Tech Horizons Grand Challenges#1 – Inherently Intrusion-Resistant Cyber Networks - This challenge applies the overarching themes of agility, autonomy, composability, and resilience to cyber systems, and will result in methods for achieving substantially improved intrusion resistance and intrusion-tolerance in Air Force cyber systems.#2 – Trusted Highly-Autonomous Decision-Making Systems - Focused effort on this challenge will enable technologies that can support substantial manpower cost reductions, and extend robust improved decision-making capabilities to highly stressing future applications that may involve decision time scales beyond human capacity.#3 – Fractionated, Composable, Survivable Remote-Piloted Systems - This challenge helps focus development of technologies to enable composable systems of remotepiloted aircraft from sets of common, relatively low-cost, fractional elements that cooperate as a single system to provide flexible capabilities across a broader range of missions.#4 – Hyper-Precision Air Delivery in Difficult Environments - This challenge advances and integrates technologies in several key areas to demonstrate the potential of autonomous systems to meet extreme requirements of a key Air Force mission.Decreased EmphasisHuman physiology, Health, SafetySemiconductor MaterialsSimple Materials (including metals)MINERVA Topics(1) Chinese Military and Technology Research and Archive Programs (POC: Chris Skaluba – OSD) (2) Studies of the Strategic Impact of Religious and Cultural Changes within the Islamic World (POC: Dr. Harold Hawkins – Navy)(3) Iraqi Perspectives Project (POC: Dr. Joseph Psotka – Army)(4) Studies of Terrorist Organization and Ideologies (POC: Dr. Terry Lyons – AFOSR)(5) New Approaches to Understanding Dimensions of National Security, Conflict, and Cooperation (Dr. Joseph Psotka – Army)
Information Assurance: To develop a unified science of security that incorporates the human user, software, hardware, and networks.Interacting Complex Networks: To analyze different classes of interacting networks, identify methods of separation of superimposed networks, identify the mechanisms of how these networks interact, and characterize their integrated properties. Artificial Intelligence: To enable autonomous systems to use pattern-directed computation to dynamically alter their behavior in response to novel situations, such as reconciling planned behaviors in response to dynamically changing conditions.Socio-Cultural Modeling: To understand the factors and causes of the emergence of terrorist organizations, the recruitment and retention of members of terrorist organizations, and terrorist ideologies.Tech Horizons Grand Challenges#1 – Inherently Intrusion-Resistant Cyber Networks - This challenge applies the overarching themes of agility, autonomy, composability, and resilience to cyber systems, and will result in methods for achieving substantially improved intrusion resistance and intrusion-tolerance in Air Force cyber systems.#2 – Trusted Highly-Autonomous Decision-Making Systems - Focused effort on this challenge will enable technologies that can support substantial manpower cost reductions, and extend robust improved decision-making capabilities to highly stressing future applications that may involve decision time scales beyond human capacity.#3 – Fractionated, Composable, Survivable Remote-Piloted Systems - This challenge helps focus development of technologies to enable composable systems of remotepiloted aircraft from sets of common, relatively low-cost, fractional elements that cooperate as a single system to provide flexible capabilities across a broader range of missions.#4 – Hyper-Precision Air Delivery in Difficult Environments - This challenge advances and integrates technologies in several key areas to demonstrate the potential of autonomous systems to meet extreme requirements of a key Air Force mission.
CMOS patented in 1967
From FY 09 to FY 10 basic research went up $16.6M. Equal dollar amounts were added ($1.66M) to each of the following areas:Information Assurance, Network Sciences, Science of Autonomy, Information Fusion and Decision Science, Bio-Inspired Sciences, Quantum Information Sciences, Energy and Power Management, Counter DEW and Human Sciences.
Scientific Opportunities Include: Wide range of fundamental scientific challenges for micro air vehicles related research Hypersonics research extending turbulence and laminar-turbulent transitions physics to multidisciplinary study of aerothermal materials environmentsFlow control for vehicle maneuverability and improved efficiencyNovel in situ diagnostics to capture thermal, chemistry and mechanical data.
