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اختبار تفهم الموضوع Thematic Apperception test

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اختبار تفهم الموضوع Thematic Apperception test

  1. 1. ‫املوضوع‬ ‫تفهم‬ ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫ا‬ Thematic Apperception Test ‫بة‬‫ل‬‫الطا‬ ‫عداد‬‫ا‬ : ‫اح‬‫ر‬‫اف‬ ‫ناق‬‫ش‬‫ب‬ ‫تخصص‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ : ‫قياس‬ ‫تقومي‬‫و‬ afrahbushnaq@gmail.com
  2. 2. ‫املوضوع‬ ‫تفهم‬ ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫ا‬ ‫صل‬‫أ‬ : - ‫ب‬‫ت‬‫الاك‬ ‫بل‬ِ‫ق‬ ‫من‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُص‬ ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫ا‬ ‫هو‬ ‫املوضوع‬ ‫تفهم‬ ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫الرسامة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫هن‬ ‫نفيس‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫العامل‬‫و‬ ‫مورغان‬ ‫تينا‬‫س‬‫ي‬‫ر‬‫ك‬ ‫ية‬‫س‬‫نف‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫احمللةل‬ ‫عام‬ ‫موراي‬ ‫ي‬ 1935 ‫فارد‬‫ر‬‫ها‬ ‫جامعة‬ ‫من‬ ‫م‬ .
  3. 3. ‫املوضوع‬ ‫تفهم‬ ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫ا‬ ‫صل‬‫أ‬ : - ‫ناك‬‫ه‬ ‫عدة‬ ‫رواايت‬ ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫الا‬ ‫ناء‬‫ب‬ ‫فكرة‬ ‫عن‬ ‫ذكرها‬ ‫مت‬ : - ‫يقول‬ ‫موراي‬ ‫هني‬ :
  4. 4. “A conversation I had with a student (Cecilia Roberts) was the spark that started us collecting pictures in 1933. The idea for the TAT germinated from a question raised by a student in one of Murray’s classes. The class had been discussing fantasies and Jung’s idea of active imagination. Cecilia Roberts reported that her son, when ill, one day greeted his mother when she came home from work with stories he had made up about the pictures in the magazines she had left for him. She wondered if pictures couldn’t similarly release fantasy material in a clinical setting. Murray discussed this enthusiastically with Morgan, then presented the idea at a lunch meeting.” 1
  5. 5. One of Murray’s students, Cecelia [sic] Roberts, faced the same difficulty as she tried to gather fantasies from blind people and sighted people in order to compare them. She tried to get her son to tell her his fantasies. “He wasn’t being productive; he thought it was silly to tell his mother what his fantasies were,” Murray said. “She had a book and asked him to tell a story about one of the pictures.” Her son responded by making up a rich, imaginative story. When Roberts told Murray about this experience, he capitalized on it and started working on the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 2
  6. 6. ‫املوضوع‬ ‫تفهم‬ ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫ا‬ ‫ناء‬‫ب‬ ‫وراء‬ ‫الفكرة‬ : - ‫يف‬ ‫موراي‬ ‫هني‬ ‫ساعدة‬‫مب‬ ‫مورغان‬ ‫تينا‬‫س‬‫ي‬‫ر‬‫ك‬ ‫قامت‬ ‫ذكل‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫يار‬‫خت‬‫ا‬ ‫ال‬ ‫و‬ ‫املصورة‬ ‫القصص‬ ‫و‬ ‫اجملالت‬ ‫يف‬ ‫بحث‬‫ل‬‫اب‬ ‫وذكل‬ ‫الصور‬ ‫صحف‬ ... ‫وغريها‬ - ‫امل‬ ‫بكتابة‬ ‫وقامو‬ ‫رمسها‬ ‫اعادة‬ ‫و‬‫أ‬ ‫يه‬ ‫كام‬ ‫تخداهما‬‫س‬‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫وقصها‬ ‫يف‬ ‫قاةل‬ ‫رشها‬‫ن‬ ‫ومت‬ ‫بوعني‬‫س‬‫أ‬ , ‫اب‬ ‫تقوم‬ ‫تس‬‫ر‬‫روب‬ ‫يا‬‫يل‬‫س‬‫سي‬ ‫نت‬‫اك‬‫و‬ ‫تجارب‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫اء‬‫ر‬‫ج‬ ‫ف‬‫ر‬‫ها‬ ‫يادة‬‫ع‬ ‫يف‬ ‫املفحوصني‬ ‫عىل‬ ‫الصور‬ ‫تخدام‬‫س‬‫اب‬ ‫ية‬‫ل‬‫و‬‫ال‬ ‫ية‬‫س‬‫نف‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫رد‬ .
