Biodiesel Presentation - MED/MMCD Fall 2006Seminar & Annual General MeetingPresented by Ken FryerCity of CoquitlamNovember 24, 2006
2Key Biodiesel Questions• What is biodiesel? What’s it made from?• What does it look, feel and smell like?• Benefits from using biodiesel?• Who is using it now, who makes it,where can you buy it?• How do you use it, which engines, fuelmanagement, operational issues, coldweather issues, warranties, etc
3Biodiesel – Not A New Fuel• 1895– Rudolf Diesel designed the "diesel-cycle" engine• First fuel?– Biodiesel - Peanut oil• Supplanted by Petro-diesel– Due to availability, distribution, consistent quality, pricing
4Biodiesel – Why Now?• Three Powerful Reasons– Emission Reductions– $ Pricing– Diversity/Security of Supply
9What is Biodiesel?Biodiesel:• An low-emissions, high lubricating alternative diesel fuelproduced from renewable sources,• Non-toxic, Biodegradable• Can be combined at any level with petroleum diesel to fueldiesel engines.Biodiesel is not:• Raw or refined vegetable oils, or recycled greases that havenot undergone chemical processing.
11BiodieselManufacturingTriglyceride:Fat or OilmoleculeBiodieselmoleculesGlycerin molecule10% Oxygen by Wt.
12Biodiesel Users – Canada• Toronto Hydro• City of Brampton• Kingston Transit• City of Victoria• BC Transit (Victoria)• City of Calgary• Saskatoon Transit• Ont. Private Fleets• BC Lower Mainland Municipalities• BC Lower Mainland Private Fleets- Van Port Authority, Rempel Concrete
13BC Tax Information"The biodiesel portion of a blend of biodiesel and dieselis exempt from tax if the biodiesel portionis not less than 5% or more than 50% of the volume ofthe blend”Source: Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Provincial RevenueIN BC LOWER MAINLAND, THE MOTOR FUEL TAXIS 21 CENTS/LITRE
14BC Distribution• Distribution– Available now at 2 retail stations (Burnaby), (Delta)– Vancouver racks for regional distribution– BC Municipal Buying Group (BCPPBG)• Delivery Options– B100 delivered – Bulk and Tote (1000L)– B5 - B50 blends delivered (pre-blended)
15Where to Buy• Suppliers in BC– 4 Refuel (Mini-Tankers) Canada Ltd.– Agri-Green Biodiesel Inc.– Canadian Bioenergy Corporation– Cascadia Biofuels Inc.– Ecofuels Canada Inc.– ProQuip Onsite Refuelling Ltd.– Recycling Alternatives– West Coast Biodiesel Inc.
16Biodiesel – Before you Buy• Quality Control– Supplier must deliver ASTM D6751 Standard fuel– Quality control (BQ9000) Producer/Distributor– Supplier/Distributor to provide:• Guarantee in writing that fuel meets ASTM• Certificate of Analysis for each batch delivered
17BC Biodiesel Pilot Project• BC Municipalities Group Pilot Project (2004)• Richmond, North Van, Vancouver, Delta, Whistler, Burnaby– 6 Municipalities used a B20 blend (12,000 L B100)– Used in a number of conventional diesel engines• Cat, Cummins, Detroit, Kubota, Ford, International, GM, Peugeot,John Deere, New Holland– Blended and distributed the biodiesel on site– Conducted extensive emission testing– Funding FCM, GVRD and individual Cities.
18BC Municipalities Pilot• Project Goals– Would biodiesel really work in BC environment?– Confirm EPA reductions in “real life” operations– Use a variety of equipment types & applications– Share information and results– First hand knowledge of how it would function– Educate staff
19Methodology & Results• Talked to other users• Worked with fuel suppliers & reviewed delivery methods• Tested emissions & performance (WestportInnovations/Finning)• Pilot was very successful• BC Municipal pooled purchasing group hasoption to purchase of up to 2 million Lof B100 delivered as blended fuel• Largest single biodiesel supply contractin Canada
20Project Learnings - Overall• VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS: None• PERFORMANCE: Minimal impact on torque, power and fueleconomy• LUBRICITY: Increased lubricity can improve vehicle life• IGNITION: Higher Cetane values improves ignition quality• NOISE: Vehicle runs more quietly• EXHAUST: Tailpipe emissions are cleaner and smell better• SEALS & GASKETS: May need upgrade if >B20 & <1994• FILTERS: Change filter 2X for transition period
21Warranties• B5 is acceptable to all engine and fuelinjector OEM’s• OEM Warranty Statements atwww.BCBiofleet.ca• B20 has not triggered warranty issues• Engine Manufacturers Association- B20• Talk to experienced users
22Winter Operations• Treat as a fuel (WHMIS, safety, etc)– “Cleaning” / solvent effect (filters, tanks, hoses)– Storage - Moisture - “the enemy” Desiccant filters on tank vents– Long Term Storage - 9 months max, or use biocides with monthly examination• Biodiesel blending must becarefully managed at cold tempsFuel HandlingTank Preparation•Properly cleaned, tested and vents are capped.
23• Biodiesel improves lubricity– Should increase service life of sensitive injection pump models– Blends of B20 or greater not recommended for 1994 and older injection pumpsdue to deterioration of natural rubber componentsPumpsFuel Filters- Use OEM recommended filters with correct micron rating- Change at OEM recommended intervals after initial cleanout period- Only use pre-filtered fuel in vehicles- More frequent changes recommended in first 100 hours of operationHoses- Fuel lines should be checked as part of regular maintenance- Natural rubber hoses and seals may deteriorate and cause leakswith B100. - B20 data indicates no problems with natural rubbercomponents
24Purchasing• Purchasing Considerations– Establish purchase criteria/educate staff– Further education (understand cost/benefits)– Determine/manage logistics (transport, blending)– Term and products (B5 – B20 ?)– Agreed upon price change mechanism (eg.indexing)– Cost neutral target: biodiesel + ULS diesel
25Biodiesel Action PlanBe Clear - What do you want to achieve?– Environmental benefits– GHG emissions reduction– Public imageSelect Biodiesel Blend - B2, B5, B20?– All or some part of your fleet? Timeline?Assess Suppliers– Will current fuel supplier provide a biodiesel blend? Get BCBiodiesel suppliers list.- BQ9000 certified.Assess Costs– Per Litre, fuel economy, other capital investments.
26Biodiesel Action PlanConfirm Technical Spec’s– Ensure biodiesel meets ASTM D6751 Standard– Obtain biodiesel supplier fuel quality guarantees– Cross-check engine warranty issuesPlan Fleet Use– Are any vehicles using a biodiesel blend travelling to areaswhere cold temperatures will be a factor?– Refuelling outside biodiesel supply area
27Biodiesel Action PlanDecide on Operational Issues– Where will biodiesel be stored? (B5 treat just like diesel;other blends depend on CP of biodiesel and diesel)– How will biodiesel be blended with diesel? Temperatures?– Preparation of tanks and vehicles?– Filter replacement scheduling?– Staff training and education?Monitor Use– Performance and maintenanceReview Overall Program– Change or expand biodiesel program as needed
28Biodiesel Calculator• Purpose – Calculate emissions reductions from usingbiodiesel for a particular vehicle• Simple to use• Developed in consultation with fleet managers,emissions specialists, industry• Available at www.bcbiofleet.ca
29Green Fleet AccreditationFleet Rating System to assist progressive fleets that wantto increase fuel efficiency, reduce emissions, implementGreen Standards, incorporate new technologies anduse alternative fuels