The Cell The fundamental unit of life for plants & animals. http://library.thinkquest.org/3564/gallery.html
How do we observe cells? <ul><li>Light microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 1,5...
How big are cells? <ul><li>Many different sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Average sized cell is 50 micrometers </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic cells <ul><li>Prokaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells without a nucleus </li></ul></ul><u...
Animal & Plant Cells Animal & plant cells are both eukaryotic and have many of the same structures. http://www.science-art...
http://biology.about.com/library/weekly/aa031600b.htm PROKARYOTIC CELLS VS.  EUKARYOTIC (ANIMAL & PLANT) CELLS  Structure ...
The Plant Cell <ul><li>The components of a typical plant cell: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Plant Cell Wall http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/week2/2webimages/figure-04-27-photo.jpg http://www.daviddarling.in...
Plasma membrane <ul><li>1 st  membrane inside cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid bi-layer surrounding the cytoplasm </li></...
Cytoplasm <ul><li>Viscous, jelly-like fluid composed of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Occupies most of the volume of the cell...
Cytoplasm - Plastids <ul><li>Responsible for photosynthesis, starch storage, and synthesis of molecules </li></ul><ul><li>...
Plant Cell with Chloroplast
Cytoplasm – Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) <ul><li>Network of tubular membranes connected to the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Di...
Cytoplasm - Mitochondria <ul><li>Powerhouse of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Involved with respiration – the use of stored en...
Cytoplasm - Vacuole <ul><li>Cavity in the plant cell </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with watery solution of dissolved salts, pig...
Nucleus <ul><li>Cell control center </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent organelle in the cytoplasm essential for development and r...
Nuclear membrane or envelope <ul><li>regulates movement of material between nucleus and cytoplasm </li></ul>http://en.wiki...
Nucleus - Chromosomes <ul><li>Specific, highly organized bodies in the nucleus. Contain a singular piece of DNA, which con...
Nucleus - Ribosomes <ul><li>Assembled inside the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Once built, can exist in the cytoplasm, chlorop...
Nucleus - DNA <ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Contain genetic information for all cellular function </li><...
CELL DIVISION & THE CELL CYCLE http://focus.hms.harvard.edu/2003/March21_2003/cell_biology.html
THE CELL CYCLE <ul><li>I= Interphase </li></ul><ul><li>M= Mitosis ;  </li></ul><ul><li>INNER RING:  </li></ul><ul><li>M= M...
<ul><li>Interphase (I) includes: </li></ul><ul><li>G 1  =  Gap 1 </li></ul><ul><li>S  =  Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>G 2  ...
<ul><li>Mitosis includes: </li></ul><ul><li>P rophase </li></ul><ul><li>M etaphase </li></ul><ul><li>A naphase </li></ul><...
THE CELL CYCLE <ul><li>Mitosis includes: </li></ul><ul><li>P rophase </li></ul><ul><li>M etaphase </li></ul><ul><li>A naph...
THE CELL CYCLE <ul><li>Mitosis includes: </li></ul><ul><li>P rophase </li></ul><ul><li>M etaphase </li></ul><ul><li>A naph...
THE CELL CYCLE <ul><li>Mitosis includes: </li></ul><ul><li>P rophase </li></ul><ul><li>M etaphase </li></ul><ul><li>A naph...
THE CELL CYCLE <ul><li>Mitosis includes: </li></ul><ul><li>P rophase </li></ul><ul><li>M etaphase </li></ul><ul><li>A naph...
THE CELL CYCLE Cytokinesis
Chromosomes <ul><li>A chromosones is a piece of DNA that has genetic material called genes. </li></ul>http://forensicnews....
Chromosomes <ul><li>Chromosones vary between different organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA molecule inside chromosome can be ...
Chromosomes <ul><li>Chromosomes are not visible during G 0  phase and Interphase. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes form a den...
Chromosomes <ul><li>Chromosomes take on characteristic “X” form during mitosis. </li></ul>http://www.copernicusproject.ucr...
Chromosomes in humans <ul><li>Humans are  diploid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have 2 identical sets of chromosomes in every cell...
