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Catalogue of tested crop, soil, and water management options in target areas of Tanzania, Malawi, and Zambia


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Presented by Patrick Mutuo, Lulseged Desta, Leigh Winowiecki, Job Kihara and Nelson Mango (CIAT) at the Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Research Review and Planning Meeting, Arusha, Tanzania, 1-5 October 2012

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Catalogue of tested crop, soil, and water management options in target areas of Tanzania, Malawi, and Zambia

  1. 1. Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Research Review and Planning Meeting, Arusha, Tanzania, 1-5 October 2012Catalogue of Tested Crop, Soil, and WaterManagement Options in target areas ofTanzania, Malawi, and ZambiaPatrick Mutuo, Lulseged Desta, Leigh Winowiecki, Job Kihara and Nelson Mango CIAT
  2. 2. Objectivesi. To take stock of what has been learnt in the target areas from earlier investments and potential for adoption in sustainable intensification of smallholder agriculture,ii. To assess land degradation and access of smallholder farmers to productive land,iii. To assess the physical and economic accessibility to the essential production factors for implementing improved options, andiv. To assess the current conduciveness of the political, extension, and economic environment for their adoption.
  3. 3. Target Areas TanzaniaZambia – Lusaka &East Malawi – Central districts
  4. 4. Well documented best bet options• Cereal-Legume rotations and intercropping (Cajanus cajan, soybeans, groundnuts and common beans)• Fertilization with recommended fertilizer rates of N and P; not much of K• Addition of organic inputs (crop residue incorporation, compost manure, green manures, and farmyard manure)• Combining inorganic fertilizers with organic inputs / ISFM• Alley cropping/hedgerow intercropping• Improved fallows using fast growing N fixing tree species (e.g., Tephrosia vogelii, Sesbania sesban, or Cajanus cajan)• Systematic inter-planting of maize with Faiderbia albida• Conservation agriculture (CA) in maize-based systems
  5. 5. What seems to drive adoption• Availability and affordability of required inputs such as fertilizers, legume seeds, manures etc.• Competition of legume-based technologies with other crops for limited resources – land, labour and cash• The speed of earning benefits – presenting challenges with options such as Feldherbia albida, CA and FYM• Cash or food benefits of grain legumes Country Estimated No. of HH/agro-dealer Malawi 1,556 Tanzania 2,222 Zambia 2,333
  6. 6. Economic analysis of maize and rice fertilization at nine Tanzania sites Crop Nutrient rates MRR* N P (%) Kg ha-1  Maize 0 20 156Maize 0 40 18Maize 0 0 0Maize 30 0 206Maize 80 20 241Rice 40 0 409Rice 120 30 296Rice 120 0 344Rice 40 20 766*Favourable MRR should be ≥ 200%
  7. 7. CA and rip-line seeding effect on longer termmaize yields on farmers fields in Malawi (Source: Thiefelder et al., 2012)
  8. 8. Initiatives that have been implemented in the target areas aimed at agricultural intensificationCountry ProgrammeTanzania Accelerated Food Security (AFSP) and Agricultural Sector Development Programme (ASDP) HIMA project in IringaMalawi Farm Input Subsidy Program (FISP) National Manure campaign National Conservation Agriculture Task force (NCATF) Agroforestry Support Program (AFSP) Irrigation, Rural Livelihoods and Agricultural Development Project (IRLADP) Soil and water management interventionsZambia Promotion of Fertiliser Trees in Eastern Zambia Conservation Agriculture Programme
  9. 9. Dissemination and promotion approaches being applied• Farmer field schools.• Framer-to-farmer exchange visits• Media (exhibition shows, TV and radio)• Farmer Research Groups (FRG)• Learning from demonstration plots• Demand driven extension method• Lead-farmer concept• Training of trainers concept• The study circle concept• Platforms utilization• Participatory Extension Approach (PEA); and others
  10. 10. Numerous relevant training materials exist for the target areasCategory of training material Number identifiedISFM 9Agroforestry 5Conservation agriculture 15Agro-dealer training material 3
  11. 11. AfricaRising: Combining AfSIS-LDSF sites and NARS Rain gauge stations LDSF sites 3- Tanzania 3- Zambia 2- Malawi Rainfall Station 3-Tanzania 55- Malawi 11- ZambiaIdentifying land degradation hotspots and soil health constraints to agricultural productivity
  12. 12. Modeling Cultivated Areas and Erosion PrevalenceAll sites have mixed a mix ofcultivated and non-cultivatedareas, indicating the complexity Cultivated areas (TRUE) have higherof landuses across the erosion risk compared to non-landscape. cultivated plots (FALSE) in only two sites.
  13. 13. Assessing Soil Health: Soil organic carbon (SOC) content Mbinga, Tanzania Longitude Latitude Mean topsoil OC content at five sites
  14. 14. Assessing Landscape Variation in Yield: Thuchila, Malawi Crop response varies across the landscape and between treatments.
  15. 15. Assessing Variation in TN and SOC: Thuchila, Malawi Research questions: How do SOC and TN concentrations affect crop response? How does erosion prevalence affect crop response? Which ecological and soil variables explain the variation in crop response, across the landscape.
  16. 16. Beyond AfricaRISINGQuick Win:Increase the number of sitesand co-located ecological andagronomic assessments Suggested LDSF Site Locations 4-Zambia 3-Malawi 4-Tanzania Objectives: To produce Africa Rising regional assessments and maps of land degradation and soil health. To link ecological and socio- economic baseline data.
  17. 17. Beyond AfricaRISING Quick Win:Linking infrared spectroscopy and crop productivity.
  18. 18. Concluding Remarks Technologies, learning materials and policies to get intensification moving are already existing. Effort is needed to increase agro-input dealers and extension teams on the ground. Soil and ecological variables are needed to explain all variation of crop response. Land Degradation Surveillance Framework (LDSF) is an appropriate tool for assessing land and ecosystem health. Collaboration across CGIAR centres, NARS, and local organizations in critical.