Bioenergy                                                                                                       06 MAR 201...
2012 AFOSR Spring Review                   Portfolio OverviewNAME: Patrick O. Bradshaw, Ph.D.BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLI...
Visionary Transformational                    AF CapabilitiesBioenergy:• Biofuel Produced from CO2, H2O and Sunlight:     ...
Overview of Topic Areas 3003P  Bioenergy: Alternative Energy• Biofuels—Macro-scale Energy                                 ...
Bioenergy:               A Progressive Research Strategy                   Natural to Artificial       Sun         Photosy...
Challenges, Opportunities                and Breakthrough ExamplesNatural Systems Research:Challenge: Explain gene regulat...
Photosynthesis, Systems Biology and Metabolic Engineering                           for the Production of Biofuels        ...
2012 AFOSR Spring Review:     Bioenergy (3003P)  Biosolar Hydrogen  (MURI and Core Funding)     DISTRIBUTION A: Approved f...
Bio-Solar Hydrogen Production                                     Eight Labs Including AFRL & DOEObjective:        Light +...
BioSolar H2 Cyanobacterial Metabolism                       Improving Cellular Fuel Production Efficiency                 ...
“Milking” More H2 by Co-Fermentation                      PI: G. C. Dismukes Spring Review FY12                           ...
2012 AFOSR Spring Review:     Bioenergy (2308C)             Algal Oil     DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; dis...
Algal Oil                                       Ten Labs Including DOE and USAFA Objective: Gain knowledge of basic algal ...
Systems Biology for Algal Lipid Pathway                 Analyses: A 7 Lab CollaborationObjectives: Next generation RNA Seq...
Enhanced Photosynthetic Efficiency & Algal Growth                    by Optimizing Light Harvesting Antennae Size         ...
2012 AFOSR Spring Review:     Bioenergy (3003P) Enzymatic Fuel Cell     DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distr...
Fundamentals and Bioengineering of            Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Seven Labs Including AFRLObjectives:                  ...
Integrated Enzymatic Biofuel Cell                                                                                         ...
88 Personnel Involved in the Research: June 1, 201151 Supported by the MURI Program  6 University PIs and  8 Collaborators...
ISI Publication Record on Enzymatic Fuel Cells: 1992 - 2011AFOSR MURI: Fundamentals & Bioengineering of Enzyme Fuel Cells ...
Peer-Reviewed Journal Publications: June 1, 201199 Publications & Book Chapters and 6 Patent Applications74 Published     ...
Controlling Direct Electron Transfer (DET)                   Between Electrodes and Conductive Materials                  ...
2012 AFOSR Spring Review:     Bioenergy (3003P)   Microbial Fuel Cells (MURI and Core Funding)                            ...
Optimizing Microbial Fuel Cells via Genetics,              Modeling and Nanofabrication: Seven Labs Objective:            ...
Molecular Identification of Bacterial Nanowires and Their                Role in Microbial Fuel Cells: Ringeisen (NRL)    ...
2012 AFOSR Spring Review                     3003P Portfolio            Photo-Electro-Magnetic            Stimulation of B...
Electric Stimulation of the Brain,               Hemodynamics and Sustained Attention:                                    ...
Coupling Terahertz Radiation to Biomolecules                                    for Controlling Cell Response: Wilmink (AF...
Related Research                  Funded by Other AgenciesFunding Criteria:                                               ...
