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Wikibio100 3


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Wikibio100 3

  1. 1. DIVISIONS OF THE PLANT KINGDOM <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pinophyta - </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Gymnosperms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pines, firs, spruces </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seed producing plants without flowers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnoliophyta - </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Angiosperms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roses, orange tree </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seed producing plants with flowers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. EVOLUTION OF PLANTS - GYMNOSPERMS <ul><li>Gymnosperms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evergreens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce seeds in a cone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All are perennial (live more than two years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not produce flowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeared about 300 million years ago near the end of the Paleozoic Era </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Among some of the first gymnosperms as indicated by fossil records </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Junipers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These gymnosperms flourished around 60-70 million years ago </li></ul></ul></ul>EVOLUTION OF PLANTS - GYMNOSPERMS
  4. 4. EVOLUTION OF PLANTS - ANGIOSPERMS <ul><li>Angiosperms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowering plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds (ovaries) enclosed in a fruit or covering (carpel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began 150 million years ago during Mesozioc Era </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Commonly known Angiosperms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cacti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees </li></ul></ul> EVOLUTION OF PLANTS - GYMNOSPERMS
  7. 7. PLANTS THAT FEED THE WORLD <ul><li>Very few plant species account for the world’s food production </li></ul><ul><li>All of them are angiosperms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cereal crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots and tubers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetable crops </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. CLASSES <ul><li>Each Division can be separated into Classes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divison: Pinophyta (Gymnosperms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division: Magnoliophyta (Angiosperms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class: Magnoliopsida (dicots) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class: Liliopsida (monocots) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. COTYLEDON <ul><li>Germination leaf </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often called a “seed leaf” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gymnospersm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 -24 cotyledons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Angiosperms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One or two cotyledons </li></ul></ul>Pine tree
  10. 10. COTYLEDON <ul><li>Angiosperms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One or two cotyledons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mono cotyledon = Monocot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One seed leaf </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Di cotyledon = Dicot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two seed leaves </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. STRUCTURE OF HIGHER PLANTS <ul><li>Angiosperms </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monocot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embryo with one cotyledon </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dicot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embryo with two cotyledons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. ANGIOSPERM: MONOCOT <ul><li>One cotyledon at germination </li></ul><ul><li>Flower parts in pattern of three </li></ul><ul><li>Veins run parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palm trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grain crops </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>As the name monocot implies, these plants have only a single cotyledon. </li></ul><ul><li>In corn and other grasses, the seed remains in the ground. </li></ul>ANGIOSPERM - MONOCOT - CORN
  15. 15. ANGIOSPERM: DICOT <ul><li>Two cotyledons at germination </li></ul><ul><li>Flower parts pattern of four, five </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf veins not parallel, they are “netted” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melons </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. ANGIOSPERM - DICOT - BEAN <ul><li>As the name dicot indicates, bean plants have two cotyledons. </li></ul>cotyledons First “true” leaves