Scientific Opportunities Include: Wide range of fundamental scientific challenges for micro air vehicles related research Hypersonics research extending turbulence and laminar-turbulent transitions physics to multidisciplinary study of aerothermal materials environmentsFlow control for vehicle maneuverability and improved efficiencyNovel in situ diagnostics to capture thermal, chemistry and mechanical data.The single-beam mirage effect, also known as photothermal deflection, is studied using afree-standing, highly aligned carbon nanotubeaerogel sheet as the heat source. The extremelylow thermal capacitance and high heat transfer ability of these transparent forest-drawn carbonnanotube sheets enables high frequency modulation of sheet temperature over an enormoustemperature range, thereby providing a sharp, rapidly changing gradient of refractive index inthe surrounding liquid or gas. The advantages of temperature modulation using carbonnanotube sheets are multiple: in inert gases the temperature can reach >2500 K; the obtainedfrequency range for photothermal modulation is ∼100 kHz in gases and over 100 Hz in highrefractive index liquids; and the heat source is transparent for optical and acoustical waves.Unlike for conventional heat sources for photothermal deflection, the intensity and phase of thethermally modulated beam component linearly depends upon the beam-to-sheet separation overa wide range of distances. This aspect enables convenient measurements of accurate values forthermal diffusivity and the temperature dependence of refractive index for both liquids andgases. The remarkable performance of nanotube sheets suggests possible applications asphoto-deflectors and for switchable invisibility cloaks, and provides useful insights into theiruse as thermoacoustic projectors and sonar. Visibility cloaking is demonstrated in a liquid.
Agent-Based Computing in Distributed Adversarial Planning: Dr. Michal Pechoucek, Gerstner Laboratory, Department of Cybernetics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague. PI: Dr. Michal Pechoucek, Gerstner Laboratory, Department of Cybernetics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague. Funding: $135K; Source – OSD (Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Advanced Systems and Concepts) and EOARD. Duration: 18Months. Brief description: Gerstner Lab has been doing excellent work in Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) development for many years under AFOSR funding. In 2005 they were awarded a “most innovative paper” award for their description of their “A-Globe” MAS software development environment produced under EOARD funding. A-Globe has been selected for development of a MAS distributed Command and Control demonstration to carry out the task of decentralized air space deconfliction. The scenario environment is a 3-D airspace with a Web-based services architecture (individual computers represent individual aircraft, each having an autonomous “agent”). Weather, routing changes, and flight negotiations are carried out under an IPV6 ad hoc network. Multiple Agents (>80) establish and maintain communications and conduct flight path negotiations in a peer to peer fashion. Mr. Dick Lee, Assistant Deputy Under Secretary (Interoperability and Network Centric Warfare) (ODUSD, Advanced Systems and Concepts) has funded the second year of this effort. (*The ODUSD ASC support may not qualify as a “transition” by itself, but is indicative of how this project is valued as a potential solution for very near term airspace de-confliction needs)Biomimetic Silicon Nanostructure: Principal Investigator: Li-Chyong Chen, National Taiwan University. Ultimate optical stealth that can be grown on non-planar surfaces. You could grow this on a UAV skin. Anti-reflecting arrayed Si nanotips (SiNTs) made from Si wafer. After electron cyclotron resonance plasma-excited molecular beam epitaxy (ECR) process, the whole 6-inch wafer appears black to the naked eye. Comparative reflectance data taken from the Si substrate and ECR-processed Si nanotips. Two spectral ranges, the ultraviolet-visible and the mid-infrared are shown. Many plants and animals have tiny surface structures that absorb certain wavelengths of light. These naturally formed nanostructures provide the colors in butterfly wings, camouflage for cicadas and enable moths to capture as much light as possible when flying at night. #3 - Experimental Investigation of Laser-Induced Air Breakdown in Low-Density Hypersonic Flow. In collaboration with a US-based research team, the scientists are conducting the experiments in the Brazilian lab's 0.3-m hypersonic shock tunnel, which can produce airflow with Mach numbers up to 15 and air velocities approaching 5 km/s. The two-hour flight from New York to Tokyo could someday be a reality with the development of a hypersonic transatmospheric vehicle. Such aircraft, though, would routinely face aerodynamic drag and heating on a par with conventional spacecraft developed for less-routine flights. In the early 1990s, researchers first coined the term DEAS, or directed energy air spike, to describe a method to reduce drag and heating by adding energy to the air ahead of the vehicle. One way to accomplish this would be to focus a powerful laser beam ahead of the flight path. Marco A.S. Minucci and colleagues at the Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics-CTA in São José dos Campos, Brazil, are studying the DEAS effect using optical breakdown upstream of a model that is induced by a CO2 transversely excited atmospheric pressure laser.
