Next generation online catalogs


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  • Search all proprietary databases from one entry point.
  • Faceted navigation allows users to narrow search results by facets. Facet types may include subject, author, date, type of material, location, series, etc.
  • Next Generation catalogs allow users to add content. Users can write reviews, tag, and comment on items. User contribution is also an excellent indicator for relevancy ranking. Next Gen catalogs deliver lists o new acquisitions and search updates to users. They are service oriented, and do more than provide a display of search results.
  • When a search term is not spelled correctly you want the spell checker to kick in and make recommendations. You do not want to see: “Your search did not produce any results…” Users of Amazon will also appreciate comments like: “Patrons who borrowed this book also borrowed the following books…”
  • Next generation online catalogs

    1. 1. Next Generation Library Catalogs Library Catalogs: From Traditional to Next-Generation
    2. 2. References <ul><li>Breeding, Marshall, “Next-Generation Library Catalogs,” Library Technology Reports , v.43, n.4 (Jul/Aug 2007), available online at (accessed 11 Sep 2007) </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Traditional Library Catalog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope of the Library Catalog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Library Catalog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with TLC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next-Generation Library Catalog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federated Search or Metasearch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivering Content to the User </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enriched Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faceted Navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web 2.0: Enabling User Contributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting Them All Together </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Traditional Library Catalog
    5. 5. Traditional Library Catalog <ul><li>Books – includes print and electronic books </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia materials – CDs, DVDs, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers, magazines, and professional & scholarly journals – described at title level, not individual issues/articles </li></ul><ul><li>Others – such as musical scores, microfilms, etc. </li></ul>
    6. 6. What is the purpose of the library catalog? <ul><ul><li>To find sources that correspond to a search criteria … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To identify sources … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To select sources that satisfy an information need… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To acquire or obtain access to sources… </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Underlying Standards <ul><li>Descriptive Cataloging: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AACR2 (Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, version 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subject Cataloging: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library of Congress Subject Headings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library of Congress Classification Scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encoding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MARC21 (MAchine Readable Cataloging) – Bibliographic, Authority, Holdings, Classification & Community </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Problems with the Traditional Catalog <ul><li>Complex search interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not consistent with user interface conventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to rank results by relevancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited in scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oriented to print material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to deliver online content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lacking in social network features </li></ul>
    9. 9. Next Generation Library Catalog
    10. 10. Federated Search or Metasearch <ul><li>Traditional Catalog - search individual information resources separately </li></ul><ul><li>Next Generation – search multiple information resources simultaneously </li></ul>
    11. 11. How does the federated search work? <ul><ul><li>Back-end communication through search protocols to send query and receive results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANSI/NISO Z39.50 ( ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Front-end processing and presentation of result sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presents results in a standard format and structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>De-duplication – i.e. consolidation of identical entries from multiple targets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sorting and display </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sample Site </li></ul>
    12. 12. Federated Search <ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of performance limited by slowest responding target </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time-outs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal no. of targets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting no. of items requested </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorting & ranking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on initial set of records retrieved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate from the Library Catalog </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Enriched Content <ul><li>Contents include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover art images, such as book jackets, movie cases, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MARC or Non-MARC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Searchable or Not </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syndetic Solutions ( ) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Faceted Navigation <ul><li>Using facets to narrow down results </li></ul><ul><li>Facets derived from bibliographic information in the Library Catalog </li></ul><ul><li>Visual appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Sites </li></ul>
    15. 15. Web 2.0: Enabling User Contributions <ul><li>User ratings & reviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression of opinions regarding works in the catalog </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User tagging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigning of informal terms to items of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Folksonomy” as a supplement to traditional subject headings provided by libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blogs & RSS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means to deliver information to users </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Other Features <ul><li>Keyword Searching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google-like simple search box </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relevancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important items appear first followed by those of diminishing relevancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“Did you mean …?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detect common spelling errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest a term that will work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Users that borrowed X also borrowed Y” </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Putting Them All Together <ul><li>New discovery & delivery interface providing access to all of the content and services offered by a Library </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through harvesting additional contents into local index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through incorporating federated-search into interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interface characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple search box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AJAX technology to dynamically request and present additional information without having to redisplay the entire page </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incorporate features such as Relevancy ranking, Popular choices, Faceted navigation, Tag cloud, “Did you mean …?”, User-contributed content, Enriched content, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Site </li></ul>
    18. 18. Q & A Thank you! Alex Fraser Doctoral Student Graduate School of Library and Information Science Dominican University River Forest, Illinois