  7. 7. H.M: It’s a picture that was in the paper, a real picture of a real boy. I showed it to people, and some said “a boy” and some said “a girl.” I immediately picked it for that reason. JWA : It was intentional in the drawing to make the sex more ambiguous? H.M: Yes, yes. JWA: Did you also try to make the gun more ambiguous? H.M: The same thing. I’m not sure if it was a gun or not in the original.
  8. 8. Honoré Daumier (1808–1879), known as “L’Homme à la Corde à Noeuds” (“Man on a Rope”)
  9. 9. A second possible germinal influence was revealed by Nevitt Sanford (1980), an early worker at the Harvard Psychological Clinic and contributor to the TAT. When Sanford was a student in Murray’s class in 1930 (perhaps in the same class as Roberts?) he recalled Murray reading the recently published book,Look Homeward,Angel A Story of the Buried Life by Wolfe (1929).Murray brought the book with him to several lectures, and Sanford, after reading the book himself, came to believe that an episode in the book suggested the thematic apperceptive method to Murray. 3
  10. 10. The episode under consideration is one in which the 11-year-old protagonist, Eugene Gant, is asked along with other students to look at apicture and write acomposition based on it. The picture was “The Song of the Lark.” “They were asked to describe what they saw in the expression of the girl’s face. They were asked to tell what the picture meant to them” (Wolfe, 1929, p. 207). Look Homeward, Angel is a classic example of autobiographical fiction, and the character Eugene Gant represents the author’s alter ego.
  11. 11. ‫املوضوع‬ ‫تفهم‬ ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫ا‬ : - ‫يط‬ ‫اليت‬ ‫الصور‬ ‫من‬ ‫سةل‬‫سل‬ ‫من‬ ‫تكون‬‫ي‬ ‫سقاطي‬‫ا‬ ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫ا‬ ‫هو‬ ‫فيه‬ ‫لب‬ ‫عرضها‬ ‫يمت‬ ‫صور‬ ‫حول‬ ‫قصة‬ ‫شاء‬‫ن‬‫ا‬ ‫تحن‬‫ملم‬‫ا‬ ‫من‬ . - ‫و‬ ‫للمفحوص‬ ‫ية‬‫شخص‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫مناط‬‫أ‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫عن‬ ‫شف‬‫للك‬ ‫يقة‬‫ر‬‫ط‬ ‫وهو‬ ‫افعه‬‫و‬‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫املكبواتت‬‫و‬ ‫شاعر‬‫مل‬‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫اطف‬‫و‬‫الع‬ ‫مثل‬ ‫ية‬‫ع‬‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫الغري‬ ‫اخملفية‬ ‫سلطة‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫اعات‬‫رص‬‫ال‬‫و‬ . - ‫املوضوع‬ ‫تفهم‬ ‫لكمة‬ ‫شري‬‫ت‬ ( Apperception ) ‫اسقاط‬ ‫ية‬‫معل‬ ‫اىل‬ ‫ية‬‫ع‬‫موضو‬ ‫ات‬‫ز‬‫حمف‬ ‫عىل‬ ‫يال‬‫خل‬‫ا‬ .
  12. 12. ‫املوضوع‬ ‫تفهم‬ ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫ا‬ : - ‫يطل‬‫و‬ ‫للمفحوص‬ ‫الصور‬ ‫من‬ ‫سةل‬‫سل‬ ‫بعرض‬ ‫املفحوص‬ ‫يقوم‬ ‫منه‬ ‫ب‬ ‫صورة‬ ‫لك‬ ‫عن‬ ‫قصة‬ ‫ين‬‫و‬‫تك‬ , ‫عن‬ ‫تعرب‬ ‫حقيقية‬ ‫نا‬‫ه‬ ‫الصور‬‫و‬ ‫ما‬ ‫يشء‬ . - ‫احض‬‫و‬ ‫غري‬ ‫تكون‬ ً‫ان‬‫حيا‬‫أ‬‫و‬ ‫رسومات‬ ‫و‬‫أ‬ ‫صور‬ ‫تكون‬ ‫ن‬‫أ‬ ‫املمكن‬ ‫من‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ي‬‫ر‬‫بط‬ ‫يل‬‫تخ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫بري‬‫تع‬‫لل‬ ‫للمفحوص‬ ‫اجملال‬ ‫ترتك‬ ‫حىت‬ ‫اخلاصة‬ ‫قتة‬ . - ‫من‬ ‫تكون‬‫ي‬ 30 ‫سود‬‫ال‬ ‫و‬ ‫يض‬‫ب‬‫ابل‬ ‫صورة‬ ‫بطاقة‬ , ‫مو‬ ‫تعرض‬ ‫اقف‬ ‫يومية‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫حياتة‬ ‫يف‬ ‫شخص‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫لها‬ ‫تعرض‬‫ي‬ ‫قد‬ ‫حقيقية‬ .