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Bradshaw - Bioenergy - Spring Review 2012

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Dr. Patrick Bradshaw presents an overview of his program - Bioenergy - at the 2012 AFOSR Spring Review

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Bradshaw - Bioenergy - Spring Review 2012

  1. 1. Bioenergy 06 MAR 2012 Dr. Patrick O. Bradshaw Program Manager AFOSR/RSL Integrity  Service  Excellence Air Force Research Laboratory2 March 2012 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1
  2. 2. 2012 AFOSR Spring Review Portfolio OverviewNAME: Patrick O. Bradshaw, Ph.D.BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO:• Bioenergy is a program that characterizes, models and explains the structuralfeatures, metabolic functions and gene regulatory mechanisms utilized by variousbiological systems to capture, transfer, convert, or store energy for the purpose ofproducing renewable biofuels and improving the power output of biofuel cells.(~80% of portfolio) Sub-Areas: (1) BioSolar Hydrogen, (2) Algal Oil (3) Artificial Photosynthesis, and (4) Biofuel Cells (Microbial and Enzymatic)• Photo-Electro-Magnetic Stimulation of Biological Responses is a beginningprogram that characterizes, models and explains the stimulatory and inhibitoryresponses of biological systems to low-level exposures of photo-electro-magneticstimuli. Potential long-term benefits may include accelerated recovery from mentalfatigue and drowsiness, enhanced learning and training, and noninvasive treatmentof traumatic brain injuries. (~20% of portfolio) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 2
  3. 3. Visionary Transformational AF CapabilitiesBioenergy:• Biofuel Produced from CO2, H2O and Sunlight: - Algal systems biology data used to bioengineer lipid biosynthetic pathways in microbes or to create novel synthetic pathways in artificial solar fuel systems• Portable H2 Fuel Generated from H2O or Cellulose: - Cheap, self-healing inorganic catalysts split water into H2 and O2 - Engineered photosynthetic microbes produce H2 fuel• Compact Power from Ambient Biomass: - Efficient electron transport coupled with unique electrode architectures enhance power and energy densities of biofuel cellsPhoto-electro-magnetic Stimulation of Bio-Responses:• Electromagnetically Enhanced Cognition, Protection and Healing: - low-level exposure with photo-electro-magnetic stimuli enhance cognitive functions, bio-molecular repair and bio-resiliency DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 3
  4. 4. Overview of Topic Areas 3003P Bioenergy: Alternative Energy• Biofuels—Macro-scale Energy • Biofuel Cells—Micro-scale Energy • Biosolar Hydrogen • Algal Oil for Jet Fuel • Enzymatic Fuel Cells • Synthetic Biology • Microbial Fuel Cells • Artificial Photosynthesis H2 Small Vehicles, Sun Photosynthesis Fuel Fuel Cells portable power Robofly Natural to Artificial Biofuel Cells MAV Future Direction • Photo-Electro-Magnetic Stimulation of Biosystems • Biomarkers, Physiological responses and toxicology • Synthetic Biology – explore non coding genetic information DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 4
  5. 5. Bioenergy: A Progressive Research Strategy Natural to Artificial Sun Photosynthesis Fuel Biofuel Cells POWERGeneration 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Natural Optimized Natural Hybrid ArtificialSystem Biosystems Type Biosystems Systems Systems Basic Characterization Metabolic/ Synthetic Chemistry &Research Mechanisms Protein Biology Materials Type Models Engineering ScienceDisciplinary Biology Chemistry Inputs Math Physics Engineering DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 5