Member of the National Academy of Sciences Member of the Institute of Medicine Member of the National Academy of Engineering
Russell - Welcome & Introduction - AFOSR Overview - Spring Review 2012
Air Force Research Laboratory AFOSR Overview 5 March 2012 Dr. Thomas Russell, SES Director AFOSR Air Force Research LaboratoryIntegrity Service Excellence 1
AFOSR MissionDiscover, shape, and champion basic science that profoundly impacts the future Air Force• ID Breakthrough Research Opportunities – Here & Abroad• Foster Revolutionary Basic Research for Air Force Needs• Transition Technologies to DoD and Industry TODAY’S BREAKTHROUGH SCIENCE FOR TOMORROW’S AIR FORCE 2
AFOSR Supports AFRL Core Technical Competencies (CTC) RH – Discover & quantify size, shape, motion & molecular RX - Develop new alloy signatures indicative of and tailor micro- RV – Develop electro-optical threat structure for turbine sensors & inertial navigation blade on chipRY – Develop new radio frequencyand optical metamaterial device and RB – Research in high speed-components hypersonic flight RD - Higher-quality imageRI – Develop robust cyber RZ – Development of RW - Developing new fuse and restorations. Enhanced usingcommand and control system scramjet propulsion sensors technologies adaptive-optics research 4
DoD Basic Research Enterprise Core URI NDSEG HEL 700 600 500FY12 PB ($M) 400 300 200 100 0 Navy Air Force Army DARPA OSD-NDEP Chem-Bio DTRA DoD Total FY12 Basic Research Budget = $2.12B 5
Shaping the Research PortfolioGoals for AFOSR to strengthen the Air Force basic researchprogram as defined in AF S&T Strategic Plan: • Provide scientific leadership for the AF basic research enterprise • Attract the Nation’s/World’s best S&Es to contribute to and lead AF/DoD research • Ensure the coherence and balance of the AF basic research portfolio • Foster connections between AFRL researchers and the National/International basic research community • Maximize the discovery potential of the defense research business environment Focus on the Future AF with the ultimate goal to make Today’s AF and Tomorrow’s AF Obsolete! 7
Shaping the Research Portfolio Though a principal source of new scientific opportunities is bottom up from the scientific community through AFOSR PMs, we also consider the assessment of opportunities by AF and OSD AF/ST “Technology Horizons” Inherently Intrusion- Trusted Highly-Autonomous Hyper-Precision Air Fractionated, Composable, Sur Resistant Cyber Decision-Making Systems Delivery in Difficult vivable Remote-Piloted Networks Environments Systems Physics & ElectronicsMetamaterials Quantum Cognitive Nanoscience and Synthetic Computationaland Plasmonics Information Neuroscience Nanoengineering Biology Models of Human Science . . Behavior ASD(R&E) “Six Disruptive Basic Research Areas” 8
Trends in AFOSR Emphasis• Advanced Mathematics RED = PBD709 (OSD Interest) BLUE = AF Tech Horizons• Hypersonics (Turbulence Control) Grand Challenges GREEN = Both• Complex, Multi-Functional Materials• High-Temperature Superconductivity• Info Assurance and Network Sciences• Micro Air Vehicles (Autonomy, Adaptive Aero)• Interfacial Sciences (Thermal, Tribology)• Counter-Directed Energy Weapons• Robust Decision-Making, Info Fusion• Socio-Cultural Modeling, Minerva• Quantum Information Sciences• Space Situational Awareness• fs-Laser Material Interactions• Artificial Intelligence 9
Invest in AF “Technology Horizons” Research Areas• PBD 709 Topic Enhancements Tech Horizons Grand Challenges- Information Assurance 1. Inherently Intrusion-Resistant- Interacting Complex Networks Cyber Networks- Artificial Intelligence 2. Trusted Highly-Autonomous- Socio-Cultural Modeling Decision-Making Systems• Materials and Processes Far from 3. Fractionated, Composable, Su Equilibrium rvivable Remote-Piloted Systems- Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces in 4. Hyper-Precision Air Delivery in Highly Stressed Environments Difficult Environments- Small Molecule Activation- Extreme Optics• Transformational Computing- Neural Computing- Bio-Inspired Distributed Control Sys.- Beyond Moore’s Law Electronics- Multiscale Modeling 10