  13. 13. ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫ا‬ ‫تفهم‬ ‫املوضوع‬ : - 10 ‫بطاقات‬ ‫مت‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُص‬ ‫لذلكور‬ ‫فقط‬ ‫و‬ 10 ‫انث‬‫لال‬ ‫فقط‬ ‫و‬ 10 ‫بطاقات‬ ‫نني‬‫ث‬‫لال‬ ً‫ا‬‫مع‬ . - ‫يمت‬ ‫عرض‬ ‫بطاقات‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫نظام‬‫ب‬ ‫سيل‬‫سل‬‫ت‬ ‫معني‬ . - ً‫ا‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫غا‬ ‫بق‬‫ط‬‫م‬‫ي‬ ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫ال‬ ‫عىل‬ ‫تني‬‫حل‬‫مر‬ ‫تني‬‫منفصل‬ ‫ب‬ ‫يث‬ ‫عرض‬‫م‬‫ي‬ ‫للمفحوص‬ 10 ‫بطاقات‬ ‫يف‬ ‫لك‬ ‫سة‬‫جل‬ , ‫يمت‬‫و‬ ‫عرض‬ ‫الصورة‬ ‫ملرة‬ ‫احدة‬‫و‬ ‫ف‬ ‫قط‬ ‫عطى‬‫م‬‫ي‬‫و‬ ‫املفحوص‬ ‫مدة‬ 5 ‫دقائق‬ ‫بري‬‫تع‬‫لل‬ ‫عن‬ ‫الصورة‬ ‫احدة‬‫و‬‫ال‬ . - ‫لبد‬ ‫من‬ ‫اخبار‬ ‫ملفحوص‬‫ا‬ ‫ن‬‫أ‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫ال‬ ‫تصور‬‫لل‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬‫تخ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ذلكل‬ ‫املطلوب‬ ‫منه‬ ‫اخبار‬ ‫قصة‬ ‫عن‬ ‫لك‬ ‫صورة‬ .
  14. 14. ‫املوضوع‬ ‫تفهم‬ ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫ا‬ : - ‫س‬ ‫خاللها‬ ‫من‬ ‫يمت‬ ‫و‬‫أ‬ ‫علهيا‬ ‫جابة‬‫ال‬ ‫جيب‬ ‫اليت‬ ‫ئةل‬‫س‬‫ال‬ ‫تدور‬ ‫القصة‬ ‫امع‬ ‫ماييل‬ ‫عن‬ ‫املفحوص‬ ‫نظر‬ ‫وهجة‬ ‫من‬ : 1 - ‫اه؟‬‫ر‬‫ت‬ ‫ماذلي‬ ‫و‬‫أ‬ ‫الصورة؟‬ ‫يف‬ ‫حيدث‬ ‫ماذلي‬ 2 - ‫شاعرها؟‬‫م‬ ‫ومايه‬ ‫ية‬‫شخص‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫فيه‬ ‫تفكر‬ ‫ماذلي‬ 3 - ‫ذكل؟‬ ‫حدوث‬ ‫اىل‬‫ا‬ ‫دى‬‫أ‬ ‫ماذلي‬ 4 - ‫سريك؟‬‫تف‬ ‫ماهو‬ ‫ي‬‫خشص‬ ‫عن‬ ‫ثرية‬‫ك‬ ‫سامت‬ ‫اض‬‫ر‬‫تع‬‫س‬‫اب‬ ‫املفحوص‬ ‫يقوم‬‫س‬ ‫نا‬‫ه‬ ‫ومن‬ ‫تة‬ , ‫حيث‬ ‫وحاج‬ ‫ية‬‫يع‬‫ب‬‫لط‬‫ا‬ ‫حياتة‬ ‫يف‬ ‫ياء‬‫ش‬‫أ‬ ‫يروهيا‬ ‫اليت‬ ‫القصص‬ ‫ثل‬‫مت‬ ‫مبن‬ ‫وعالقتة‬ ‫اته‬ ‫حوةل‬ .