  6. 6. Challenges, Opportunities and Breakthrough ExamplesNatural Systems Research:Challenge: Explain gene regulatory mechanisms of metabolic pathways and networks Payoffs: - potentially economical viable biofuels - enhanced energy density of microbial fuel cells (MFC)Challenge: Understand mechanisms and kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions Payoffs: - enhanced energy density of enzymatic fuel cells (EFC) - sustained oxygen-tolerant hydrogen production by photosynthetic microbesArtificial Systems Research:Challenge: Discover/fabricate cheap, durable synthetic materials that mimic the enzymatic or structural functions in natural energy systems Payoffs: - cheap water-splitting catalysts as platinum replacements in H2-generating devices - enhanced power and energy densities for EFCChallenge: Integrate and assemble nano-scale inorganic/organic/bio-materials Payoffs: - ordered enzyme alignments for enhanced power densities in EFC - enhanced electron transport and power density in biofuel cells - light is harvested and split in artificial photosynthetic solar fuel generator DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 6
  7. 7. Photosynthesis, Systems Biology and Metabolic Engineering for the Production of Biofuels Microalgae & Cyanobacteria Make Hydrogen, Lipids & Sugars Light Reactions PSI and PSII Dark Reactions Triglyceride (Oil) light chlorophyll Lipid Synthesis Jet Fuel _ 4e CO2 Sugar/Cellulose 4 H+ Synthesis Ethanol water-splitting2 H2O enzyme H2-generating carbon-fixing hydrogenase H2 enzyme Three Key Biocatalysts enzyme Overview of Research Strategy AFOSR & DOE (NREL) Collaboration mutants HoxE HoxF ORF? HoxU HoxY HoxH Nco I (3375) Nco I (6934) Bam HI (1484) Cla I (2981) Eco RI (4977) Nco I (1099) Cla I (7047) screening genome genes diaphorase moiety Ni-Fe hydrogenase moiety genom sequence around hox genes in S. platensis ic field 7098 bp DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 7
  8. 8. 2012 AFOSR Spring Review: Bioenergy (3003P) Biosolar Hydrogen (MURI and Core Funding) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 8
  9. 9. Bio-Solar Hydrogen Production Eight Labs Including AFRL & DOEObjective: Light + 2 H2O  O2 + 2 H2 (H+/e-) Technical Approaches:• Obtain knowledge of the • Bio-prospecting new strains & species basic scientific principles H2 Detectors governing H2 production in • New H2 detection & analytical methods microalgae and cyanobacteria H2 Rate H2 Yield • Stress responses and H2 production• Genetically engineer • Systems biology and pathway analyses • Electrode consumes H2 pathways to improve the • Extended spectral range H2 producing capacity of • Increased light source • Genetic engineering of pathways these phototrophs intensity 500X with LEDAccomplishments: DoD Benefit:•Developed techniques for high throughput Sun 1. Stable fuel supply & pricescreening of H2-producing phototrophs 2. Energy independence•Identified physiological factors for increasing Photosynthesis 3. Carbon neutralrates & yields of cellular H2 production 4. Anti-climate change•Engineered metabolic pathways with Fuelincreased production of H2 POWER DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 9
  10. 10. BioSolar H2 Cyanobacterial Metabolism Improving Cellular Fuel Production Efficiency Dismukes (Rutgers) direct H+ + e- photo-H2 Indirect (dark) H+ H+ H+ H2O O2 ∆Ψ H+ H+ auto- H+ H+ H+ photosynthesis storage fermentation e- e- e- - e- ee- hydrogenase H2 NADH compounds e- - e- e- e- e- e Targets for Protein Engineering Channeling reductant Revealed NO3- master Identified the metabolic NADH is reductant forflux through one of two switch between bottleneck in glycogen phase II H2 and NAD+ is NADH enzymes glycolysis (GLY) & fermentation feedback inhibitor of increases photo-H2 oxidative pentose hydrogenase phosphate (OPP) + Flavone Reductant & “Thauer Limit” Control GLY OPP at GAPDH 10 - NO3 + NO3
  11. 11. “Milking” More H2 by Co-Fermentation PI: G. C. Dismukes Spring Review FY12 Separate Growth 3 weeks 3 days Cyanothece sp. + Synechococcus sp. “photo” fermenter “dark” fermenter Co-Fermentation*Rate of Dark+Photo H2 ↑ from Cyanotheceis limited by intracellular reductant glycogen*Syn. WT excretes reductant as lactatewhich stimulates 2x H2 from mixed cultureswith Cyanothece*SynLdhAEx Over-expression strainexcretes more lactate than Syn WT andstimulates H2 even more by 2.5x DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 11
  12. 12. 2012 AFOSR Spring Review: Bioenergy (2308C) Algal Oil DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 12