Basic Research Initiative Program• The Basic Research Initiative program provides a mechanism to fund new Projects aligned to identified emphasis areas.• Funded by a 10% assessment on the prior year budgets of all research portfolios (PE61102F funding)• Program managers nominate research topics that are reviewed for scientific merit and alignment to the AFOSR technical strategy• New research areas identified via a broad agency announcement FY12 BRI Topics •Ultra-cold and strongly coupled plasmas •Micro-resonator-based optical frequency combs •Origami design for the integration of self-assembling systems •Active, functional nanoscale oxides •Reliance optimization for autonomous systems •Bio-nanocombinatorics •Design under uncertainty of complex engineering systems 11
New BRI Topics for Potential Collaborations1. Layered structured 2D-materials for extreme environment2. Autonomic material systems utilizing biomolecular transduction3. Transformational computing via co-design of high-performance algorithms and hardware4. High peak power, ultrashort laser ablation of solids5. Sustainable alloy design: Rare earth materials challenge6. Catalytic reactions in endothermic cooling systems7. Foundations of energy transfer in multi-physics flow phenomena8. Cyber trust and suspicion9. Ultra-scale and fault-resilient algorithms: Mathematical algorithms for ultra-parallel computing 12
AFOSR Ten Focus AreasAerospace, Chemical & (FY12 - $364.3M) Physics &Material Sciences Electronics• Aero-Structure Interations & Control • Complex Electronics &• Energy, Power & Propulsion Fundamental Quantum• Complex Materials & Processes Structures • Plasma Physics & High Energy Density • Optics, EM, Comm, Signa ls Processing 33% 35% 32% University Research Initiatives (FY11 - $140.2M) Mathematics, Information & Life Sciences • Info & Complex Networks • Decision Making • Dynamical Sys, Optimization & Control • Natural Materials & Systems 14 14
Mathematics, Information & Life Industry, $5.8 Sciences AFRL, $14.9 Information and Complex Networks: • Science of cyber security • Mathematics of complex networks Academia, $128.1 • Software/algorithms for advance computational architectures Decision-Making: Performers (Total $148.8M) • Robust computational intelligence • Mathematical basis for neurobiological processes • Trust, autonomy, and the human-machine interface • Effect of culture on influence Dynamical Systems, Optimization and Control:Math guarantees of performance for • Multiagent, networked controlpolicy, protocol, and security using new • Uncertain, information-rich, dynamic environmentscoding, management, and online analysis • Contested environmentsmethods. • Dynamic, data-driven control Natural Materials and Systems: • Bio-inspired materials • Bio-derived materials including energyEnabling distributed control of flexibly • Bio-sensingautonomous agents for performing single ormultiple tasks and missions. • Extremophiles 15
Math, Information & Life Sciences March 5 - 6• Information and Complex Networks (March 5: 1025-1515) – Complex Networks/Foundations of Information Systems - Dr. Robert Bonneau – Information Operations and Security - Dr. Robert Herklotz – Software and Systems - Dr. Robert Bonneau – Science of Information, Computation and Fusion - Dr. Tristan Nguyen – Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems - Dr. Frederica Darema• Decision Making (March 5: 1535-1700) – Cognitive Modeling and Robust Decision Making - Dr. Jay Myung – Trust and Influence - Dr. Joseph Lyons• Dynamical, Control, Optimization and Computational Math (March 6: 0850-1115) – Dynamics and Control - Dr. Fariba Fahroo – Optimization and Discrete Mathematics - Dr. Don Hearn – Computational Mathematics - Dr. Fariba Fahroo• Natural Materials and Systems (March 6: 1300-1525) – Sensory Information Systems - Dr. Willard Larkin – Bioenergy - Dr. Patrick Bradshaw – Natural Materials, Systems and Extremophiles - Dr. Hugh DeLong 16