  15. 15. ‫املوضوع‬ ‫تفهم‬ ‫بار‬‫خت‬‫ا‬ : - ‫القصص‬ ‫يل‬‫سج‬‫ت‬ ‫يمت‬ ‫احملكية‬ ‫رضو‬ ‫مع‬ ‫املفحوص‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫من‬ ‫مالحظة‬ ‫رة‬ ‫للقصة‬ ‫رسده‬ ‫ناء‬‫ث‬‫أ‬ ‫املفحوص‬ ‫هبا‬ ‫يقوم‬ ‫اليت‬ ‫يات‬‫ك‬‫و‬‫سل‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫مثل‬ : - ‫ب‬‫م‬‫ج‬‫تع‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ , ‫ة‬‫تأ‬‫تأ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ , ‫املفايجء‬ ‫توقف‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ , ‫الوجه‬ ‫ار‬‫ر‬‫امح‬ , ‫تغري‬ ‫الصوت‬ ‫نربة‬ ‫يف‬ . ‫ي‬‫خشص‬ ‫عن‬ ‫ثرية‬‫ك‬ ‫سامت‬ ‫اض‬‫ر‬‫تع‬‫س‬‫اب‬ ‫املفحوص‬ ‫يقوم‬‫س‬ ‫نا‬‫ه‬ ‫ومن‬ ‫تة‬ , ‫حيث‬ ‫وحاج‬ ‫ية‬‫يع‬‫ب‬‫لط‬‫ا‬ ‫حياتة‬ ‫يف‬ ‫ياء‬‫ش‬‫أ‬ ‫يروهيا‬ ‫اليت‬ ‫القصص‬ ‫ثل‬‫مت‬ ‫مبن‬ ‫وعالقتة‬ ‫اته‬ ‫حوةل‬ .
  16. 16. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ - ‫ش‬‫مل‬‫ا‬ ‫تعرض‬ ‫اليت‬ ‫سةل‬‫سل‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫يف‬ ‫الوحيدة‬ ‫بطاقة‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫يه‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫امجلاعي‬ ‫هد‬ ‫يع‬ ‫اذلين‬ ‫شخاص‬‫ال‬ ‫مع‬ ‫الفرد‬ ‫عالقة‬ ‫تعلق‬‫ت‬ ‫معلومات‬ ‫تقدم‬‫و‬ ‫معه‬ ‫شون‬‫ي‬ .
  17. 17. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ - ‫والا‬ ‫نب‬‫ذل‬‫اب‬ ‫شعور‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫خماوف‬ ‫لقياس‬ ‫املفيدة‬ ‫الصور‬ ‫كرث‬‫أ‬ ‫من‬ ‫ئاب‬‫ت‬‫ك‬ ‫ية‬‫ع‬‫ندفا‬‫الا‬ ‫يطرة‬‫س‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ان‬‫و‬‫العد‬‫و‬ .
  18. 18. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ - ‫اذل‬ ‫بني‬ ‫العالقة‬ ‫و‬ ‫شاعر‬‫مل‬‫ا‬ ‫لقياس‬ ‫املفيدة‬ ‫الصور‬ ‫كرث‬‫أ‬ ‫من‬ ‫انث‬‫ال‬ ‫و‬ ‫كور‬ ‫ة‬‫أ‬‫ر‬‫امل‬ ‫حنو‬ ‫اقفهم‬‫و‬‫م‬ ‫مظهر‬‫ت‬‫و‬ ‫نة‬‫ا‬‫ي‬‫خل‬‫اك‬ .
  19. 19. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ - ‫شخص‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫العالقات‬‫و‬ ‫سلطة‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫لقياس‬ ‫املفيدة‬ ‫الصور‬ ‫كرث‬‫أ‬ ‫من‬ ‫و‬ ‫ية‬ ً‫ا‬‫ن‬‫س‬ ‫كرب‬‫ال‬ ‫مع‬ ‫تفاعل‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ .
  20. 20. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ - ‫فرد‬ ‫لك‬ ‫سب‬‫ح‬ ‫سريها‬‫تف‬ ‫يرتك‬ ‫تعممي‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫بة‬‫صع‬ .
  21. 21. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ - ‫انث‬‫ال‬ ‫بني‬ ‫ية‬‫س‬‫ف‬‫نا‬‫ت‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫القدرة‬ ‫و‬ ‫الغرية‬ ‫و‬ ‫اع‬‫رص‬‫ال‬ .