  13. 13. Algal Oil Ten Labs Including DOE and USAFA Objective: Gain knowledge of basic algal Technical Approach: biology needed to engineer and enhance • Partner with DOE’s National Renewable Energy Lab photosynthetic and lipid biosynthetic pathways • Bioprospect for new lipid-producing algal strains AFOSR DOE • Optimize light capture and photosynthetic efficiency • Optimize environmental factors for lipid biosynthesis • Use systems biology (“omics”) to map lipid pathways Industry • Identify genetic targets and model metabolism • Build genetic tools for enabling algal bioengineeringAccomplishments: AF Benefit:• Screened1200 algal strains for oil yield and identified50 candidate strains for future studies Sun 1. Stable fuel supply & price 2. Oil independence• High pH raises oil yields further in NO3-stressed cells 3. Carbon-neutral Photosynthesis•Transformed carbonic anhydrase into algal genome, 4. Anti-climate changeresulting in CO2 availability and enhanced growth rate Fuel• Cell cycle arrest or silica starvation elevates lipidproduction in brown algae (diatoms) POWER• Identified proteins involved in forming intracellular lipiddroplets and in controlling their storage capacity DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13
  14. 14. Systems Biology for Algal Lipid Pathway Analyses: A 7 Lab CollaborationObjectives: Next generation RNA Sequencing technologies are used to compare geneexpression profiles in lipid- and non-lipid-producing algae X XA Transcriptomics Proteomics T1 Metabolomics T1P A1A Benning (MSU) A1A1 A1A Hildebrand (UCSD)P Seibert (NREL) B1B1 B1A ∆Mi B1AR Merchant (UCLA) Sayre (Danforth) S1 S P1 P 1 1OA Bioinformatics: Computational Biology: Data collection & Mathematical modeling &C processing pathway mappingH Pellegrini (UCLA) Rabinowitz (Princeton)Recent Findings:• 3 time-course experiments analyzed by RNA-Sequencing: from 0 to 48 h• DGAT1, triglyceride synthesis enzyme, is induced early in the time course• A transcription factor, NRTF1, is co-expressed with DGAT1• Developed a web-based protein function annotation tool for algal genomes (http://pathways.mcdb.ucla.edu/chlamy/) release; distribution is unlimited. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public 14
  15. 15. Enhanced Photosynthetic Efficiency & Algal Growth by Optimizing Light Harvesting Antennae Size Richard Sayre (Danforth Plant Science Center) 1.4Transgenic algae with FACT: Growth in low lightreduced Chl b have: At full sunlight 75% of the captured 1.2 (50 µmol1) Reduced antennae energy is given off as fluorescence photons m-2s-1 ) 1.0 Culture Density (OD 750) size or heat.2) Reduced steady state 0.8 fluorescence HYPOTHESIS: Reducing the antennae size 0.6 No Chl WT Chl Deficient optimizes energy transfer between the antennae and reactions centers 0.4Chla/b 2.2 ∞ 4.0 4.9 RESULT: 0.2 Reductions in Chl b levels reduced 0.0 the antennae size resulting in a 30% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 increase in biomass yield at high Growth in high light light intensities relative to wild type 1.0 (500 µmol +30% photons m-2s-1)No Chl b 0.8 WT 0.6 Reduced 0.4 CC-424 Chl b CR-118 0.2 CR-133 cbs3 0.0 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Low Chl fluorescence High Growth (days)
  16. 16. 2012 AFOSR Spring Review: Bioenergy (3003P) Enzymatic Fuel Cell DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 16
  17. 17. Fundamentals and Bioengineering of Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Seven Labs Including AFRLObjectives: Technical Approach:(1) Exploit biochemical reactions for converting chemical • Provide multi-enzymeto electrical energy and for generating power from fuels cascades for full utilizationreadily available in the environment. of complex biofuels(2) Estimate the specific power and energy limits of • Protein engineering ofenzyme fuel cells to define enzymes to improvepotential powering uses bioelectrocatalysts(3) Transition technology • Establish mechanisms of electron transfertowards sub-miniature • Design and fabricate novel electrode architectures forsustainable mobile power enhanced performancesourcesAccomplishments: DoD Benefit: Energy technology platform for scalable power generation. Particularly useful at• Developed multi-enzyme cascades for complete miniature and micro-levels. Enablingoxidation of biofuels, enhancing energy density technology for sensors and W• Modeling identified major obstacles in multi-step MEMS devices 100 mWenzyme catalysis—electrode surface area and co-factor 10 mW(NAD) instability mW• Engineered enzymes to self-assemble into conducting µWhydro-gels and broadened their specificity to acceptboth NAD & NADP• Determined O2 binding site in multi-copper oxidases public release; distribution is unlimited. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for 17
