Africa RISING                       East and Southern Africa Research Review and               Planning Meeting, Arusha, T...
Mycotoxins - aflatoxin,                     Health & Trade•   Synergistic with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)    to cause liver c...
Aflatoxin Facts• Highly toxic metabolite produced      • Some predisposing  by the ubiquitous Aspergillus           factor...
Prevalence of Aflatoxins in Food & Feed•   2.5 billion exposed worldwide•   Several African staple commodities affected•  ...
TanzaniaSurveys1> determineprevalence ofmycotoxins inmaize andcassava2> questionnairesfield, processing,storage methods3> ...
Surveyteams   MAFSC   TPRI&   IITA   SUA   TFDA
Sample analysesSamples milled, sub sampled, and for maize; pre-tested using serologicalmethods for afaltoxin and fumonisin...
Sample analysesSamples milled, sub sampled, and for maize; pre-tested using serologicalmethods for afaltoxin and fumonisin...
Sample analysesSamples milled, sub sampled, and for maize; pre-tested using serologicalmethods for afaltoxin and fumonisin...
Sample analysesSamples milled, sub sampled, and for maize; pre-tested using serologicalmethods for afaltoxin and fumonisin...
Sample analysesSamples milled, sub sampled, and for maize; pre-tested using serologicalmethods for afaltoxin and fumonisin...
Sample analysesSamples milled, sub sampled, and for maize; pre-tested using serologicalmethods for afaltoxin and fumonisin...
SummaryWorking partnerships and trust establishedSurvey and analytical methods optimisedAwareness raisedLinkages between m...
Thank you, Asante Sana!
Mycotoxin contamination in Tanzania: Quantifying the problem in maize and cassava in households and markets
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Mycotoxin contamination in Tanzania: Quantifying the problem in maize and cassava in households and markets

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Presented by Fen Beed (IITA) at the Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Research Review and Planning Meeting, Arusha, Tanzania, 1-5 October 2012

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  • The objective of the project is to quantify mycotoxin contamination levels on maize and cassava in Tanzania, and provide an objective basis for commissioning interventions to dramatically improve the health and livelihoods, and increase income of rural households.
  • 4 ppb Europe 10 ppb WFP 20 ppb USA International trade is regulated with the consequence that mycotoxin contaminated products are dumped onto local markets
  • Subsistence farming and unregulated value chains
  • 1> Africa Rising funded by USAID – jumpstart project and discussions underway this week (1-5 Oct) for possible continuation and expansion in targeted action sites. All samples – sub sampled, milled and for maize pre-tested using serological kits for aflatoxin and fumonisin and if positive sent to IFA Austria for detailed analyses of over 200 toxic metabloites per sample. All cassava samples sent to Austria direct for analyses and this is expected to be completed by December 2012 2> PACA – including training of MAFSC and SUA personnel in USA week after next (8-12 Oct) for characterisation of atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus as potential national and regional biocontrol agents In Tanzania, several indicators allude to high exposure levels among maize and cassava-growing rural households , such as (1) erratic rainfall, and high temperature and humidity levels in crop production areas; (2) presence of predominantly small farm holdings (85% of maize in Tanzania is grown on less than 1 ha) that produce for informal, local markets and that escape regulation mechanisms; and (3) a general lack of awareness about mycotoxins and their effects.
  • In order to engage important partners leadership was provided to them for surveys and questionnaires. 1500 samples and questionnaires collected from 9 regions and 22 districts as identified by stakeholders as key production and processing areas for maize, cassava and groundnut. All surveys planned and performed in collaboration with DALDOS and local extension officers
  • As a result of surveys -3000 factsheets in Swahili handed to farmers and local extension officers – to increase awareness of mycotoxins (but not alarm) Also more detailed factsheet in english provided to DALDOs -
  • University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) –Vienna Department for Agrobiotechnology
  • University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) –Vienna Department for Agrobiotechnology
  • University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) –Vienna Department for Agrobiotechnology
  • University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) –Vienna Department for Agrobiotechnology
  • University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) –Vienna Department for Agrobiotechnology
  • University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) –Vienna Department for Agrobiotechnology
  • Mycotoxin contamination in Tanzania: Quantifying the problem in maize and cassava in households and markets