 
ONION ROOT TIP MITOSIS http://biog-101-104.bio.cornell.edu/biog101_104/tutorials/cell_division/onion_review_fs.html Interp...
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Cell Cycle

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Cell Cycle

  1. 1. The Cell The fundamental unit of life for plants & animals. http://library.thinkquest.org/3564/gallery.html
  2. 2. How do we observe cells? <ul><li>Light microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 1,500x magnification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissecting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 30x magnification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Electron microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 10,000x magnification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 200,000x magnification </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. How big are cells? <ul><li>Many different sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Average sized cell is 50 micrometers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 500 cells per inch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A fruit tree leaf may have 50 million cells </li></ul><ul><li>A mature fruit tree may have 15 trillion cells!! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic cells <ul><li>Prokaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells without a nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pro = before </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>karyon = nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very simple organisms such as bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells that have a nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eu = well or good </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>karyon = nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found inside all plants & animas </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Animal & Plant Cells Animal & plant cells are both eukaryotic and have many of the same structures. http://www.science-art.com/image.asp?id=1319&search=1&pagename=Animal_and_Plant_Cell
  6. 6. http://biology.about.com/library/weekly/aa031600b.htm PROKARYOTIC CELLS VS. EUKARYOTIC (ANIMAL & PLANT) CELLS Structure Prokaryotic Cell Typical Animal Eukaryotic Cell Typical Plant Eukaryotic Cell Cell Wall Yes No Yes Centrioles No Yes No Chromosones One long DNA strand Many Many Cilia or Flagella Yes, simple Yes, complex Some present Endoplasmic Reticulum No Yes (some exceptions) Yes (some exceptions) Golgi Complex No Yes Yes Lysosomes No Common No Mitochondria No Yes Yes Nucleus No Yes Yes Peroxisomes No Common Common Plasma Membrane Yes Yes Yes Ribosomes Yes Yes Yes
  7. 7. The Plant Cell <ul><li>The components of a typical plant cell: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protoplast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma Membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plastids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chromoplasts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mitrochondrion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuole </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear Membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Plant Cell Wall http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/week2/2webimages/figure-04-27-photo.jpg http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/C/cellwall.html <ul><li>Freely permeable membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water & nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protects internal structures (organelles) </li></ul><ul><li>Provides rigidity and/or flexibility </li></ul>
  9. 9. Plasma membrane <ul><li>1 st membrane inside cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid bi-layer surrounding the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Highly selective permeability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls what comes in and out of cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extremely thin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12,500 membranes stacked = thickness of 1 piece of paper </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cytoplasm <ul><li>Viscous, jelly-like fluid composed of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Occupies most of the volume of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Includes all cellular parts (organelles) inside the plasma membrane, not including the nucleus </li></ul>http://sun.menloschool.org/~cweaver/cells/c/cytoplasm/
  11. 11. Cytoplasm - Plastids <ul><li>Responsible for photosynthesis, starch storage, and synthesis of molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Give color to plants </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis, green in color </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chromoplasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow, red, or orange in color </li></ul></ul>http://nowai.files.wordpress.com/2006/08/autumn_tree_1920.jpg
  12. 12. Plant Cell with Chloroplast
  13. 13. Cytoplasm – Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) <ul><li>Network of tubular membranes connected to the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Different membranes are built (synthesized) in ER </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins are put together </li></ul>http://scienceblogs.com/transcript/2006/07/golgi_maturation.php