  18. 18. Integrated Enzymatic Biofuel Cell Atanassov (UNM) Deposition and characterization of poly-(methylene green) catalysts for NADH oxidation Deposition by cyclic voltammetry Electrochemical characterization 1000 2D glassy carbon 3D reticulated vitreous 1000 carbonCurrent density (µA/cm2) 10 cycles 800 800 25 cycles 1st cycle 50 cycles 600 polymerization 200 cycles 600 oxidation 400 shoulder PMG Current (µA) 400 200 10th cycle GC 0 200 reduction -200 0 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Potential vs. Ag/AgCl (mV) [NADH] (mM) Integration of poly-(MG) modified Integration with laccase-based Polarization and power curves in 475 ethanol RVC with NAD+-dependent enzymes bio-cathode in a flow-through E0 cell = 0.618 V, pH = 6.3 immobilized in chitosan/CNTs membrane-less biofuel cell Limiting current = 160 µA composite scaffold Maximum power density = 27 µW/cm3 30 0.6 Laccase cathode Power/anode volume (µW/cm3) vs. Ag/AgCl 0.5 Cell voltage (V) 0.4 20 Anode vs. 3-D Anode cathode 0.3 0.2 10 ADH anode Cathode 0.1 vs. Ag/AgCl open to air 0.0 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 18 3 Current (µA) Current/anode volume (µA/cm )
  19. 19. 88 Personnel Involved in the Research: June 1, 201151 Supported by the MURI Program 6 University PIs and 8 Collaborators + and 3 more… 88 Researchers involved 51 of them supported fully or in part by the MURI 5 Research Faculty / Senior Researchers 18 Postdoctoral Fellows 34 Graduate Students 31 Undergraduate Students and 2 High School Students 11 Hispanics 36 Female 42 Male 2 African American 1 Native American DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 19
  20. 20. ISI Publication Record on Enzymatic Fuel Cells: 1992 - 2011AFOSR MURI: Fundamentals & Bioengineering of Enzyme Fuel Cells Enzymatic Fuel Cell Papers Published by the MURI Team DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 20
  21. 21. Peer-Reviewed Journal Publications: June 1, 201199 Publications & Book Chapters and 6 Patent Applications74 Published 16 Submitted or 9 In In Press Prep.2010 Special Issue of 3 US Patent ApplicationsElectroanalysis on Biofuel Cells ~ 75 Department Seminars, ~ 215 Presentations at Conferences, Press Releases, With abstracts published in the Interface article (ECS) Conference Proceedings, Media Coverage, Including ~80 invited talks. Issue Guest Editing. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 21
  22. 22. Controlling Direct Electron Transfer (DET) Between Electrodes and Conductive Materials Johnson & Pachter (AFRL) & Atanassov (UNM)Objectives: Devise means to characterize and organize the O2 reductioninterface between redox-active enzymes and nanomaterials• Background: DET requires an electronic interface for electrons to “hop” from enzyme to the electrode surface. Multi-copper containing oxidases (MCO) serve as model PBSE as Enzyme-CNT tether bioelectrocatalysts for fuel cell cathode, accepting electrons 100 1 from electrode and then catalyzing O2 reduction. Current (µA cm-2) 0 4 onset• Approach: Various MCO were linked to carbon nanotubes - 100 of O2 reduction 2 (CNT) using a chemical “tethering” reagent (1-pyrene butanoic - 200 1 Lac-adsorbed acid, succinimidyl ester (PBSE)). The method conjugates the Torey paper - 300 3 2 CNT / Lac enzyme and CNT without changing material conductivity. 3 CNT / PBSE / Lac 4 Electrode (3) in N2 - 400• Results: Electrochemical potential and kinetics of O2 reduction -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 reaction approach theoretical optima (+600 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) Potential (V) vs. Ag/AgCl High-potential maintained under increased current density, <100 mV decrease @ 50 mA cm-2 Bioelectrodes provided exceptional DET.• Conclusion: Materials and processing approach accommodates various biocatalysts and is potentially scalable → significant advance over previous literature reports → key steps toward application. Cover feature on Chemrelease; distribution is unlimited. Comm  Chemical Communications 46:6045- DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public 6047 22
