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Livestock intensification in Malawi

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Presented by Fanny Chigwa (Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources) at the Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Review and Planning Meeting, Malawi, 14-16 July 2015


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Livestock intensification in Malawi

  1. 1. Livestock intensification in Malawi Fanny Chigwa Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources fancchigwa@yahoo.com Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Review and Planning Meeting, Malawi, 14-16 July 2015 1
  2. 2. Presentation Outline • Livestock Population • Constraints to livestock production • Potential of Crop-Livestock production • Opportunities of Crop-Livestock production 2
  3. 3. Livestock Populations Species Total population Person/animal Goats 5,882,106 3 Cattle 1,316,799 17 Beef cattle 1,252,420 17 Dairy Cattle 64,379 266 Pure dairy cattle 14,710 1214 Dairy Crosses 49,699 340 3 DAHLD 2014
  4. 4. Why an increase in Goats • Interplay of:- • Available Feed resources • Land size • Resilience: Ability to survive under environmental stress and utilize other feed resources 4Africa Rising Annual meeting
  5. 5. Trends in feed resources • Shortage of grazing land as arable and dambo land is allocated to crop production • Decline in feed quality and quantity in the dry season (Crude protein in grasses drop from 5.5% to 2.2%) • Natural trees and multipurpose tree offer alternative feed resources 5Africa Rising Annual meeting
  6. 6. Constraints to livestock Production • Low Productivity: Low milk production which result in low milk consumption • 4 kg per capita in Malawi • 28.5 kg in Sub-Saharan Africa • 200 kg per WHO recommendations • Dry season feed shortage • Diseases • Markets 6Africa Rising Annual meeting
  7. 7. Constraints to Dairy Production 7 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% High Investment Disease incidence High veterinary charges Money for recurring expenses High feed cost % Farms Selecting Item North Central South USAID Trilateral Dairy project 2014Africa Rising Annual meeting
  8. 8. Potential of Crop-livestock Production • Manure used as fertilizer in crop fields • Crop residues can be used as livestock feed • Livestock are sold to buy food in periods of food shortage • Livestock are sold to buy fertilizer or pay for farm labour • Integration reduces farmer’s risk 8Africa Rising Annual meeting
  9. 9. Potential for Crop-Livestock - Agroforestry • Fodder trees provide crops with: – Leaves supply nutrients to crops • Fodder trees provide livestock with: – Dietary protein 20-30% whole year – Anti-nutritional factors that reduce methane: energy loss in rumen fermentation – Minerals: Calcium 1-3%, Phosphorus 0.3-0.5% 9Africa Rising Annual meeting
  10. 10. Rumen Methane production and Dry season livestock feeds Forages Methane ml/200mgDM Std Error Echinocloa pyramidalis 15.10a 0.35 Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass) 12.23b 0.46 Sachrum offisinarum (sugarcane leaves) 14.53ab 0.35 Arachis hypogea (shells) 13.83ab 0.67 Arachis hypogea (hay) 2.77c 0.49 Rechardia scabra 5.33d 0.65 Acacia anguiststima 4.27cd 0.23 Leucaena leucocephala 3.50cd 0.42 a, b, c, d: means on the same column with different superscripts are significantly varied (P < 0.05) Maselema and Chigwa 2015 10Africa Rising Annual meeting
  11. 11. Opportunity for livestock intensification • Resilience of goat under environmental and nutritional stress • Ability to reduce mortalities with better management • MPT’s provides dietary CP to livestock whole year and reduce energy losses when fed at less than 30% • Existing festivals when there is a high demand of livestock or products e.g Ramadan 11
  12. 12. Scope of Master research • Establishment of drug boxes • Goat husbandry training • Evaluation of local goat feed resources • Feeding trials using MTP to fatten goats for slaughter and sale in Ramadan festival 12
  13. 13. Take home Message • Livestock trends show an increase in goats • Striving livestock use alternative feed resources and are resilient • There is a need to promote research on available feeds resources and emerging production systems • Livestock production that targets better marketing channels and period will stimulate production 13

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