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Maize, legume and forage seed systems in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia: Current status, bottlenecks and strategies for improvement

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Presented by Rubyogo J.C. (CIAT) at the Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Research Review and Planning Meeting, Arusha, Tanzania, 1-5 October 2012

Published in: Technology
  • Dear Rubyogo,



    This is my appreciation message for your slide-show you presented in Arusha about Maize, legume and forage seed systems in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia: Current status, bottlenecks and strategies for improvement. I have found this information useful though I didn't attend the meeting, I was able to access the slides on http://www.slideshare.net/africa-rising/earlywin-esa-seeds as I'm subscribed to Africa Rising News letter.



    I'm currently working as a Seed Production Officer in a Tanzanian local & private seed company called TANSEED International Ltd at a substation in Kigoma (Western Tanzania near Lake Tanganyika). Please I would like to be connected to your Network.



    Best,



    Mr. Happy.




    Happy Sikalengo,
    Seed Production Officer
    Phone: +255 755 325 442
    Email: happy.sikalengo@yahoo.com
    Box 1456, Morogoro - Tanzania,
    TANSEED International Ltd.
    'Contributing to farm productivity'
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  • Very nice slides, helpful information.
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Maize, legume and forage seed systems in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia: Current status, bottlenecks and strategies for improvement