  23. 23. 2012 AFOSR Spring Review: Bioenergy (3003P) Microbial Fuel Cells (MURI and Core Funding) e - e - e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e - e- Fumarate Succinate e - e- e- Fe 3+ Fe 2+ Proton Exchange Membrane e - Acetate e- O2 H 2O e- Lactate + CO 2 e - e- e- e - e- H+ e- e- MtrB? NADH e- e- e- e- e- e- CymA MtrB e- e- CymA? e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- Anode electrode H + H+ Cathode electrode H+ H + + H+ H DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 23
  24. 24. Optimizing Microbial Fuel Cells via Genetics, Modeling and Nanofabrication: Seven Labs Objective: Technical Approach: To understand the • Identification & regulation of the genes, molecular machines and structures used to produce and mechanism(s) involved in transfer current between microbe and electrode e- e- e- e- e- e- microbial current production, Microbial e- e- e- e- Fuel Cell • Modeling & WT under anaerobic e- e- WT or mutant under aerobic and to utilize multi-scale conditions e- e- (O2) or anaerobic (fumarate) e- e- Proton Exchange Membrane e- conditions bioengineering e- Cathode electrode e- e- Anode electrode modeling to exploit this e- MtrC-OmcA e- O2 e-MtrA/B e- e- Acetate • Development & e- ??? + CO2 Fumarate H+ understanding in order to Reductase e- CymA exploitation of e- NADH e- e- H2O optimize microbes and microbial consortia Lactate H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ microbial communities for with the ability to utilize a wide range of energy microbial fuel cells. sources Current transfer by nanowires… • Modeling, fabrication & testing of miniaturized MFCsAccomplishments: …and/or soluble mediators?• Identified current associated genes in Shewanella• Developed novel vertical scanning interferometry forinterfacial analysis at electrode surface DoD Benefit:• Characterized the bacterial behavior of electrokinesis This project may enable high performance microbial• Showed the value Bacterial Biofilm Formation fuel cells as power sources. The ability to use multipleof bacterial biofilms complex fuels under changing physical and chemicalin current production conditions may enhance capabilities. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 24
  25. 25. Molecular Identification of Bacterial Nanowires and Their Role in Microbial Fuel Cells: Ringeisen (NRL) Spring ReviewFY2012Objective: Use a variety of microbial fuel cell (MFC) platforms to correlate structure andfunction of extracellular nanofilaments with rate of extracellular electron transfer (currentgeneration). Measure conductivity and protein identification of bacterial nanofilaments. Analysis of S. oneidensis nanofilaments has determined Technology Platforms Used that a previously unsuspected protein (mannose sensitive for Protein ID of Shewanella haemagglutinin, MSH) is involved in extracellular electron oneidensis MR-1 Nanowires transfer (EET) in microbial nanowires flagellum Extracellular Protein•Miniature MFCs ID in Nanofilament MSH pili Preps via LC/MS/MS•Direct Write Nanoelectrodes MSHA Pre-Electrodes Post-Electrodes•Immunolabeling and MSHB 0.5 µm 1 µmTransmission Electron Flagellin Resistance = 297 MΩMicroscopy (TEM) Calculated Resistivity = 0.5 ± 0.1 Ω cm Anti-MSHA labeled Band Gap = 0.37 eV Au Nanoparticle•Liquid Chromatography/Mass TEMSpectrometry/MassSpectrometry (LC/MS/MS)•Temperature-ControlledProbe Station DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 25