Physics & Electronics Industry, $17. 5 AFRL, $20.2 Complex Electronics and Fundamental Quantum Processes: • Ultracold Atoms & Molecules • Metamaterials & Graphene • Dielectric and Magnetic Materials Academia, $12 7.5 • High Temperature Superconductors • Novel Sensing Devices and Architectures Performers (Total $165.2M) • Non-linear Optical Materials,Optoelectronics, and Nanophotonics Plasmas & High Energy Density Nonequilibrium Processes: • Space weather • High power microwave devices • Cold, dense, degenerate plasmasDiocles laser, which produces the most • RF propagation and RF-plasma interactionintense light on earth. • Plasma discharges & non-equilibrium chemistry • Plasma control of boundary layers in turbulent flow Optics, Electromagnetics, Communication, & Signal Processing: • Information fusion • Lasers and non-linear optics • RF and EO signal processingCombining low-cost silicon chips with tiny • Novel RF devices and communication architectureslasers to send bits of data using lightrather than pulses of electricity. 17
Physics & Electronics March 7-8• Plasma Physics and High Energy Non-equilibrium Processes (March 7: 0830-0955) – Plasma and Electro-Energetic Physics - Dr. John Luginsland – Space Sciences - Dr. Cassandra Fesen• Optics, Electromagnetics, Communication, & Signal Processing (March 7: 1015-1220) – Remote Sensing and Imaging Physics - Dr. Kent Miller – Sensing Surveillance & Navigation - Dr. Jon Sjogren – Electromagnetics - Dr. Arje Nachman• Complex Electronics and Fundamental Quantum Processes (March 7: 1350-1735) – Lasers and Optics - Dr. Howard Schlossberg – Atomic and Molecular Physics - Dr. Tatjana Curcic – Adaptive Combinatorial Multimodal Sensing Physics and Methods - Dr. Kitt Reinhardt – Optoelectronic Information Processing - Dr. Gernot Pomrenke – Quantum Electronic Solids - Dr. Harold Weinstock• Complex Electronics and Fundamental Quantum Processes (March 8: 0830-0955) – GHz-THz Electronics - Dr. Jim Hwang – Ultrashort Pulse (USP) Laser-Matter Interactions - Dr. Riq Parra 18
Aerospace, Chemical, and Material Sciences Industry, $20 AFRL, $19.0 .4 Aero-Structure Interactions and Control: • Turbulence and laminar-turbulent transition Academia, $1 • Unsteady aerodynamics and flow control 19.7 • Aero-elasticity and structural dynamics • Integrated Modeling Performers (Total $159.1M) Energy, Power and Propulsion: • Novel energetic materials • Combustion and catalysis chemistryModel-free simulations of >Mach 3 shock • Thermal scienceturbulent boundary layer interactions • Novel means of producing, collecting and storing energy • System-level analysis and modeling Complex Materials and Structures: • Novel lightweight materials • Materials with tunable properties • Reconfigurable structuresApplication of a nanotube sheet as amirage based concealment cloak is • Multifunctional materials and structuresdemonstrated in water.Time Magazine List of Best Inventions for 2011 19
Aerospace, Chemical, and Material Sciences: March 8-9• Aero-Structure Interactions and Control (March 8: 1015-1220) – Flow Interactions and Control - Dr. Douglas Smith – Aerospace Materials for Extreme Environments - Dr. Ali Sayir – Aerothermodynamics and Turbulence- Dr. John Schmisseur• Energy, Power, and Propulsion (March 8: 1350-1700) – Molecular Dynamics and Theoretical Chemistry - Dr. Jeffrey Owrutsky – Energy Conversion and Combustion Sciences - Dr. Chiping Li – Space Propulsion and Power - Dr. Mitat Birkan – Thermal Sciences - Dr. Joan Fuller• Complex Materials and Structures (March 9: 0830-1135) – Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials & Microsystems - Dr. Byung-Lip (Les) Lee – Multi-Scale Structural Mechanics and Prognosis - Dr. David Stargel – Low Density Materials - Dr. Joycelyn Harrison – Organic Materials Chemistry - Dr. Charles Lee 20
