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Africa RISING                         East and Southern Africa Research Review and Planning                               ...
Evergreen Agriculture (EGA)?• A form of more intensive farming that  integrates trees with annual or perennial  crops, mai...
Examples of Evergreen Agric. Maize-pigeonpeaFaidherbia albida-Miaze   Glicidia-Maize
Research Outputs1. Analyze socio-economic, cultural, and policy   factors influencing the success of EGA2. Document biophy...
OUTPUT 1: SOCIO-ECONOMICFACTORS
Socio-economic indicators for Kongwa andKiteto                           Percent of respondent by VillagesIndicator       ...
Food Availability in Kiteto and Kongwa                                   41 %                    23 %                    2...
OUTPUT 2: BIOPHYSICALFACTORS Better management of land and agricultural water is required for the success of SI
Soil Fertility Rating for Kiteto andKongwaSoil Parameter     Range (Min – Max)   Remark (Landon)pH                 4.6 – 8...
Causes and Effects of Land Degradation         Degraded soilCauses of Land Degradation•Soil erosion (34%)•Overgrazing (25%...
Unsustainable Wood fuel SupplyCauses of Wood fuel Scarcity    Percent of RespondentSettlement expansion                   ...
Yield potential of USA = 10t/ha         Maize yield in Kiteto (farmer estimate)         • Average yield = 1 - 1.5t/ha     ...
Trends in Maize Production in SSA: Extensivefarming                                                                       ...
Landuse changeMap for Kongwaand Kiteto: 1987
Land use change Map for Kongwa and Kiteto: 2010Land use          Cover change(%)                  1987 2010Cultivated Area...
The Potential of Tree-based    Technologies to Intensify    Agriculture• Provide permanent soil cover• Rehabilitate degrad...
Fertilizer trees reduce land degradation and increase water use efficiencySee also Sileshi et al. (2011). Agricultural Wat...
Fertilizer trees significantly increase maize yields over the de facto resource-poor farmers’ practice of growing maize wi...
Mitigation benefits of Tephrosiavogelii and Gliricia sepium• Using the Small Holder Agriculture Monitoring and  Baseline A...
OUTPUT 3: SUSTAINABLE TREESEEDS AND SEEDLING SUPPLYSYSTEMSSuitability, availability and access to improvedplanting materia...
Seed Sources for MajorCrops in Kongwa and KitetoDistricts                    < 10% of farmers,                    use impr...
OUTPUT 4: ACCESS AND USE OFWEATHER INFORMATION BYFARMERS  Improved access and use weather information will  help farmers t...
Capacity Building for EGA• Low awareness by farmers on weather forecast from TMA  − Farming communities rarely use TMA for...
Conclusion: Tree-BasedAgricultural IntensificationOptions• Integrating fertilizer trees, manure and micro-dosing  technolo...
Thank you
Evidence for scaling-up evergreen agriculture to increase productivity and resilience of maize mixed and agro-pastoral far...
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Evidence for scaling-up evergreen agriculture to increase productivity and resilience of maize mixed and agro-pastoral farming systems in Tanzania and Malawi

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Presented by Anthony Kimaro (ICRAF) and Elirehema Swai (ARI-Hombolo) at the Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Research Review and Planning Meeting, Arusha, Tanzania, 1-5 October 2012


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Evidence for scaling-up evergreen agriculture to increase productivity and resilience of maize mixed and agro-pastoral farming systems in Tanzania and Malawi