  26. 26. 2012 AFOSR Spring Review 3003P Portfolio Photo-Electro-Magnetic Stimulation of Biological Responses (Core Funding) Photo-Electro-Magnetic Stimulation of Biological Responses is a beginningprogram that characterizes, models and explains the stimulatory and inhibitoryresponses of biological systems to low-level exposures of photo-electro-magneticstimuli. Potential long-term benefits may include accelerated recovery from mentalfatigue and drowsiness, enhanced learning and training, and noninvasive treatmentof traumatic brain injuries. (~20% of portfolio) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 26
  27. 27. Electric Stimulation of the Brain, Hemodynamics and Sustained Attention: McKinley (AFRL/RH)Objective: Quantify effects on human vigilance and hemodynamics due tonon-invasive stimulation of the brain by low levels of direct current (1 mA). Early Stimulation NEW 115.00% % Change From BaselinePROJECT 105.00% 2011 95.00% 85.00% Active SHAM 75.00% 65.00% 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time [Mins] Blood Flow (Active vs. Sham) 104.00% % Change From Baseline 102.00% 100.00% 98.00% 96.00% Blood Flow - Sham 94.00% Blood Flow - Active 92.00% 90.00% Gordon et al., 2009 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time [Mins] Astrocytes rCBF Moore & Cao, …? 2008 Anodal Information Vigilance P(APs) rSO2 CO2 rCBF Stim. processing Perform. Potential Metrics Merzagora et al., Helton et al., 2010 Hellige, 1993 & 2010 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Warm et al., 2009 27
  28. 28. Coupling Terahertz Radiation to Biomolecules for Controlling Cell Response: Wilmink (AFRL/RHDR)Terahertz (THz) Radiation: NEW PROJECT 2011• Alters lipid membranes and modulates neuronal action potentials.• Oscillates in the same ps time-scale as breathing modes of DNA & proteins (~40 ps). Biomolecules display unique spectra in THz region THz energy couples to biomolecules B Water C Carbohydrates D DNA (nucleotides) 700 250 Glucose THz 1. Lipid membrane 600 200µa 500 150 Galactose 2. Protein  400 Mannose ) 300 100 200 50 Fructose 3. DNA 100 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 Frequency (THz) Frequency (THz) Frequency (THz) Objectives: Investigate coupling mechanism and exploit the understanding to activate adaptive responses and modify cellular behaviors Working Hypothesis: Macromolecule-bound water Testing Hypothesis: THz-coupling is • THz exposure system on a mediated via microscope macromolecule-bound • Raman & THz spectroscopy water on the surface of • Fluorescence & atomic force membranes and Bulk microscopy 28 biomolecules water • DNA mutation assays
  29. 29. Related Research Funded by Other AgenciesFunding Criteria: Materials Chemistry1. Basic research of high quality and relevant to the AF Biology Physics2. Unique or complementary, but non-duplicative—finds a “niche” Engineering Math3. Leverages research in other agencies4. Critical mass or team of collaborators with focused, multi-disciplinary research objectivesAlgal Oil: DOE and DARPA research application oriented; NSF funds mostly individual grants ofsmaller size that are not based on a coordinated, multi-disciplinary team approach; USDAinterested in farming aquaculture; EPA interested in regulation. AFOSR niche is lipid biosynthesisvia systems biology. AFOSR has collaborated with DOE-NREL since 2006 and coordinatesresearch as member of emerging Algal Interagency Working Group.Biosolar Hydrogen: DOE and NSF fund mostly individual grants of smaller size that are notbased on a coordinated, multi-disciplinary team approach. AFOSR niche is systems biology andbioengineering for enhanced H2 production. AFOSR has collaborated with DOE-NREL since 2003.Biofuel Cells: ONR funds only microbial fuel cell (MFC) research for dissolved nutrients in themarine sediment environment. AFOSR funds enzymatic and MFC research for solid substrates interrestrial environments and coordinates research via ONR reviews and direct personal contact.Artificial Photosynthesis: This topic is biologically oriented and part of a 2009 AFOSR Initiative“Catalysts for Solar Fuels” with PMs Berman and Curcic, whose topics are chemically andphysically oriented. To our knowledge there are no initiative counterparts at other agencies.BioResponse to Photo-electromagnetic Stimulation: Complementary to other funded research. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 29

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