  14. 14. Cytoplasm - Mitochondria <ul><li>Powerhouse of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Involved with respiration – the use of stored energy </li></ul><ul><li>Contain genetic material such as DNA and RNA </li></ul>http://www.a3243g.com/image_mitochondria.asp
  15. 15. Cytoplasm - Vacuole <ul><li>Cavity in the plant cell </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with watery solution of dissolved salts, pigments, sugars etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains cell turgor (like a water ballon). </li></ul><ul><li>Storage reserve for H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuole much larger in plant than animal cells. </li></ul>Vacuole Mitochondria
  16. 16. Nucleus <ul><li>Cell control center </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent organelle in the cytoplasm essential for development and reproduction </li></ul>http://www.itg.uiuc.edu/technology/atlas/structures/nucleus_actin/
  17. 17. Nuclear membrane or envelope <ul><li>regulates movement of material between nucleus and cytoplasm </li></ul>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_pore
  18. 18. Nucleus - Chromosomes <ul><li>Specific, highly organized bodies in the nucleus. Contain a singular piece of DNA, which contains many genes, regulatory elements, and other nucleotide sequences (ATCG). </li></ul>http://cnx.org/content/m15083/latest/
  19. 19. Nucleus - Ribosomes <ul><li>Assembled inside the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Once built, can exist in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and other organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize proteins </li></ul>http://rna.ucsc.edu/rnacenter/ribosome.html
  20. 20. Nucleus - DNA <ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Contain genetic information for all cellular function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating different tissues (and organs) </li></ul></ul>http://www.csb.yale.edu/userguides/graphics/ribbons/help/dna_rgb.html
  21. 21. CELL DIVISION & THE CELL CYCLE http://focus.hms.harvard.edu/2003/March21_2003/cell_biology.html
  22. 22. THE CELL CYCLE <ul><li>I= Interphase </li></ul><ul><li>M= Mitosis ; </li></ul><ul><li>INNER RING: </li></ul><ul><li>M= Mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>G 1 = Gap 1 </li></ul><ul><li>G 2 = Gap 2 </li></ul><ul><li>S= Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>NOT IN RING: </li></ul><ul><li>G 0 = Gap 0/Resting . </li></ul><ul><li>The duration of mitosis in relation to the other phases has been exaggerated in this diagram. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Interphase (I) includes: </li></ul><ul><li>G 1 = Gap 1 </li></ul><ul><li>S = Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>G 2 = Gap 2 </li></ul>THE CELL CYCLE Interphase
  24. 24. <ul><li>Mitosis includes: </li></ul><ul><li>P rophase </li></ul><ul><li>M etaphase </li></ul><ul><li>A naphase </li></ul><ul><li>T elophase </li></ul>THE CELL CYCLE Prophase
  25. 25. THE CELL CYCLE <ul><li>Mitosis includes: </li></ul><ul><li>P rophase </li></ul><ul><li>M etaphase </li></ul><ul><li>A naphase </li></ul><ul><li>T elophase </li></ul>Metaphase
  26. 26. THE CELL CYCLE <ul><li>Mitosis includes: </li></ul><ul><li>P rophase </li></ul><ul><li>M etaphase </li></ul><ul><li>A naphase </li></ul><ul><li>T elophase </li></ul>Anaphase
  27. 27. THE CELL CYCLE <ul><li>Mitosis includes: </li></ul><ul><li>P rophase </li></ul><ul><li>M etaphase </li></ul><ul><li>A naphase </li></ul><ul><li>T elophase </li></ul>Telophase
  28. 28. THE CELL CYCLE <ul><li>Mitosis includes: </li></ul><ul><li>P rophase </li></ul><ul><li>M etaphase </li></ul><ul><li>A naphase </li></ul><ul><li>T elophase </li></ul>Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
  29. 29. THE CELL CYCLE Cytokinesis
  30. 30. Chromosomes <ul><li>A chromosones is a piece of DNA that has genetic material called genes. </li></ul>http://forensicnews.blogspot.com/ by team uab, lsw
  31. 31. Chromosomes <ul><li>Chromosones vary between different organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA molecule inside chromosome can be linear or circular </li></ul>Linear DNA Circular DNA
  32. 32. Chromosomes <ul><li>Chromosomes are not visible during G 0 phase and Interphase. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes form a dense mass of genetic material inside a cell’s nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes become visible under a microscope during mitosis. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Chromosomes <ul><li>Chromosomes take on characteristic “X” form during mitosis. </li></ul>http://www.copernicusproject.ucr.edu/ssi/HSBiologyResources.htm
  34. 34. Chromosomes in humans <ul><li>Humans are diploid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have 2 identical sets of chromosomes in every cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gametes are reproductive cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm & egg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have 1 unique set of chromosones per cell </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. ONION ROOT TIP MITOSIS http://biog-101-104.bio.cornell.edu/biog101_104/tutorials/cell_division/onion_review_fs.html Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase

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