmer-extension   Encouraging maximum local involvement Enhancing people’s ability to innovate  Generating new options and solutions  CIP initiative – Potatoes, Faba beans, Wheat IMWI – small scale irrigation
  15. 15. Mother Researcher controlled Research centre On-farm Babies / Daughters Farmer controlled On-farm
  16. 16. Phase 4: Sharing experiences Mid season evaluation  Facilitate evaluation of field performance  Build confidence through farmer presentation  Identify/confirm farmers’ evaluation criteria  Use as a joint learning experience  Encourage farmer-to-farmer extension  Assess how crops/livestock are proceeding  Share ideas and provide feed back
  17. 17.  Phase 4: End-of-season evaluation • Re-assess findings of mid season evaluations Assess performance against farmer criteria Compare yields achieved • Assess acceptability  Cooking and tasting products • Assess profitability Participatory budgets
  18. 18. Role of local organisations/farmer groups Referenc e No./18     Adopt the programme into their activities Select the host farmer Encourage participation by other farmers Arrange field days   Evaluation mid and end-of-season Review and plan for the new season
  19. 19. Farmer-to-farmer uptake pathways