  17. 17. MONOCOT VS. DICOT <ul><li>Seed with one cotyledon </li></ul><ul><li>Flower parts in threes or multiples of threes </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf with more or less parallel veins </li></ul><ul><li>Seed with two cotyledons </li></ul><ul><li>Flower parts mostly in fours or fives or multiples of four or five </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf with a distinct network of primary veins – “netted” </li></ul><ul><li>Monocot </li></ul><ul><li>dicot </li></ul>
  18. 19. PLANT FAMILIES <ul><li>Groups of plants that are closely related are in the same family </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping based on structure, growth requirements, and flower similarities </li></ul>
  19. 20. MOST O’ODHAM CROPS ARE IN THE FAMILIES OF . . . <ul><li>Poaceae: </li></ul><ul><li>Grains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corn, wheat, barley etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fabaceae: </li></ul><ul><li>Legumes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baw ĭ, peas, garbanzos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cucurbitaceae: </li></ul><ul><li>Cucurbits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squash, watermelon, gourds </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. POACEAE GRAINS ARE GRASSES <ul><li>Hollow or pithy, jointed stems </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves on 2 sides of stem </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel veins </li></ul><ul><li>Non-woody </li></ul><ul><li>Corn, sugarcane (sorghum), oats </li></ul><ul><li>Monocot or dicot?? </li></ul>
  21. 22. FABACEAE LEGUMES <ul><li>Many have compound pinnate leaves (opposite leaflets) </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds are in pods </li></ul><ul><li>Fix Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Many have “Pea” like flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Monocot or dicot?? </li></ul>Mesquite Ironwood Tepary bean
  22. 23. CUCURBITACEAE CUCURBITS <ul><li>Most </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow as vines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have tendrils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like hot weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate male and female flowers on the same plant. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Watermelon, squash, honeydew, gourds, cucumber etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Monocot or dicot?? </li></ul>
  23. 24. Male or Female?? Male or Female?? Male Female
  24. 25. <ul><li>Knowing which plant family a crop belongs to can help determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insect attraction or resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul></ul>PLANT FAMILIES
  25. 26. WINTER CROPS <ul><li>Kalwaş (garbanzo) </li></ul><ul><li>Pilkañ (wheat) </li></ul><ul><li>Lanji (lentils) </li></ul><ul><li>Wihol (pea) </li></ul><ul><li>Huñ (corn) </li></ul><ul><li>Ha:l (squash) </li></ul><ul><li>Bawĭ (tepary beans) </li></ul><ul><li>Muñ (pinto beans) </li></ul><ul><li>Miloñ or Gepĭ (watermelon) </li></ul><ul><li>Ka:ño (sorghum) </li></ul><ul><li>Ke:li Ba:so (honeydew) </li></ul><ul><li>I'hug (devil’s claw) </li></ul><ul><li>Ko'okol (chile peppers) </li></ul>SUMMER CROPS TRADITIONAL TOHONO O’ODHAM CROPS
  26. 27. WINTER CROPS <ul><li>Kalwaş (legume) </li></ul><ul><li>Pilkañ (grain) </li></ul><ul><li>Lanji (legume) </li></ul><ul><li>Wihol (legume) </li></ul><ul><li>Huñ (grain) </li></ul><ul><li>Ha:l (cucurbit) </li></ul><ul><li>Bawĭ (legume) </li></ul><ul><li>Muñ (legume) </li></ul><ul><li>Miloñ or Gepĭ (cucurbit) </li></ul><ul><li>Ka:ño (grain) </li></ul><ul><li>Ke:li Ba:so (cucurbit) </li></ul><ul><li>I'hug (Martyniaceae) </li></ul><ul><li>Ko'okol (solenaceae) </li></ul>SUMMER CROPS TRADITIONAL TOHONO O’ODHAM CROPS
  27. 28. Self-pollination Cross-pollination Perfect or complete flower
  28. 29. <ul><li>Cross pollination </li></ul><ul><li>Self pollination </li></ul>The majority of crop plants have the ability to do both, but . . . Most plants have the tendency to do one, or the other To know more about how crops pollinate (reproduce), we look at . . . FAMILY , G enus & s pecies
  29. 30. Phaseolus acutifolius Tepary bean Phaseolus vulgaris Pinto bean Genus Species Species Family - Fabaceae Variety Variety Variety Variety Variety Variety Variety Variety
  30. 31. Felis cattus Domestic cat Genus Species Species Family - Felidae Abyssinian Persian Black-footed cat + Felis nigripes Wild cat +
  31. 32. Canis familiaris Common dog Canis latrans Coyote Genus Species Species Family - Canidae Sheep dog Bull dog Coyote + +
  34. 35. + + + +
  35. 36. CUCURBIT ACEAE + = ??? Cucurbita argyrosperma Cucurbita argyrosperma Cucurbita argyrosperma
  36. 37. CUCURBIT ACEAE + = Cucurbita argyrosperma Cucurbita argyrosperma Cucurbita argyrosperma
  37. 38. SOLANACEAE + = ??? Capsicum annuum Capsicum annuum Capsicum annuum
  38. 39. SOLANACEAE + = Capsicum annuum Capsicum annuum Capsicum annuum
  39. 40. SOLANACEAE Capsicum annum Solanum melongena Pepper Eggplant +
  40. 41. PLANT ORGANS <ul><li>Vegetative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit </li></ul></ul>