Education and Outreach Visiting AFIT, $1,618,000 Scientist, $450,000USAFA, $2,712,000 ASSURE site at Fort Johnson, NY Summer International, $12,33 Faculty, $2,428,000 1,229 NRC Post- Doc, $4,253,534 Educational HBCU/MI, $2,738,00 (Nanosat, JSHS, etc.), 0 USA Science & $2,151,139 Engineering Festival, DC 2010 FY11 Total Core Funding: $28.6M Educational Projects in 61103F (URI) • National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program ($36M): Supporting 590 PhD-track graduate students in DoD relevant fields • Awards to Stimulate and Support Undergraduate Research Experience (ASSURE) ($4.5M): Provides 550 undergraduates with research opportunities in S&E fields of DoD interest during summer months 21
AFOSR International Enterprise Total Funding (All Sources): $17.5M SOARD SOARD External, $712,202 Internal, $1,008,210• Building international EOARD External, $1,363,11 goodwill 4 AOARD Internal, $6,326,039• Strengthening partnerships EOARD Internal, $4,996,980• Avoiding technological AOARD External, $3,129,00 surprise 0• Accelerating S&T achievements and transitions to the U.S. AOARD EOARD SOARD ASIAN OFFICE OF AEROSPACE RESEARCH EUROPEAN OFFICE OF AEROSPACE SOUTHERN OFFICE OF AEROSPACE AND DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Tokyo London Santiago The Sun Never Sets on AFOSR 22
International Research Achievements• Perching of Micro Air Vehicles: R. Radespiel, Technische Universität Braunschweig, (EOARD) Identified & characterized unsteady flow phenomena on flat plate wings during perching motion by force measurement and particle image velocimetry.• Lithium - Air Battery: M. Nookala, Indian Institute of Science, India, (AOARD) Li-air batteries use a catalytic air cathode that supplies oxygen, an electrolyte and a lithium anode. Potential to have a capacity for energy storage that is 5 to 10 times greater than that of Li-ion batteries.• Photorefractive Polymers: Research Center in Advanced Chemistry (CIQA), Mexico, (SOARD) Developed the world’s smallest ferroelectric nanoparticles – small as 9 nm. High resolution proved 23
World R&D Publications (2000 to 2010): US share of global R&D steadily decreasing 2010 898,416 Articles 2010 Africa Aus/NZ Russia South Korea Other America Taiwan Canada Middle East Japan United States ChinaEuropean Union 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 41% 2000 2000 636,358 Articles Africa Aus/NZ Russia South Korea Other America Taiwan Canada Middle East Japan United States ChinaEuropean Union 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 24
Summary AFOSR continues to discover, shape, and champion basic science that profoundly impacts the future Air Force• Supporting world-class basic research• Educating tomorrow’s scientific leaders• Providing meaningful transitions and for future• Enhance mutual understanding of AFOSR and other organizations missions, roles, programs, priorities• Ensure current investments are fully coordinated and opportunities for leveraging are exploited“Innovation also demands basic research. Today, the discoveries taking place in our federally-financed labs and universities could lead to … New lightweight vests for cops and soldiers that canstop any bullet. Dont gut these investments in our budget. Support the same kind of research andinnovation that led to the computer chip and the Internet.”- President Obama, State of Union Speech, 24 January 2012 25
Happy 60th Birthday AFOSR 1951 - 2011 6 March 2012Dr. Chad MirkinDirector of the International Institute for NanotechnologyNorthwestern UniversityTitle: Nanotechnology: - Moving Beyond Small Thinking 26
Social Mediawww.facebook.com/afosrwww.twitter.com/afosrwww.youtube.com/TheAFOSR 27