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Integrated livestock feed interventions in the maize-based systems of Babati District, Tanzania

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Presented by Ben A. Lukuyu, Leonard Marwa, Gregory Sikumba and David Ngunga at the Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Review and Planning Meeting, Malawi, 14-16 July 2015




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Integrated livestock feed interventions in the maize-based systems of Babati District, Tanzania

  1. 1. Integrated livestock feed interventions in the maize-based systems of Babati district, Tanzania Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Review and Planning Meeting, Malawi, 14-16 July 2015 Ben A. Lukuyu, Leonard Marwa, Gregory Sikumba and David Ngunga ILRI
  2. 2. the Livestock angle!  Integrating improved FORAGES as animal FEED and LAND MANAGEMENT strategy (ILRI/CIAT)  Enhancing use of CROP RESIDUES (cereals, legumes and vegetable waste) as animal FEED (ILRI/CIAT)  Exploiting locally available feed resources to feed indigenous chickens (ILRI/AVRDC)
  3. 3. Pilot chicken rations 20162010 2011 2015201420132012 RESEARCH DEVELOPEMENT Scoping visits Feed assessments using the FEAST tool Survey for indigenous chickens On station testing of forage varieties On farm testing of forage varieties Forage ‘best bets’ identified Tested various forage combinations on farm Introduced and tested forage choppers Purchased more efficient forage choppers and feed mills Forage ‘best best’ combinations identified Initiate integration on farms Develop business models around forage choppers & feed mills Identify forage champions Develop a forage seed and planting materials supply system Chicken rations formulated Chicken rations tested
  4. 4. Pilot testing improved forages in Seloto, Sabilo and Long villages of Babati district. Conducted participatory preference assessments of introduced forage varieties with communities Activity 1: Introduce improved forages for livestock feed and as a land management strategy into existing farming systems.
  5. 5. Forages technologies…. Napier grass/ Leucaena leucocephala plot in Babati A Napier grass plot in Babati Desmodium green leaf plot in Babati Desmodium/Napier grass intercrop plot in Babati
  6. 6. Performance of Napier grass accessions - 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 ILRI 16835 ILRI 16803 ILRI 16837 ILRI 14984 Kakamega 1 Kakamega 2 Yield(Ton/DM/acre) Napier grass acessions Leaf Yield (Ton/DM/acre) Stem Yield (Ton/DM/acre) Total Average yield (Ton/DM/acre)
  7. 7. Farmer variety preferences Accession Attributes Ranking of attributes Rank by total yield Rank by quality (leaf: stem ratio ILRI 16837 1) Large number of leaves /plant and shoots/stool 1 31) Resistant to drought 3 1 1) Rapid recovery after cutting 2 1) Late flowering 4 KK2 1) Fewer leaves/stem, shoots/stool and medium height stems 1 11) Resilient to drought 4 3 1) Fast recovery after cutting 3 1) Large size leaves and thick stems 2 ILRI 16835 1) Fewer shoots but vigorous 1 21) Tolerant to drought 3 2 1) Late flowering 2
  8. 8. GrowthResults2015LongVillage Accession ILPT (cm) Average Height (cm) # LPT # TPP # IPT LA (cm-2) SC (cm) Kakamega 1 10.75 189.83 15 58 7 228.20 6.50 Kakamega 2 12.17 165.67 11 30 5 372.55 6.50 ILRI 16837 9.12 199.83 13 39 6 388.32 7.40 ILRI 16803 11.83 154.33 9 82 2 209.35 5.00 ILRI 16835 12.17 280.00 15 34 8 477.54 7.00 ILRI 14984 13.67 173.33 11 60 4 271.95 6.00 Total 11.30 190.93 13 48 5 326.33 6.53 GrowthResults2015SabiloVillage Accession ILPT (cm) Average Height (cm) # LPT # TPP # IPT LA (cm-2) SC (cm) Kakamega 1 9 165.83 13 66 7 242.15 7.33 Kakamega 2 9 154.83 13 36 7 340.91 7.00 ILRI 16837 7 151.17 14 34 7 335.30 5.83 ILRI 16803 9 145.67 14 41 6 187.37 4.00 ILRI 16835 10 217.67 14 30 6 305.04 7.67 ILRI 14984 9 157.67 13 67 4 231.74 5.67 Total 9 166.18 14 44 6 277.57 6.30 Note: LPT=Number of Leaves per Tiller, TPP=Number of Tillers per plant, IPT=Number of Internode per Tiller, ILPT=Internode length per tiller (cm), LA=Leaf Area (cm2), SC=Stem Circumference (cm)