  1. 1. Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Research Review and Planning Meeting, Arusha, Tanzania, 1-5 October 2012Evidences for Scaling-up Evergreen Agriculture toIncrease Productivity and Resilience of Maize mixed andAgro-pastoral Farming Systems in Tanzania and Malawi Anthony Kimaro (ICRAF) and Elirehema Swai (ARI-Hombolo)
  2. 2. Evergreen Agriculture (EGA)?• A form of more intensive farming that integrates trees with annual or perennial crops, maintaining a green cover on the land throughout the year. − Faidherbia albida farming system − Gliricidia-Maize intercropping system − Improved fallow & Relay intercropping• Evergreen Agriculture: one of several types of agroforestry.
  3. 3. Examples of Evergreen Agric. Maize-pigeonpeaFaidherbia albida-Miaze Glicidia-Maize
  4. 4. Research Outputs1. Analyze socio-economic, cultural, and policy factors influencing the success of EGA2. Document biophysical factors underpinning the success of EGA3. Evaluate models for sustainable supply of tree seeds and seedlings4. Analyze capacity of farmers to collect and use weather information for farming activities
  5. 5. OUTPUT 1: SOCIO-ECONOMICFACTORS
  6. 6. Socio-economic indicators for Kongwa andKiteto Percent of respondent by VillagesIndicator High Potential Low Potential Mean Lenjulu Matui Manungu NjoroHH size: 5 - 8 people 25 56 34 45 51HH Farm size: 1 - 4ha 62 63 65 51 61Ox-plough (land prep.) 70 58 6 1 34Tractor (land prep.) 38 80 3 66 47Fertilizer use 28 4 29 6 17Livestock keeping 81 37 71 54 61
  7. 7. Food Availability in Kiteto and Kongwa 41 % 23 % 22.7 % 60% of the population 14 % is food insecure 7
  8. 8. OUTPUT 2: BIOPHYSICALFACTORS Better management of land and agricultural water is required for the success of SI
  9. 9. Soil Fertility Rating for Kiteto andKongwaSoil Parameter Range (Min – Max) Remark (Landon)pH 4.6 – 8.3 Strongly acidic to moderate alkalineTexture Sandy Clay Loam, Sandy LoamOC (%) 0.14 – 1.97 Very low to lowNitrogen (%) 0.02 – 0.21 Very low to lowBray 1-P (mg/kg) 0.20 – 24.6 Low to highOlsen-P (mg/kg) 1.16 – 27.0 Low to highExch. K+ 0.17 – 1.58 Medium to highExch. Ca2+ 0.59 – 12.7 Very low to very highExch. Mg2+ 0.4 – 6.13 Low to very high
  10. 10. Causes and Effects of Land Degradation Degraded soilCauses of Land Degradation•Soil erosion (34%)•Overgrazing (25%)•Declining soil fertility (11%) Declining farm productivity•Deforestation (3%)•Poor farming practices•Noxious weed invasion, e.g. striga (1%)•Sand deposition on farm (18%)
  11. 11. Unsustainable Wood fuel SupplyCauses of Wood fuel Scarcity Percent of RespondentSettlement expansion 18.4Agricultural expansion 42.7Lack of community woodlots 6.3Deforestation 23.0Drought effects 2.7 11No tree planting 5.8Violation of Forest by-laws 1.1
  12. 12. Yield potential of USA = 10t/ha Maize yield in Kiteto (farmer estimate) • Average yield = 1 - 1.5t/ha • Potential yield = 4.5 t/ha Yield gap Agricultural intensification, including sustainable land management, is needed to bridge the yield gapTrends in maize yields in Malawi and Tanzania compared with USA(Data: FAO STAT 2012)
  13. 13. Trends in Maize Production in SSA: Extensivefarming 13 Sileshi et al. 2009. ICRAF Policy Brief No. 02 http://www.worldagroforestry.org/downloads/publications/PDFs/BR09042.PDF
  14. 14. Landuse changeMap for Kongwaand Kiteto: 1987
  15. 15. Land use change Map for Kongwa and Kiteto: 2010Land use Cover change(%) 1987 2010Cultivated Area 7.3 32.7 +25.4Forest 65.0 18.0 -47.0Shrubs/Thickets 10.1 21.5 -14.0Water 6.9 0.01 +6.8Woodland 10.6 0.00 +10.6Settlements 5.70 +5.7Seasonal river 22.0 +22.0Total 100 100
  16. 16. The Potential of Tree-based Technologies to Intensify Agriculture• Provide permanent soil cover• Rehabilitate degraded lands• Improve soil health and crop yields• Increase water and fertilizer use efficiency• Stabilize crop yields against climate variability• Supply woodfuel, reducing the use of manure and crop residues as a source of cooking energy• Adaptation and mitigation benefits (C sequestration, reduce emission etc.)• Provide fodder for livestock
  17. 17. Fertilizer trees reduce land degradation and increase water use efficiencySee also Sileshi et al. (2011). Agricultural Water Management 98: 1364-1372
  18. 18. Fertilizer trees significantly increase maize yields over the de facto resource-poor farmers’ practice of growing maize without external inputsSpecies Country Number of Yield Yield Percentage sites (t ha-1) increase increase (t ha-1)GliricidiaMalawi 5 3.9 2.9 346 Tanzania 2 2.3 0.8 56 Zambia 4 2.8 1.8 350Sesbania Malawi 7 2.5 1.3 161 Tanzania 2 1.2 0.7 171 Zambia 9 3.2 2.2 480 Zimbabwe 4 3.0 1.9 583Tephrosia Malawi 9 2.0 1.1 233 Tanzania 2 2.0 0.9 80 Zambia 8 1.7 0.8 198
  19. 19. Mitigation benefits of Tephrosiavogelii and Gliricia sepium• Using the Small Holder Agriculture Monitoring and Baseline Assessment (SHAMBA) model, net emission removal over 20 years was estimated at: − Gliricidia : -33 t CO2 equivalent (95% ci: -27, -47) − Tephrosia: -70 t CO2 equivalent (95% ci: -48, -91)• Baseline condition: 36 t CO2 equivalent
  20. 20. OUTPUT 3: SUSTAINABLE TREESEEDS AND SEEDLING SUPPLYSYSTEMSSuitability, availability and access to improvedplanting materials by farmers are majorconstraints to increased agricultural productivity
  21. 21. Seed Sources for MajorCrops in Kongwa and KitetoDistricts < 10% of farmers, use improved seeds from agro-dealers or produced locally as quality declared seeds
  22. 22. OUTPUT 4: ACCESS AND USE OFWEATHER INFORMATION BYFARMERS Improved access and use weather information will help farmers to make decisions which helps to adapt to the risk associated with climate variability
  23. 23. Capacity Building for EGA• Low awareness by farmers on weather forecast from TMA − Farming communities rarely use TMA forecasts − Farmers use local knowledge such as tree phenology• Climate forecast information issued by TMA are generalized. − Less accurate and not useful for planning activities• The adaptive capacity of villagers to climate change in Kiteto and Kongwa is low − Extreme poverty, − Limited alternative livelihood activities, − Environmental degradation.
  24. 24. Conclusion: Tree-BasedAgricultural IntensificationOptions• Integrating fertilizer trees, manure and micro-dosing technologies, which fits very well into farmers’ socio- economic conditions• Integrated soil and water management to address land degradation and moisture limitation to crop growth• Participatory land use planning to minimize land use conflicts and improve farm productivity• Design and implement sustainable seed and seedling (trees and crops) supply systems• Capacity building for Climate-smart Agriculture to enhance the resilience of farming systems and farmers
  25. 25. Thank you

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