  1. 1. Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Research Review and Planning Meeting, Arusha, Tanzania, 1-5 October 2012Maize , legume and forage seed systems in Malawi,Tanzania and Zambia : Current status, bottlenecks andstrategies for improvement Rubyogo J.C. et al. CIAT
  2. 2. BACKGROUND• Hundreds of varieties (maize & legumes) with good traits released.• Several seed system models are implemented to disseminate improved maize, legumes• Seed systems actors: Govt Orgs (MoA) /NARS, Farmers Orgs, NGOs: • Decentralized e.g. QDS and non inspected quality seed of improved varieties • Centralized: in partnership with private sector (positive results for maize hybrid but not legumes ) • Relief/subsidized• Despite the efforts, variety ?(legume) dissemination is limited/unreliable! why?
  3. 3. Objectives of Seed Systems Assessment (SSA)i. To take inventory of public released varieties for the last 15 years and their current level of seed availability and disseminationii. To assess the seed systems with regard to production capacity e.g. scale and seed access to different farmers categories, particularly women & small scale farmers.iii.To identify bottlenecks in seed systems including policiesiv. To identify strategies to strengthen seed systems particularly increase seed access to women & small scale farmers.
  4. 4. Process : national stakeholders workshops and groundtruthing interactions with actors1. Status of the seed sector in each country reviewed;2. Seed systems challenges/constraints/bottlenecks identified3. Potential interventions suggested.Participants:Reps of Govt (policy makers)-NARS (breeders); NGOs; FOs; Input suppliers & seed companies,
  5. 5. Nbr of released varieties VS. their use in ZambiaCrop Nbr of varieties released Number of varieties 1996-2011 2006-2012 disseminated in 2011 (Certifed +QDS)Maize (Hybrid) 154 73 74Maize (OPV) 18 9 6Beans 18 12 8Ground nut 8 3 2Cowpea 2 1 2Soybean 20 8 7Pigeon pea 1 0 0
  6. 6. Nbr of Released varieties VS. their use in TanzaniaCrop Nbr of varieties released Number of varieties 1996-2011 2006-2012 disseminated in 2011 (certified and QDS)Maize (Hybrid) 45 11 3Maize (OPV) 16 5 9Beans 11 5 7Ground nut 5 5 ?Cowpea 1 0 ?Soybean 2 1 ?Pigeon pea 3 0 2
  7. 7. Seed production scheme/grades Country Certified Quality declared Seed Informal Malawi Yes No Yes Tanzania Yes Yes Yes Zambia Yes Yes YesQuality Declared Seed ( QDS) :QSDS is produced by a registered smallholder farmer that conforms to the specifiedquality standards for crop species concerned and which has been subject to the qualitycontrol measures prescribed/relaxed in the regulations e.g. only 10-15% of areas underseed production is inspected
  8. 8. Price differentials between QDS and certified seed of cropsunder study– the case of Tanzania in 2011
  9. 9. Government support programs – case of Zambia (Maize)
  10. 10. Current seed supply coverage (Certified +QDS) in ZambiaCrop Total seed demand Certified and QDS actual seed supply /TSD (TSD) in MTs Seed produced Coverage (%) (MTs)Maize 25,200 75,000 300% (excess/export)Gnut 21,560 759 3.5Beans 5950 259 4.3Soybean 3100 1104 35.6cowpea 300 276 92.0Pigeon Pea - -Malawi: Beans (5%), Gnut (5.5%)Tanzania : Beans (2%), Gnut (1.5%), Pigeon Pea (1.0%)Research: is this amount enough to inject seed of new variety in the
  11. 11. What are major bottlenecks and strategies ?Major areas of Bottlenecks StrategiesconcernsSeed 1. Current seed policies 1. Support research farm to produce early are favorable to generationpolicies legumes integration 2. Strengthen (training & minimum equipment) decentralized seed e.g. lack of interest enterprises/business supported mainly by of private FOs- and linked to NGOs and local government 3. Engage government to expand legumes to government subsidies (Zambia and Malawi) !!Production Very limited or no 1. Understand farmer seed variety preferences production of breeder, 2. Support research farms to undertake seedof early production as an seed enterprise pre- basic & basic seedgeneration 3. License private producers
  12. 12. What are bottlenecks /strategiesMajor areas of Bottlenecks (contd)? StrategiesconcernsProduction of Inadequate 1. Support the expansion of QDS targeting women seed entrepreneurscertified, QDS availability especially as business for legumesand locally 2. Encourage FOs /researchers to link onaccepted farm variety test to local seed production of pre-released varietiesquality seed (additional amount of seeds) 1. Inadequate 1. Develop a catalogue of released information on varieties and make it widely availableMarketing varieties (web of MoA, National Seed Agenciesand 2. Seed availability 2. Build partnership with local servicedissemination (Production, providers (NGOs, FOs and local producers and Govts) to carry out demos/field days, amount) open days etc. 3. Inadequate number 3. Embed small packs of legumes in of seed outlets maize packs (seed companies are willing)
  13. 13. Integrated Seed System1 Breeder seeds (NARS/Private )2 Basic seeds (NARS/Private ) Certified seed 1 Quality seeds by local seed3 producers (individual or groups – (Private seed supported by Development producers ) partners (GOs, NGOs-CBOs etc)4 Certified seeds 2 (large and small packs) using market and non market channels5 Farmers Farmers Traders
  14. 14. NARS: HLI MoARD ESE FCU: EIAR/SARI Higher learning Ministry of Agric. and Ethiopian Seed (Farmers Cooperative Institutions Rural Development Enterprise Unions Grain exporter: PABRA POORTMAN RECOMMENDATION : PARTNERSHIP IN BEAN TECHNOLOGY GENERATION, ECABREN DISSEMINATION AND PROMOTION CIAT Grain exporter: since 2003 till now IN ETHIOPIA ACOS SHDISelf Help Development Private seed CRS International producers CARE-E Catholic Relief Service
  15. 15. Value of transformative partnership in seed Trend in bean productionsystems in seed systems parameters TrendYear No. partners Seed amount No. Varieties (tons)2003 3 425.00 32004/5 24 3400.00 102009/10 54 6612.95 7
  16. 16. Key Issues/findings• A good number of farmers are not aware of improved varieties (particularly legumes)• Even those who are aware, they don’t have access• Even if they access varieties, it takes time to get new varieties in the hands of farmers• No released forage variety- no existing seed systems• More important: Farmers are eager to try/get new varieties of legumes and to some extent maize• Need to establish/carry out research – action on Integrated Seed systems

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