    1. 1. Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Research Review and Planning Meeting, Arusha, Tanzania, 1-5 October 2012Mycotoxin contamination in Tanzania: Quantifyingthe problem in maize and cassava in households and markets Fen Beed (IITA)
    2. 2. Mycotoxins - aflatoxin, Health & Trade• Synergistic with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) to cause liver cancer • 30 times more potent in HBV+ people • 5-60 times higher cancer risk• Impairs growth and development of children• Suppresses immune system• Impedes uptake and utilization of micronutrients in human systems• Animal productivity reduced – growth rate, embryo toxicity, feed efficiency, cancer, death……
    3. 3. Aflatoxin Facts• Highly toxic metabolite produced • Some predisposing by the ubiquitous Aspergillus factors: flavus fungus – pre-harvest high temp and• The fungus infects crops and drought stress produces the toxin in the field and in stores – wet conditions at harvest and• Fungus carried from field to store post-harvest periods• Contamination possible without visible signs of the fungus – insect damage
    4. 4. Prevalence of Aflatoxins in Food & Feed• 2.5 billion exposed worldwide• Several African staple commodities affected• High human exposure in Africa – mother to baby• Levels and frequency of occurrence high • >30% maize in stores with >20 ppb aflatoxin • ~90% stores are contaminated with Afla fungi • Up to 40% grain in households with aflatoxin• Concern for food and feed processors, government and emergency food reserve agencies• Highly toxic strains, conducive environmental conditions, traditional farming methods and improper grain drying and storage practices, unregulated markets
    5. 5. TanzaniaSurveys1> determineprevalence ofmycotoxins inmaize andcassava2> questionnairesfield, processing,storage methods3> increaseawareness4 > Link to PACA;collect isolatesfrom maize &groundnut forcharacterisation ofpotential biocontrolagents and AbtAssociates
    6. 6. Surveyteams MAFSC TPRI& IITA SUA TFDA
    7. 7. Sample analysesSamples milled, sub sampled, and for maize; pre-tested using serologicalmethods for afaltoxin and fumonisin and sent along with all cassavaTo IFA-TULLN for LC-MS/MS; state of the art detection capable ofquantifying more than 50 toxic metabolites in a single analysis
    8. 8. Sample analysesSamples milled, sub sampled, and for maize; pre-tested using serologicalmethods for afaltoxin and fumonisin and sent along with all cassavaTo IFA-TULLN for LC-MS/MS; state of the art detection capable ofquantifying more than 50 toxic metabolites in a single analysis
    9. 9. Sample analysesSamples milled, sub sampled, and for maize; pre-tested using serologicalmethods for afaltoxin and fumonisin and sent along with all cassavaTo IFA-TULLN for LC-MS/MS; state of the art detection capable ofquantifying more than 50 toxic metabolites in a single analysis
    10. 10. Sample analysesSamples milled, sub sampled, and for maize; pre-tested using serologicalmethods for afaltoxin and fumonisin and sent along with all cassavaTo IFA-TULLN for LC-MS/MS; state of the art detection capable ofquantifying more than 50 toxic metabolites in a single analysis
    11. 11. Sample analysesSamples milled, sub sampled, and for maize; pre-tested using serologicalmethods for afaltoxin and fumonisin and sent along with all cassavaTo IFA-TULLN for LC-MS/MS; state of the art detection capable ofquantifying more than 50 toxic metabolites in a single analysis
    12. 12. Sample analysesSamples milled, sub sampled, and for maize; pre-tested using serologicalmethods for afaltoxin and fumonisin and sent along with all cassavaTo IFA-TULLN for LC-MS/MS; state of the art detection capable ofquantifying more than 50 toxic metabolites in a single analysis
    13. 13. SummaryWorking partnerships and trust establishedSurvey and analytical methods optimisedAwareness raisedLinkages between mycotoxin prevalencewith region and farmer practices identifiedAreas for targeted intervention identified- suitable for scaling out to Africa Rising Action Sites
    14. 14. Thank you, Asante Sana!

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