  9. 9. Napier Forage yield (2015 long rain season ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Kakamega KK2 ILRI 16837 ILRI 16803 ILRI 16835 ILRI 14984 Yieldton/ha Sabilo Village Average Napier Yield (ton/ha) Leaf Stem 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Kakamega KK2 ILRI 16837 ILRI 16803 ILRI 16835 ILRI 14984 Yieldton/ha Long Village Average Napier Yield (ton/ha) Leaf Stem  High yield of stems These stems go to waste due to poor processing. Results warrants the need to increase use of forage choppers.
  10. 10. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Plant Leaf Chemical Results Kakamega KK2 ILRI 16837 ILRI 16803 ILRI 16835 ILRI 14984 Average 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Stem Chemical analysis Results Kakamega KK2 ILRI 16837 ILRI 16803 ILRI 16835 ILRI 14984 Overall NIRS and Wet chemistry laboratory results for Stem and leaf for 6 Napier accessions. Note: Samples of crop residues and other available feed and forages have been sampled and analyzed for quality to formulate rations for both livestock and poultry. There is no much difference in nutritional quality (CP%), and True In vitro Organic Matter digestibility percent (TIVOMD).
  11. 11. Large areas are committed to crop production with limited areas of land committed to planted fodder. Crop residues such as maize stover and bean haulms are commonly fed to livestock due to inadequate grazing land. Crop residues are abundant but poorly stored and used. Activity2: Crop residue utilization
  12. 12. Availability of major types of crop residues in Long, Sabilo and Seloto villages, Babati district Type of crop residues Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Maizestover Beans haulms Pigeon pea haulms Sorghum straw Chick pea haulms Finger millet straw
  13. 13. Maize stover yields observed in selected villages in Babati during the 2012-2013 cropping season
  14. 14.  Post-harvest forage processing technologies offer potential to enhance use of crop residues for livestock feeding through; o Improved storage o Handling o Transportation o Increased feed intake Enhancing crop residues use
  15. 15. Tested forage choppers with farmers Fuel driven forage chopper in Babati Maize stover baler in Babati Capacity development around forage choppers Building business models around forages Emerging needs
  16. 16. Keyfindings • Plenty cereal and legume grain products available on farms • Plenty of unutilized vegetable waste exist in vegetable growing areas • Poor processing of cereal and vegetable by products/waste (a lack of technology) • Poor storage of feed resources • Indigenous chickens comprise 96.5% of the chickens kept in Babati district. • Farmers own an average of 5 birds per HH. • A total of 53.2% of HH keep indigenous chickens under extensive system • There is high mortality rate (60%) mainly due to malnutrition, diseases, predators, and rough environmental conditions. Activity 3: Improved feeding of indigenous chickens using localfeed resources
  17. 17.  Chicken feed rations based on locally available resources being tested with farmers Vegetable based rations (2) Cereal by product based rations (2)  Introduction of three (3) feeds mills for chicken feed  Piloting ‘best bet’ rations with farmers Ongoing work…
  18. 18. Next steps….Integration and sustainability of the technologies Test a business model around feeds mills for making chicken feed Pilot ‘best bet’ chicken feed rations
  19. 19. Africa Research in Sustainable Intensification for the Next Generation africa-rising.net Thank you

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