  22. 22. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ - ‫انث‬‫ال‬ ‫و‬ ‫اذلكور‬ ‫بني‬ ‫العالقة‬ ( ‫احة‬‫ر‬ , ‫انزعاج‬ , ‫عاطفي‬ ‫تقارب‬ , ‫ا‬ ‫تعداد‬‫س‬ ‫للرحيل‬ .)
  23. 23. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ - ‫يل‬‫تخ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫قدرة‬ , ‫ابطة‬‫رت‬‫م‬ ‫الغري‬ ‫ات‬‫ز‬‫احملف‬ ‫دمج‬ , ‫يق‬‫ر‬‫ط‬ ‫تعكس‬ ‫تعامل‬ ‫ة‬ ‫الهجوم‬ ‫مع‬ ‫اد‬‫ر‬‫ف‬‫ال‬
  24. 24. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ - ‫ب‬‫ال‬ ‫زوجة‬ ً‫ا‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫غا‬ ‫و‬‫أ‬ ‫م‬‫ال‬ ‫وصف‬ ( ‫ية‬‫رس‬‫ال‬ ‫العالقة‬ ‫يح‬‫ض‬‫تو‬ .)
  25. 25. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ - ‫العزةل‬ ‫و‬ ‫الهجرة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ئاب‬‫ت‬‫ك‬‫ال‬ ‫و‬ ‫تحار‬‫ن‬‫ال‬ ‫يع‬‫ض‬‫ا‬‫و‬‫م‬ ‫لقياس‬ ‫هممة‬ .
  26. 26. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ - ‫ية‬‫س‬‫جلن‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ية‬‫ن‬‫ا‬‫و‬‫العد‬ ‫شاعر‬‫مل‬‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫اعات‬‫رص‬‫ال‬ ‫لقياس‬ ‫هممة‬ .
  27. 27. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ - ‫مل‬‫تأ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫ابلوحدة‬ ‫شعور‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ .
  28. 28. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ - ‫نق‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫عىل‬ ‫وكذكل‬ ‫تحار‬‫ن‬‫لال‬ ‫جتاة‬‫ال‬ ‫و‬‫أ‬ ‫ئاب‬‫ت‬‫ك‬‫ال‬ ‫لقياس‬ ‫هممة‬ ‫تفكري‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫يض‬ ‫جناز‬‫ال‬ ‫يف‬ ‫بة‬‫غ‬‫الر‬ ‫و‬ ‫يط‬‫تخط‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ .
  29. 29. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ ‫الغضب‬ ‫و‬ ‫ان‬‫و‬‫العد‬ ‫و‬ ‫نف‬‫لع‬‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫ات‬‫و‬‫م‬‫ال‬ ‫و‬ ‫املوت‬ ‫جتاة‬ ‫اقف‬‫و‬‫امل‬ .
  30. 30. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ ، ‫شط‬‫لن‬‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫احلي‬ ‫يال‬‫خل‬‫ا‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫املوضوعات‬ ‫من‬ ‫و‬ ‫؛‬ ‫للغاية‬ ‫ومفيدة‬ ‫ية‬‫ر‬‫ث‬ ‫ا‬ ً ‫قصص‬ ‫ثري‬‫ت‬ ‫ما‬ ‫ا‬ً‫ب‬‫ل‬‫غا‬ ‫بطاقة‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫يل‬‫ص‬‫تفا‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ية‬‫مك‬ ‫شخص‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫داخل‬ ‫تعقيدات‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫و‬ .
  31. 31. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ ‫جناز‬‫ال‬ , ‫ية‬‫س‬‫ج‬‫الن‬ , ‫ية‬‫س‬‫جلن‬‫ا‬ ‫ية‬‫ثل‬‫مل‬‫ا‬ .
  32. 32. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ ‫ية‬‫ن‬‫ا‬‫و‬‫العد‬ , ‫ية‬‫ن‬‫و‬‫ادل‬ , ‫الغرية‬ , ‫خر‬‫آ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ساعدة‬‫م‬ , ‫احلرمان‬ .
  33. 33. - ‫سه؟‬‫تقي‬ ‫ماذلي‬ ‫من‬‫ال‬ ‫نعدام‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫القلق‬ .
  34. 34. References: • Morgan,W.G. (1995a). Origin and history of the thematic apperception test images. • Stein, M. (1978). Chapter 6: Thematic Apperception Test and related methods, Clinical diagnosis of mental disorders, Plenum press. New York. • Rosenwald, G. (1968). Chapter 7: the thematic apperception test, Projective techniques in personality assessment, springer science. New York.

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